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A reiki treatment in progress

Reiki (霊気 or レイキ ?, IPA: /ˈreɪkiː/) is a spiritual practice[1] developed in 1922 by Mikao Usui. After three weeks of fasting and meditating on Mount Kurama, in Japan, Usui claimed to receive the ability of "healing without energy depletion".[2] A portion of the practice, tenohira or palm healing, is used as a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).[3][4] Tenohira is a technique whereby practitioners believe they are moving "healing energy" (a form of ki) through the palms.[5][6]

There is no generally accepted scientific evidence for either the existence of ki or any mechanism for its manipulation, and a systematic review of randomized clinical trials conducted in 2008 did not support the efficacy of reiki or its recommendation for use in the treatment of any condition.[7][8]

Energy therapy - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Alternative Medical Systems
  2. Mind-Body Intervention
  3. Biologically Based Therapy
  4. Manipulative Methods
  5. Energy Therapy
See also


[edit] History

Chinese name
Traditional Chinese:
Simplified Chinese:
Japanese name
Hiragana: れいき
Kyūjitai: 靈氣
Korean name
Hangul: 령기
Hanja: 靈氣
Vietnamese name
Quốc ngữ: linh khí
Look up reiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

[edit] Derivation of name

Japanese reiki 霊気 "mysterious atmosphere; spiritual power" is a loanword from Chinese lingqi 靈氣, which some Chinese-English dictionaries translate: "(of beautiful mountains) spiritual influence or atmosphere";[9] "① intelligence; power of understanding ② supernatural power or force in fairy tales; miraculous power or force";[10] "① spiritual influence (of mountains/etc.) ② ingeniousness; cleverness".[11] This Japanese compound joins rei "ghost, spirit, soul; supernatural, miraculous, divine; ethereal body" and ki "gas, air; breath; energy; force; atmosphere; mood; intention; emotion; attention", here meaning qi "spiritual energy; vital energy; life force; energy of life".[12] Some reiki translation equivalents from Japanese-English dictionaries are: "feeling of mystery",[13] "an atmosphere (feeling) of mystery",[14] and "an ethereal atmosphere (that prevails in the sacred precincts of a shrine); (feel, sense) a spiritual (divine) presence."[15]

English reiki or Reiki transliterates a Japanese loanword. Reiki is syntactically used as a noun (referring to either "the putative energy" or "the therapeutic method based upon it"), a verb, or an adjective. Some Western authors loosely translate reiki as "universal life energy".[16] This coinage partially mistranslates: ki means "life energy" — rei does not mean "universal".

[edit] Origin

Mikao Usui (臼井甕男) originated Reiki in 1922 after a twenty-one day retreat on Mount Kurama, involving meditation, fasting, and prayer.[2] Usui said that by mystical revelation he had gained the knowledge and spiritual power to apply and attune others to what is called Reiki.

In April 1922, Usui moved to Tokyo and founded the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai (Usui Reiki Healing Society).[17]

Usui was an admirer of the literary works of Emperor Meiji, and, in the process of developing his Reiki system, summarised some of the emperor's works into a set of ethical principles, which later became known as the Reiki Principles.("GOKAI" in Japanese) Many Reiki teachers and practitioners aim to abide by these five principles,[18], one translation of which is:

"The secret method of inviting good fortune.
The marvelous medicine for all sickness
Just for today:
Do not be angry
Do not worry
Be grateful
Work with integrity
Be kind to others.
Every morning and every night, sit in the Gassho position [hands held palm-to-palm] and speak these words out loud in your heart.
For the evolution of body and soul, Usui Reiki Ryoho" — Mikao Usui, the founder.[19]

Usui taught over 2000 students to use Reiki. Sixteen of his students continued their training to reach the Shinpiden level, equivalent to the Western third degree, or master level.[20]

Usui died in 1926.

[edit] Early development

After Usui's death, Chujiro Hayashi, a former student of Usui, left the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai and formed his own association. Hayashi simplified the Reiki teachings, stressing physical healing and using a more codified and simpler set of Reiki techniques.[21]

Hayashi initiated and trained Hawayo Takata,[22] who travelled widely in the USA, practising Reiki and teaching the first two levels to others.[23]

Takata stressed the importance of charging money for Reiki treatments and teachings. In 1976, Takata began teaching the Shinpiden stage and introduced the term Reiki master for this level.[24] She also fixed a price of $10,000 for the master training.[citation needed]

Takata died in 1980 [25] by which time she had trained 22 Reiki masters.[26] Almost all Reiki taught outside Japan can be attributed to her work.[27]

[edit] Teachings

Reiki teachings claim that there is an inexhaustible, universal "life force" spiritual energy,[28][29] that can be used to induce a healing effect.[30] Believers say that anyone can gain access to this energy[31] by means of an attunement process[32] carried out by a Reiki Master.[33] Claims for such energy have no known theoretical or biophysical basis.[5][34][35]

Reiki is described by adherents as a holistic therapy which brings about healing on physical, mental, emotional and spiritual levels.[36] The belief is that the energy will flow through the practitioner's hands whenever the hands are placed on, or held near a potential recipient, who can be clothed.[37] Some teachings stress the importance of the practitioner's intention or presence in this process, while others claim that the energy is drawn by the recipient's injury to activate or enhance the natural healing processes.[38] Going further, the belief is that the energy is "intelligent",[39] making diagnosis unnecessary.

A second level of training, including another initiation, is said to equip the practitioner to perform Reiki treatments from a distance.[40] This method, it is stated, involves the use of special symbols to form a temporary connection between the practitioner and the recipient, regardless of location, and then to send the Reiki energy.[41] Techniques are also taught whereby Reiki can be sent to a specific point in time, either in the past or the future.[42]

[edit] Practice

[edit] Whole body treatment

In a typical whole-body Reiki treatment,[43] the practitioner asks the recipient to lie down, usually on a massage table, and relax. Loose, comfortable clothing is usually worn during the treatment. The practitioner might take a few moments to enter a calm or meditative state of mind and mentally prepare for the treatment,[44] that is usually carried out without any unnecessary talking.[45]

The treatment proceeds with the practitioner placing his hands on the recipient in various positions. However, practitioners may use a non-touching technique, where the hands are held a few centimetres away from the recipient's body, for some or all of the positions. The hands are usually kept still for 3 to 5 minutes before moving to the next position. Overall, the hand positions usually give a general coverage of the head, the front and back of the torso, the knees and feet. Between 12 and 20 positions are used, with the whole treatment lasting 45 to 90 minutes.[46]

Some practitioners use a fixed set of hand positions. Others use their intuition to guide them as to where treatment is needed,[47] sometimes starting the treatment with a "scan" of the recipient to find such areas. The intuitive approach might also lead to individual positions being treated for much shorter or longer periods of time.

It is reported that the recipient often feels warmth or tingling in the area being treated, even when a non-touching approach is being used. A state of deep relaxation, combined with a general feeling of well-being, is usually the most noticeable immediate effect of the treatment, although emotional releases can also occur.[48] As the Reiki treatment is said to be stimulating natural healing processes, instantaneous "cures" of specific health problems are not usually observed. A series of three or more treatments, typically at intervals of 1 to 7 days, is usually recommended if a chronic condition is being addressed.[49] Regular treatments, on an on-going basis, can be used with the aim of maintaining well-being. The interval between such treatments is typically in the range of 1 to 4 weeks, except in the case of self-treatment when a daily practice is common.[50]

[edit] Localized treatment

Localized Reiki treatments involve the practitioner's hands being held on or near a specific part of the body. Recent injuries are usually treated in this way,[51] with the site of injury being targeted. There is great variation in the duration of such treatments, though 20 minutes might be typical.

Some practitioners use localized treatments for certain ailments, and some publications have tabulated appropriate hand positions.[52] However, other practitioners prefer to use the whole body treatment for all chronic conditions, on the grounds that it has a more holistic effect.[53] Another approach is to give a whole body treatment first, followed by a localized treatment.[54]

[edit] Training

The teaching of Reiki outside of Japan is commonly divided into three levels, or degrees.[55]

[edit] First degree

The first degree Reiki course[56] teaches the basic theories and procedures. Four "attunements" are given to the student by the teacher.[57] Students learn hand placement positions on the recipient's body that are thought to be most conducive to the process in a whole body treatment.[58] Having completed the first degree course, the participant can treat himself and others with Reiki. The course duration is traditionally four sessions, most often presented in 2, 3, or 4 consecutive days [59]

[edit] Second degree

In the second degree Reiki course,[60] the student learns the use of three symbols which are said to enhance the strength and distance over which the effect can be exerted.[61] Another attunement is given, which is said to further increase the capacity for Reiki to flow through the student, as well as empowering the use of the symbols.[62] Having completed the second level, the student can work without being physically present with the recipient.[63]

[edit] Third degree or master training

Through the third degree, or "master training",[64] the student becomes a Reiki Master. (In Reiki terminology, the word "master" does not imply spiritual enlightenment.) One or more attunements are carried out and the student learns a further master-level symbol, called Dai Koo Myo.[65] Having completed the master training, the new Reiki Master can attune other people to Reiki and teach the three degrees of Reiki. The duration of the master training can be anything from a day to a year or more, depending on the school and philosophy of the Reiki Master giving the training.

[edit] Variations

There is much variation in training methods, speeds and costs. There is no accreditation body for Reiki, nor any regulation of the practice. Reiki courses can even be taken over the Internet, although Traditionalists state that attunement must be done in person in order to take effect, as the Reiki Master/Teacher doing the attunement must be able to actually touch the energy field of the person being attuned. Some traditionalists maintain that any method that teaches Reiki "quickly" cannot yield as strong an effect, because there is no substitute for experience and patient mastery of the art.[66]

[edit] Scientific research

The strongest research conducted as of 2008 has failed to demonstrate that Reiki is an effective treatment for any condition. This systematic review assessed this evidence base, finding nine studies which fit their selection criteria.[7] A modified Jadad score of methodological quality was used, taking into account the difficulty of blinding practitioners. Non-randomized studies were excluded, as the potential for intentional or unintentional bias in such studies is large, rendering the results uninterpretable. Overall, the methodological quality of the evidence base was found wanting, with even high-ranking studies failing fully to control for placebo effects and most studies suffering "methodological flaws such as small sample size, inadequate study design and poor reporting."[7] As trials with such flaws are known to be likely to show exaggerated treatment effects, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that reiki is effective as sole or adjuvant therapy for any medical condition, or that it has any benefits beyond possible placebo effects.[7][8]

[edit] Safety and effectiveness

Concerns about safety in Reiki are similar to those of other alternative medicines. Doctors of medicine and allied health care workers believe that patients might avoid clinically proven treatments for serious conditions in favor of unproven alternative medicines.[67] Reiki practitioners may encourage their clients to consult a medical doctor for serious conditions, stating that Reiki can be used to complement conventional medicine.[68] Clinical trials have not reported any significant adverse effects from the use of Reiki.[7]

The National Council Against Health Fraud suggests that any clinical effect of Reiki may be due to suggestion (the placebo effect),[69] and Reiki has been labelled as a "feel-good" therapy, where recipients themselves do not expect any significant healing effects.[70]

[edit] Internal controversies

With the many varied ways that have been used to teach Reiki, there have emerged points of controversy between different groups, teachers and practitioners. Controversies exist on topics such as the nature of the Reiki energy itself, fees charged for courses and treatments, training methods, secrecy of symbols, and attunement methods.[71][72]

Following the death of Hawayo Takata, through to the mid 1990s, there were rival claims to the title of "Grandmaster" of Reiki. However, this dispute largely evaporated when it was discovered that Takata herself had created the term.[73]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch14,pp108-110; Ellyard 2004 p79; McKenzie 1998 p19,42,52; Lübeck 1996 p22; Boräng 1997 p57; Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p72
  2. ^ a b Usui's 21 day retreat: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14); What is the History of Reiki?
  3. ^ National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. "Reiki: An Introduction", Accessed November 13, 2008.
  4. ^ Institute for Complementary and Natural Medicine. "BRCP Divisions & Practises", Accessed November 12, 2008.
  5. ^ a b National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. An Introduction to Reiki
  6. ^ Reiki flows through hands: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Ellyard 2004 p27); (Boräng 1997 p9); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p33)
  7. ^ a b c d e Lee, MS; MH Pittler, E Ernst (2008). "Effects of reiki in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice 62: 947. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01729.x. Retrieved on 2008-05-02. 
  8. ^ a b Henderson, Mark. "Prince of Wales's guide to alternative medicine 'inaccurate'", The Times. April 17, 2008. Accessed November 13, 2008.
  9. ^ Lin Yutang, 1972, Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.
  10. ^ Ling Yuan, 2002, The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary, Chinese-English Edition, Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
  11. ^ DeFrancis, John, 2003, ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary, University of Hawaii Press.
  12. ^ Derivation of name: (Lübeck, Petter, Rand 2001 ch 6)
  13. ^ M. Spahn and W. Hadamidtzy, 1989, Japanese Character Dictionary With Compound Lookup via Any Kanji, Nichigai.
  14. ^ J. H. Haig, ed. 1997, The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary, Tuttle.
  15. ^ T. Watanabe, E., R. Skrzypczak, P. Snowden, 2003, Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary.
  16. ^ Lübeck, Petter, Rand 2001 p. 302; McKenzie 1998 p.18; Shuffrey 1998 p. 1
  17. ^ Founding of Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14)
  18. ^ Practice of 5 Principles: Part of Reiki Alliance membership agreement
  19. ^ The 5 Reiki Principles: Reiki Principles; (Petter 1998 p29); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p95)
  20. ^ Number of people taught by Usui: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p16)
  21. ^ Hayashi's teachings: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p17,ch19)
  22. ^ Hayashi trained Takata: (Ellyard 2004 p13)
  23. ^ Takata's Reiki practice and teaching in the US: (Ellyard 2004 p15)
  24. ^ Start of Takata's teaching of Reiki Masters: (Ellyard 2004 p15)
  25. ^ (Petter 1997 p21), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26)
  26. ^ Takata trained 22 Reiki Masters: (Ellyard 2004 p14), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26), (Petter 1997 p20)
  27. ^ Significance of Takata in bringing Reiki out of Japan: (Ellyard 2004 p14,16), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26)
  28. ^ Reiki is inexhaustible. McKenzie 1998 p18; Boräng 1997 p9
  29. ^ Reiki as universal life force energy: Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p62; McKenzie 1998 p18; Ellyard 2004 p75; (Lübeck 1994 p13); (Boräng 1997 p8)
  30. ^ McKenzie 1998 p18; Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14,68; Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p30; Ellyard 2004 p27
  31. ^ Anyone can be attuned to Reiki: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p8); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p35); (Ellyard 2004 p77)
  32. ^ Note: The terms attunement and "initiation" are usually used interchangeably with regard to Reiki. Occasionally there is a slight difference of emphasis implied, with attunement used when discussing the gaining of access to the Reiki energy and "initiation" when discussing the personal (or spiritual) growth aspect. Both these aspects relate to the same physical procedure.
  33. ^ Access is by means of attunement: (Ellyard 2004 p27,31); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p22); (McKenzie 1998 p18,19); (Gollagher 1998 p26); (Boräng 1997 p12)
  34. ^ The 'National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (October 13 2006). "Energy Medicine: An Overview".  "
  35. ^ Stenger, Victor J. (1999). "The Physics of 'Alternative Medicine' Bioenergetic Fields". Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 3 (1): 1501. doi:10.1126/science.134.3489.1501. PMID 14471768. Retrieved on 2008-03-30. 
  36. ^ Reiki is holistic, bringing healing on physical, mental, emotional and spiritual levels: (Baginski,Sharamon 1988 p35); (Gollagher 1998 p44); (Boräng 1997 p10); (McKenzie 1998 p81)
  37. ^ Recipient may be clothed: (Lübeck 1994 p48); (McKenzie 1998 p81); (Boräng 1997 p10,36)
  38. ^ Reiki activates or enhances natural healing: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p78,93); (Gollagher 1998 p24)
  39. ^ Reiki is "intelligent": (Ellyard 2004 p28,29); (Boräng 1997 p10)
  40. ^ Second level allows distance healing: (Ellyard 2004 p107); (McKenzie 1998 p56); (Lübeck 1994 p155); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p119)
  41. ^ Use of symbols for connection during distant healing: (McKenzie 1998 p39); (Ellyard 2004 p110)
  42. ^ Reiki can be sent to past or future: (McKenzie 1998 p39); (Ellyard 2004 p115); (Lübeck 1994 p155)
  43. ^ Whole body treatment: (Lübeck 1994 ch4,ch5); (McKenzie 1998 p84); (Ellyard 2004 p45); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch20); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p79); (Petter 1997 p50,55); (Boräng 1997 p36)
  44. ^ Mental preparation by practitioner at start of treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p46)
  45. ^ Minimum talking during formal treatments: (Ellyard 2004 p45)
  46. ^ Duration of whole body treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  47. ^ Use of intuition: (Usui,Petter 2003 p17)
  48. ^ Immediate effects of treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p44)
  49. ^ Frequency of treatment of others: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  50. ^ Frequency of self-treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  51. ^ Treatment of injuries: (McKenzie 1998 p110); (Ellyard 2004 p70); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p77)
  52. ^ Hand positions for specific ailments: (Usui,Petter 2003 p49-67); (Lübeck 1994 p173-184)
  53. ^ Whole body treatment for chronic conditions: (McKenzie 1998 p108); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p81)
  54. ^ Localized treatment following on from whole body treatment: (McKenzie 1998 p105)
  55. ^ Reiki is taught in 3 levels: (McKenzie 1998 p54); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p117); (Petter 1997 p38)
  56. ^ First degree course content: (McKenzie 1998 p54); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p118); (Petter 1997 p38)
  57. ^ Effect of 4 attunements in 1st level: (Ellyard 2004 p37)
  58. ^ Teaching of hand positions during First degree course: (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 p48), (Petter 1997 p39)
  59. ^ Duration of First degree course: (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 p46), (Petter 1997 p38)
  60. ^ Second degree course content: (McKenzie 1998 p56); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p119); (Petter 1997 p43)
  61. ^ Teaching of symbols in Second Degree: (Ellyard 2004 p81)
  62. ^ Effect of 2nd level attunement: (Ellyard 2004 p81)
  63. ^ Healing at a distance taught during Second Degree course: (Petter 1997 p43)
  64. ^ Master training: (McKenzie 1998 p58); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p120-124); (Petter 1997 p47-49)
  65. ^ Content of master training: (Ellyard 2004 ch16,ch17)
  66. ^ The levels of Reiki
  67. ^ Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2002). "Our Raison d’Être". The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice 1 (1). Retrieved on 2008-01-28. 
  68. ^ Reiki does not replace conventional medicine but complements it: (McKenzie 1998 p7,18,105)
  69. ^ A skeptical assessment of reiki: National Council Against Health Fraud article.
  70. ^ Some Thoughts about "CAM" Beliefs
  71. ^ "Charging for Reiki Healing". Indobase. Retrieved on 2009-02-05. 
  72. ^ Ray, Barbara (1995). "The Radiance Technique, Authentic Reiki: Historical Perspectives". The Radiance Technique International Association Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-04-02. 
  73. ^ "Grandmaster" dispute: (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p106), (Ellyard 2004 p21,23)

[edit] References

  • Reiki: Universal Life Energy, Bodo J. Baginski, Shalila Sharamon, Alois Hanslian & Chris Baker, English print: Life Rhythm, 1988, ISBN 0-940795-02-7
  • Spiritual Healing: Scientific Validation of a Healing Revolution, Daniel J. Benor, M.D., Vision Publications (MI) (December 2000) ISBN 1-886785-11-2
  • Reiki (Principles of), Kajsa Krishni Boräng, Thorsons, 1997, ISBN 0-7225-3406-X
  • Reiki Healer: A Complete Guide to the Path and Practice of Reiki, Ellyard, Lotus Press, 2004, ISBN 0-940985-64-0
  • Reiki: a Gift from the Universe, Trevor Gollagher, 1998
  • Big Book of Reiki Symbols, Mark Hosak and Walter Luebeck, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-64-0
  • Complete Reiki Handbook, Luebeck, English print: Lotus Press, 1994, ISBN 0-941524-87-6
  • Reiki: Way of the Heart, Luebeck, English print: Lotus Press, 1996, ISBN 0-941524-91-4
  • Spirit of Reiki, Luebeck, Petter & Rand, 1st English print: Lotus Press, 2001, 5th print: 2004, ISBN 0-914955-67-5
  • Reiki Systems of the World, Oliver Klatt with Petter, Luebeck, Rand, Alexander, Furumoto, Mitchell and others, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-79-9
  • Healing Reiki, Eleanor McKenzie, Hamlyn, 1998, ISBN 0-600-59528-5
  • Reiki: A Comprehensive Guide, Pamela Miles, Tarcher/Penguin, 2006, ISBN 1-58542-474-9
  • Reiki For Dummies, Nina L Paul PhD, Wiley Publishing Inc, 2005, ISBN 0-7645-9907-0
  • Reiki Fire, Frank Arjava Petter, Lotus Press, 1997, ISBN 0-914955-50-0
  • Reiki: The Legacy of Dr. Usui, Frank Arjava Petter, 1st English print: Lotus Press, 1998, ISBN 0-914955-56-X
  • Hayashi Reiki Manual: Traditional Japanese Healing Techniques from the Founder of the Western Reiki System, Petter, Yamaguchi and Hayashi, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-75-6
  • The 'Reiki' Factor in The Radiance Technique(R), Dr. Barbara Ray, Radiance Associates, 1983 (current Expanded Edition (c) 1992), ISBN 0-933267-06-1
  • Reiki: A Beginner's Guide, Sandi Leir Shuffrey, Headway (Hodder & Stoughton), 1998, ISBN 0-340-72081-6
  • The Reiki Sourcebook, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2003, ISBN 1-903816-55-6
  • The Japanese Art of Reiki, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2005, ISBN 1-905047-02-9
  • A-Z of Reiki, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2006, ISBN 1-905047-89-4
  • Original Reiki Handbook of Dr. Mikao Usui, Usui and Petter, 4th English print: Lotus Press, 2003, ISBN 0-914955-57-8
  • Reiki: the Science, Metaphysics and Philosophy, Dr. John & Esther Veltheim, Parama, 1995, ISBN 0-9645944-0-4
  • An Introduction to Reiki[1] National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • ABC of complementary medicine[2] Catherine Zollman and Andrew Vickers, BMJ 1999;319:693-696, 11 September 1999, (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • BRCP Divisions and Practises[3] Institute For Complementary Medicine (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • Reiki: Review of a Biofield Therapy — Miles, P., True, G., Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine (March/April 2003), 9(2) pp 62–72
  • Human Hemoglobin Levels and Reiki (Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(1)pp.47–54 1989)
  • Biological correlates of Reiki touch healing, Wardell, D.W., Engebretson, J., J. Advanced Nursing, 33(4): 439-445 (2001)

[edit] External links

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