# Piano key frequencies

This is a virtual piano showing the frequencies in cycles per second (Hz), of each of the 88 keys on a piano (that is, note frequencies of each note found on a standard piano), with the 49th note, the fifth A (called A4), tuned to 440 cycles per second (referred to as A440). This distribution of frequencies is known as equal temperament, that is, each successive pitch is derived by multiplying the previous by the twelfth root of two. For example, A4 is normally tuned to 440 Hz. To get the next semitone (A4), multiply 440 Hz by the twelfth root of two. To go from A4 to B4 (up two semitones), multiply 440 by the twelfth root of two squared. For other tuning schemes refer to musical tuning.

This list of frequencies is for a theoretical ideal piano. On an actual piano the ratio between semitones is slightly larger, especially at the high and low ends, due to string thickness which causes inharmonicity due to the nonzero force required to bend steel piano wire in the absence of tension. This effect is sometimes known as stretched octaves, and the pattern of deviation is called the Railsback curve.

The following equation will give the frequency F (in Hertz) of the nth piano key, as shown in the table:

$\mbox{F}(n) = 27.5 \times 2^{\frac{n-1}{12}}$

## Virtual piano

Key number Helmholtz name Scientific name Frequency (Hz)
88 c′′′′′ (5-line 8ve) C8 (Eighth octave) 4186.01
87 b′′′′ B7 3951.07
86 a′′′′/b′′′′ A7/B7 3729.31
85 a′′′′ A7 3520.00
84 g′′′′/a′′′′ G7/A7 3322.44
83 g′′′′ G7 3135.96
82 f′′′′/g′′′′ F7/G7 2959.96
81 f′′′′ F7 2793.83
80 e′′′′ E7 2637.02
79 d′′′′/e′′′′ D7/E7 2489.02
78 d′′′′ D7 2349.32
77 c′′′′/d′′′′ C7/D7 2217.46
76 c′′′′ (4-line 8ve) C7 (Double high C) 2093.00
75 b′′′ B6 1975.53
74 a′′′/b′′′ A6/B6 1864.66
73 a′′′ A6 1760.00
72 g′′′/a′′′ G6/A6 1661.22
71 g′′′ G6 1567.98
70 f′′′/g′′′ F6/G6 1479.98
69 f′′′ F6 1396.91
68 e′′′ E6 1318.51
67 d′′′/e′′′ D6/E6 1244.51
66 d′′′ D6 1174.66
65 c′′′/d′′′ C6/D6 1108.73
64 c′′′ (3-line 8ve) C6 (Soprano C) 1046.50
63 b′′ B5 987.767
62 a′′/b′′ A5/B5 932.328
61 a′′ A5 880.000
60 g′′/a′′ G5/A5 830.609
59 g′′ G5 783.991
58 f′′/g′′ F5/G5 739.989
57 f′′ F5 698.456
56 e′′ E5 659.255
55 d′′/e′′ D5/E5 622.254
54 d′′ D5 587.330
53 c′′/d′′ C5/D5 554.365
52 c′′ (2-line 8ve) C5 (Tenor C) 523.251
51 b′ B4 493.883
50 a′/b A4/B4 466.164
49 a′ A4 (A440) 440.000
48 g′/a G4/A4 415.305
47 g′ G4 391.995
46 f′/g F4/G4 369.994
45 f′ F4 349.228
44 e′ E4 329.628
43 d′/e D4/E4 311.127
42 d′ D4 293.665
41 c′/d C4/D4 277.183
40 c′ (1-line 8ve) C4 (Middle C) 261.626
39 b B3 246.942
38 a/b A3/B3 233.082
37 a A3 220.000
36 g/a G3/A3 207.652
35 g G3 195.998
34 f/g F3/G3 184.997
33 f F3 174.614
32 e E3 164.814
31 d/e D3/E3 155.563
30 d D3 146.832
29 c/d C3/D3 138.591
28 c (small 8ve) C3 (Low C) 130.813
27 B B2 123.471
26 A/B A2/B2 116.541
25 A A2 110.000
24 G/A G2/A2 103.826
23 G G2 97.9989
22 F/G F2/G2 92.4986
21 F F2 87.3071
20 E E2 82.4069
19 D/E D2/E2 77.7817
18 D D2 73.4162
17 C/D C2/D2 69.2957
16 C (great 8ve) C2 (Deep C) 65.4064
15 Bˌ B1 61.7354
14 Aˌ/Bˌ A1/B1 58.2705
13 Aˌ A1 55.0000
12 Gˌ/Aˌ G1/A1 51.9130
11 Gˌ G1 48.9995
10 Fˌ/Gˌ F1/G1 46.2493
9 Fˌ F1 43.6536
8 Eˌ E1 41.2035
7 Dˌ/Eˌ D1/E1 38.8909
6 Dˌ D1 36.7081
5 Cˌ/Dˌ C1/D1 34.6479
4 Cˌ (contra-8ve) C1 (Pedal C) 32.7032
3 Bˌˌ B0 30.8677
2 Aˌˌ/Bˌˌ A0/B0 29.1353
1 Aˌˌ (sub-contra-8ve) A0 (Double Pedal A) 27.5000