The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: "Протоколы сионских мудрецов", or "Сионские протоколы" ; see also other titles) is a tract alleging a Jewish and Masonic plot to achieve world domination. Purportedly written by a secret group of Jews known as the Elders of Zion[1], the document underlies 24 protocols that are supposedly followed by the Jewish people. The Protocols has been proven to be a forgery,[2][3][4] a fraud[5][6] and a hoax,[7][8] as well as a clear case of plagiarism.[9]


[edit] Short history

The original source has been clearly identified as an 1864 book by Maurice Joly entitled The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, which was written as a satirical attack against the ambitions and methods of French Emperor Napoleon III.[10] In the book, Machiavelli represented Napoleon III, and described a series of steps that he intended to take to become ruler of the world. The Joly book was in turn based on material borrowed from a popular novel of the time by Eugène Sue entitled The Mysteries of the People, in which those plotting to rule the world were the Jesuits instead of Napoleon III. Neither the Joly book nor the Sue book mentioned either Jews or Masons.

Based on evidence repeatedly corroborated by British, German, Ukranian, Polish and Russian sources over a 75 year period, The Protocols, far from being a "discovered" document as it was claimed to be, was in fact deliberately fabricated sometime between 1895 and 1902 by Russian journalist Matvei Golovinski. There are unconfirmed indications that the forgery was created at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, head of the Paris branch of the Russian secret police.[11]

The source material for the forgery was a synthesis between Joly's book and a chapter from a work of fiction titled Biarritz, which was written in 1868 by antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche and translated into Russian in 1872.[12] In creating the Protocols, Golovinski took Joly's novel and changed the plotters from Napoleon III to the Jews, just as Joly had changed the plotters from the Jesuits to Napoleon III in his version of the story. The current belief is the forgery was initiated and authorized by factions of the Russian aristocracy opposed to the political and social reforms initiated by the previous Tsar, (Alexander II). The fabricated document was meant to convince the antisemitic Tsar Nicholas II not to allow additional reforms, since all reforms would play into the hands of this just uncovered "secret Jewish plot". Once the Russian Revolution began in 1905, however, the use of the forgery changed. The same group, now part of the White movement, disseminated the document during their 18 year fight against the Bolsheviks in an attempt to link the Red Army, which had a few Jews in its leadership, to the fictitious Jewish conspiracy.

[edit] Title

The Protocols

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

Editions of The Protocols

First publication of The Protocols
Programma zavoevaniya mira evreyami

Writers, editors, and publishers associated with The Protocols
Carl Ackerman · Boris Brasol
G. Butmi · Natalie de Bogory
Denis Fahey · Henry Ford · L. Fry
Howell Gwynne · Harris Houghton
Pavel Krushevan · Victor Marsden
Sergei Nilus · George Shanks
Fyodor Vinberg · Clyde J. Wright

Debunkers of The Protocols
Vladimir Burtsev · Herman Bernstein Norman Cohn · John S. Curtiss
Philip Graves · Michael Hagemeister
Pierre-André Taguieff · Lucien Wolf

Influenced by The Protocols
The International Jew
The Jewish Bolshevism · Mein Kampf

The text is alternatively known in English as:

  • Protocols of the wise men of Zion
  • Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
  • Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion
  • Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom
  • The Illuminati Protocols
  • Protocols of the Sages of Zion
  • Protocols of Zion
  • The Jewish Peril
  • The Protocols and World Revolution
  • Praemonitus Praemunitus
  • The War Against the Kingship of Christ.

The variations in title derive partly from the fact that the book has two titles in Russian: Сионские протоколы (Sionskiye protokoly, lit. "Protocols of Zion") and Протоколы сионских мудрецов (Protokoly sionskih mudretsov, lit. "Protocols of the Sages of Zion"), and because of the several possible translations from the Russian. "мудрец" (mudrets), in English, can be "wise man" or "sage"; "Протоколы" can also be translated, in English, not only to the most literal "protocol," but also to "minutes," "rules," "code," "log," or "etiquette (to list just a few)." [13][14][15]

Variations in the book's title also stem from various (often anonymous) compilers or editors deciding on different main titles (as distinct from subtitles) to advertise or suit particular antisemitic agendas. Too, although the text—which consists roughly of no more than two or three dozen paragraphs— is only sufficient for a pamphlet, it can become a "book" by expansion, with prefaces, introductions, addenda, etc.

For example, the first American English language edition, published in Boston in 1920 by Small, Maynard & Company, has the following full title: The Protocols and World Revolution Including a Translation and Analysis of the "Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom". Only pages 11 through 73 contain the so-called Protocols. The word "Zion" in this edition has not been used; rather, the word "Zionist" is used. This contrasts to a similar practice of the prior Russian editions. For example, in 1905 Sergei Nilus's book on the imminent arrival of the anti-Christ The Big within the Small, the Protocols constituted the final twelfth chapter.

[edit] Literary notes

The forgery contains numerous elements typical of what is known in literature as a "False Document" a document that is deliberately written to fool the reader into believing that what is written is truthful and accurate even though, in actuality, it is not.[16] It is also one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery, with analysis and proof of its fraudulent origin going as far back as 1921.[17] The forgery is also an early example of "Conspiracy Theory" literature.[18] Written in the first person singular, the text embodies generalizations, truisms and platitudes on how to take over the world: take control of the media and the financial institutions, change the traditional social order, etc. It does not contain specifics.

[edit] Origins and content

The forgery typically consists of 24 to 27 paragraphs or sections entitled "Protocols". It has been published and distributed in many forms: manuscript, periodical, booklet, book and via the internet. It was first edited and disseminated to the public in 1903 by Pavel Krushevan, the instigator of the Kishinev pogrom. It was re-published in 1906-1907 by the Union of the Russian People, a part of the pro-Tsarist antisemitic group The Black Hundreds, as a pamphlet entitled Enemies of the Human Race. The pamphlet was published specifically to blame the Jews for Russia's embarrassing defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. It was similarly used in opposition to the Russian Revolution of 1905, the October Revolution (1917), and the peace negotiations at the end of World War I, becoming known worldwide during the 1919-1920 period when it was widely circulated in the West.

It was first published in the English language in 1919 as two newspaper articles in the Philadelphia Public Ledger by journalist Carl W. Ackerman, but all references to Jews were replaced by references to Bolsheviks and Bolshevism.[19] Its first publication in the United States in its original antisemitic form was in 1920 in "The Dearborn Independent", a newspaper owned and controlled by Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company.

[edit] Maurice Joly

Elements of the text in the Protocols were plagiarizations from the 1864 book, Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), written by the French satirist Maurice Joly. Joly's work attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III using Machiavelli as a diabolical plotter in Hell as a stand-in for Napoleon's views. Joly himself appears to have borrowed material from a popular novel by Eugène Sue, The Mysteries of the People, in which the plotters were Jesuits. Jews do not appear in either work. Since it was illegal to criticize the monarchy, Joly had the pamphlet printed in Belgium, then tried to smuggle it back into France. The police confiscated as many copies as they could, and it was banned. After it was traced to Joly, he was tried on April 25, 1865, and sentenced to 15 months in prison at Sainte-Pelagie. Joly committed suicide in 1878.

[edit] Hermann Goedsche

Hermann Goedsche's 1868 novel, Biarritz (in English as To Sedan) contributed another idea that may have inspired the scribe behind the Protocols. In the chapter, “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel”, Goedsche wrote about a nocturnal meeting between members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal, describing how at midnight, the Devil appears before those who have gathered on behalf of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to plan a “Jewish conspiracy”. His depiction is also similar to the scene in Alexandre Dumas, père's Joseph Balsamo, where Cagliostro and company plot the affair of the diamond necklace. With Biarritz appearing at about the same time as The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, it is possible that Goedsche was inspired by the ideas in Joly's pamphlet, especially in detailing the outcome of the cabal's secret meeting.[20]

Goedsche, a reactionary to the revolutions of 1848, lost his job in the Prussian postal service after forging evidence to implicate democratic leader Benedict Waldeck of conspiring against the king. Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist, while also producing literary work under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe.[21] Goedsche was allegedly a spy for the Prussian Secret Police.[22] In 1871, the story was being presented in France as serious history. In 1872, “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague”, translated into Russian, appeared in St. Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. François Bournand, in his Les Juifs et nos contemporains (1896), reproduced a speech from the chapter as that of a Chief Rabbi “John Readcliff”.

[edit] Structure and themes

The 24 Protocols are posited as instructions to a newly-initiated Elder, outlining how the group will control the world. The Elders want to trick all "gentile nations", whom they call "goyim", into doing their will. Their preferred methods include:

Protocol Theme
1 Alcoholism, Annihilation of the privileges of the non-Jewish aristocracy, among other topics.
2, 9, 12 The propagation of ideas, such as Darwinism, Marxism, Nietzsche-ism, Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Anarchism, and Utopianism, with the task of undermining established forms of order.
4 Materialism
5 World government
7 World wars
10 Staging catastrophes against one's own people, then claiming a moral high ground for leverage (False flag)
11 Universal suffrage
11, 12, 17 Curtailment of civil liberties with the excuse of defeating the enemies of peace
13 Creating the impression of the existence of freedom of press, freedom of speech, human rights and democracy, all of which are subsequently undermined and become mere illusions or deceptive smokescreens behind which actual oppression lies
14 Distractions
14, 17 Pornographic literature
16 The destruction of Christianity, Islam and other religions and cultures, followed by a transitional stage of atheism, followed finally by the hegemony of Judaism
20 Brainwashing
21 Economic depressions
22 Undermining financial systems by foreign loans, creating national bankruptcy, destroying money markets and replacing them with government credit institutions
23 Justification of previous acts of evil and expectation of a great new society
24 Reduction of the manufacture of articles of luxury, destruction of large manufacturers, prohibition of alcohol and hashish, unleashing forces of violence under the mask of principles of freedom, only to have the 'King of the Jews' demolish those very forces to make him appear a saviour
25 Training of the king, direct heirs, irreproachability of exterior morality of the King of the Jews

Control of the media and finance would replace the traditional sources of social order with one based on mass manipulation and state engineered propaganda, where powerful elites and institutions conspire to conceal unpalatable truths from the masses. In these respects, the Protocols draws on long-standing criticisms of modernity, radicalism and capitalism, but presents them as part of an orchestrated plot, rather than as a product of impersonal historical processes.

The text assumes that the reader already believes that the Freemasons are a secret society with a hidden political agenda, and the Protocols purports to demonstrate that this hidden agenda is itself controlled or guided by the 'Elders', a sort of conspiracy theory within a conspiracy theory. In the Protocols, Freemasons and "liberal thinkers" are shown to be mere tools that the Elders will eventually replace with a Jewish theocracy. The Protocols describes a forthcoming "kingdom" and goes into great lengths about how it will be run. Yet even in this kingdom the Elders will avoid direct political control, preferring to assert themselves via usury and manipulation of money. Even the "King of the Jews" himself will be nothing more than a figurehead.

[edit] Comparison between The Protocols and Maurice Joly's Dialogue in Hell

The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu 1–17. In some places, the plagiarism is incontrovertible to any observer, trained or not. For example, the box on the left below contains text from the Dialogue in Hell..., while the box on the right contains text from The Protocols :

Montesquieu: How are loans made? By the issue of bonds entailing on the Government the obligation to pay interest proportionate to the capital it has been paid. Thus, if a loan is at 5%, the State, after 20 years, has paid out a sum equal to the borrowed capital. When 40 years have expired it has paid double, after 60 years triple: yet it remains debtor for the entire capital sum. (Dialogues, p. 209)

A loan is an issue of Government paper which entails an obligation to pay interest amounting to a percentage of the total sum of the borrowed money. If a loan is at 5%, then in 20 years the Government would have unnecessarily paid out a sum equal to that of the loan in order to cover the percentage. In 40 years it will have paid twice; and in 60 thrice that amount, but the loan will still remain as an unpaid debt. (Protocols, p. 77)

Another example is the reference to the Hindu deity Vishnu, which appears exactly twice in both the Dialogues in Hell and the Protocols:

Machiavelli: Like the god Vishnu, my press will have a hundred arms, and these arms will give their hands to all the different shades of opinion throughout the country. (Dialogues, p. 141)

These newspapers, like the Indian god Vishnu, will be possessed of hundreds of hands, each of which will be feeling the pulse of varying public opinion. (Protocols, p. 43)

Montesquieu: Now I understand the figure of the god Vishnu; you have a hundred arms like the Indian idol, and each of your fingers touches a spring. (Dialogues, p. 207)

Our Government will resemble the Hindu god Vishnu. Each of our hundred hands will hold one spring of the social machinery of State. (Protocols, p. 65)

In addition to mentioning Vishnu, improbable in the Jewish religious literature, and the lack of Talmudic citations that would be expected in it, textual references to the "King of the Jews", the semi-messianic idea that carries strong connotations of Jesus, further suggest the author was not well-versed in Jewish culture, as this term has been avoided in the Judaic tradition since the schism between Judaism and Christianity.[23]

In 1921, when Philip Graves published an article in The Times which showed the extent of the similarity between the two texts, it became clear that the Protocols was not an authentic document.

[edit] Conspiracy references

The idea that the Freemasons or Masons formed part of an anti-Christian conspiracy, either separate from or in association with Jews, long predated the spreading of The Protocols. In the late 18th-early 19th centuries, Freemasonry was popular (as were many fraternal organizations), and its most significant opponent, the Roman Catholic Church, opposed its open support for freedom of religion and enlightenment ideals.

After some interaction with masons, a Scottish natural philosopher John Robison became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist and expanded on his impressions in his 1797 pamphlet Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. He did not take into account that French masons were members of several mutually hostile factions and that many of them were executed by their rivals. Robison's work does not mention Jews. Jesuit priest Augustin Barruél had some contact with Robison, but extended the notion to include Jews.[citation needed] He had accused the Jews of founding the Bavarian Illuminati.[citation needed]

According to Daniel Pipes,

"The great importance of The Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another."[24] The book's vagueness — almost no names, dates, or issues are specified — has been one key to this wide-ranging success. The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction — that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny — made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left, Christian and Muslim, American and Japanese."[25]

Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success."[26]

The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories, and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature, such as Jim Marrs' Rule by Secrecy. Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati,[27] Freemasons, the Priory of Sion, or even, in the opinion of David Icke, "extra-dimensional entities." Other groups that believe in the authenticity of the Protocols have claimed that the book does not depict the way that Jews think and act, but only those belonging to an alleged secret elite group of Zionists, and that the "Elders" were not Rabbis, but secular Zionist leaders. Some conspiracy theorists believe the "Jewish conspiracy" to be disinformation.

[edit] Historical publications, usage, and investigations

[edit] Emergence in Russia

The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz, with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872.[12] In 1921 Princess Catherine Radziwill gave a private lecture in New York. She claimed that the Protocols were a forgery compiled in 1904-1905 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris.[28] Golovinski worked together with Charles Joly (son of Maurice Joly) at Le Figaro in Paris. This account, however, contradicts basic chronology of Protocols publication, as they were already published in 1903 in the newspaper Znamya. Catherine Radziwill was previously convicted of forging Cecil Rhodes' signature on a promissory note. She also authored numerous gossip and propaganda books. In 1935 Radziwill repeated her statement as a witness at the Berne Trial.

In 1944 German writer Konrad Heiden identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols.[27] Radziwill's account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express.[29] Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot to control the world. Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular, The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings, including the Protocols.[30]

In his book The Non-Existent Manuscript, Italian scholar Cesare G. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press in April 1902, by the Saint Petersburg newspaper, Novoye Vremya (Новое Время - The New Times). The article was written by a famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к ближним") and was entitled "Plots against Humanity." The author described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka, as it is known now) who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.[31]

[edit] First printing and Nilus editions

Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition)

The Protocols are claimed to have been published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 (O.S.) 1903, in Znamya (Знамя - The Banner), a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper, under Pavel Krushevan. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier.[32]

The Protocols enjoyed another wave of popularity in Russia after 1905, when progressive political elements in Russia succeeded in creating a constitution and a parliament, the Duma. The reactionary Union of the Russian People, known as the Black Hundreds, together with the Okhrana, the Tsarist secret police, blamed this liberalization on the "International Jewish conspiracy," and began a program of disseminating the Protocols[citation needed] as propaganda to support the wave of pogroms that swept Russia in 1903–1906 and as a tool to deflect attention from social activism. It also was of interest to Tsar Nicholas II, who was fearful of modernization and protective of his monarchy, and he presented the growing revolutionary movement as part of a powerful world conspiracy and blamed the Jews for Russia's problems[citation needed].

The frontispiece of an imprint of The Protocols dated 1912. Some of the signs or occult symbols read: "Thus we shall win", "Mark of "antichrist", "Tetragrammaton", "INRI", "Tarot", "Great mystery"

In 1905, self-proclaimed mystic Sergei Nilus gained fame by publishing the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII, the final chapter (pages 305–417), of the second edition (or third, according to some sources) of his book, Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews, Nilus changed his story, saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902–1903 meetings of the Elders, but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901:

In 1901, I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France — the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy.[33]

Nilus also may have had personal motivations for publishing them. Some have alleged that at this time he was trying to gain influence with the Royal Family. This was, it is claimed, part of a faction fight against Papus and Nizier Anthelme Philippe at the Tsarist court (Indeed, Papus was accused in 1920 of having forged the Protocols to discredit Philippe).

[edit] Stolypin's fraud investigation, 1905

A subsequent secret investigation ordered by the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr Stolypin came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898.[34] When Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation, he requested: "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means."[35] Despite the order, or because of the "good cause", numerous reprints proliferated.[32]

[edit] The Russian Revolution and the spread of the Protocols, 1920s

After the Russian Revolution, factions connected to the White movement used the Protocols to perpetrate hatred and violence against the Jews. The idea that the Bolshevik movement was a Jewish conspiracy for world domination, plus the fact that some top Bolsheviks, particularly Leon Trotsky, were Jews, sparked worldwide interest in the Protocols.

[edit] German language publications

The first and "by far the most important"[36] German translation was by Gottfried Zur Beek (pseudonym of Ludwig Müller von Hausen). It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract[37] dated 1919. After The Times of London discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller. "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs, and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests".[38]

Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition[39] "gave a forgery a huge boost".[38]

[edit] English language publication

On October 27 and 28, 1919, the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevist manifesto.[40] The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time, Carl W. Ackerman, who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On May 8, 1920, an article[41] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called "uncanny note of prophecy".

The first English language edition of the Protocols was published in 1920 in London. The full title was The Jewish Peril. Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion; the translator has been subsequently discovered to be George Shanks. The most widespread English translation of the Protocols is credited (by its anonymous editor(s)) to a British correspondent for The Morning Post in Russia, Victor E. Marsden. That anonymous source further claims that Marsden was imprisoned by the Bolsheviks in the Peter and Paul Fortress, subsequently released, and returned to England. Marsden, prior to his death on October 28, 1920, had allegedly translated Chapter XII of Nilus' 1905 book on the coming of the Anti-Christ, a copy of which was at hand in the British Museum. His name does not appear in the first British imprint, issued by Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., nor in the second, issued by The Britons. It only first pops up in the edition issued one or two years later, in the imprint issued by the Britons Publishing Society.

In the single year of 1920, five editions sold out in England. That same year, in the United States, Henry Ford sponsored the printing of 500,000 copies, and, from 1920 to 1922, published a series of antisemitic articles entitled "The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem," in The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper he owned. In 1921, Ford cited evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time."[42] In 1927, however, the courts ordered Ford to retract his publication and apologize; he complied, claiming his assistants had duped him. Later in life, however, he expressed his admiration for Nazi Germany.[43]

In 1934, an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pages 136–141). The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300-page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 on the coming of the anti-Christ. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet. The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Haim Weizman's October 6, 1920 remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion:

"It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe."[44]

This quote occurs on page 138. On the previous page, the nameless commentator has the following: "There has been recently published a volume of Theodor Herzl's Diaries, a translation of some passages of which appeared in the Jewish Chronicle of July 14, 1922". Accordingly, the commentary must have been written at least two years after Marsden's death.

[edit] The Times exposes a forgery, 1921

The Times exposed the Protocols as a forgery on August 16–18, 1921

In 1920-1921, the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Jacques Crétineau-Joly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist), and published in London in August 1921. But a dramatic expose occurred in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter, Philip Graves, who discovered the plagiarism from the work of Maurice Joly.

According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles, who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures, discovered 'the source' of the documentation ultimately provided to The Times. Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source, a Russian émigré who refused to be identified, with the understanding the loan would not be repaid.[45] Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history of Sheffield University, identified the émigré as Michael Raslovleff, a self-identified antisemite, who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been."[46]

In the first article of Graves' series, entitled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times wrote, "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made."[47] The New York Times reprinted the articles on September 4, 1921.[48] In the same year, an entire book[49] documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites.[citation needed]

[edit] Arab lands, 1920s

In the 1920s, the Protocols occasionally appeared in the Arab polemics linking Zionism and Bolshevism. The first Arabic translations were made from the French by Arab Christians. The first translation was published in Raqib Sahyun, a periodical of the Roman Catholic community of Jerusalem, in 1926. Another translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in 1927 or 1928, this time as a book. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in 1951.[50]

[edit] The Berne Trial, 1934–1935

In 1934, Dr. Alfred Zander, a Swiss Nazi, published a series of articles accepting the Protocols as fact. He was sued in what has come to be known as the Berne Trial. The trial began in the Amtsgericht (district court) of Bern on October 29, 1934. The plaintiffs were Dr. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis, who were represented by Georges Brunschvig and Emil Raas. On May 19, 1935, the defendants were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral, obscene or brutalizing" texts.[51] The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion:

"I hope, the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense".[32]

Vladimir Burtsev, a Russian émigré, anti-Bolshevik and anti-Fascist who exposed numerous Okhrana agents provocateurs in the early 1900s, served as a witness at the Berne Trial. In 1938 in Paris he published a book, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery, based on his testimony.

On November 1, 1937 the defendants appealed the verdict to the Obergericht (Cantonal Supreme Court) of Berne. A panel of three judges acquitted them, holding that the Protocols, while false, did not violate the statute at issue because they were used as a means of political propaganda.[51] The presiding judge's opinion stated, though, that the forgery of the Protocols was not questionable and expressed regret that the law did not provide adequate protection for Jews from this sort of literature. The court imposed the fees for both trials on the defendants.[52] This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is opposite to the facts. A scholarly work on the trial is a 139 page monograph by Urs Lüthi.

[edit] South Africa

In an August 1934 case in Grahamstown, South Africa, a court case took place in which Rev. A. Levy sued three Greyshirts leaders (Johannes von Strauss, von Moltke, David Hermanus Olivier) and Harry Victor Inch for defamation because they published a document said to have been stolen from the Western Road Synagogue in Port Elizabeth where Rev. Levy was Minister. The document, proven at the trial to be a forgery, alleged to set out the plans of the Jews to obtain world domination on the lines of the notorious Protocols. The court awarded Rev. Levy damages totalling £1,775 (about $8,875 at the time or about $130,000 in 2005 dollars) - £1000 against Inch, £750 against Moltke and £25 against Olivier. Inch was also sentenced to six years in prison for perjury. Nahum Sokolow appeared as a witness at the trial. In what is believed to be a legal first, the Protocols was also declared to be a forgery during the trial.

[edit] The Protocols in Nazi propaganda, 1930s-1940s

The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. It was made required reading for German students. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews":

Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the United States, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.[53]

Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf:

... To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. [...] the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims.[54]

Hitler endorsed it in his speeches from August 1921 on, and it was studied in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power. At the height of World War II, the Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published."[38] In Norman Cohn's words, it served as the Nazis' "warrant for genocide".

[edit] Fascist Italy

While the first edition of the Protocols (1921) did not have much success, in the wake of the growing alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the Protocols were re-published in Italy in 1937 by Giovanni Preziosi with an introduction by Julius Evola.

[edit] Contemporary usage and popularity

While there is continued popularity of The Protocols in nations from South America to Asia, since the defeat of Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in WWII, governments or political leaders in most parts of the world have generally avoided claims that The Protocols represent factual evidence of a real Jewish conspiracy. The exception to this is the Middle East, where a large number of Arab and Muslim regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic. Past endorsements of The Protocols from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat of Egypt, one of the President Arifs of Iraq, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, among other political and intellectual leaders of the Arab world, are echoed by 21st century endorsements from the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri, and Hamas, to the education ministry of Saudi Arabia.[55]

[edit] Middle East

As popular opposition to Israel spread across the Middle East in the years following its creation in 1948, many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols, and taught them in their schools as historical fact. They have been accepted as such by many Islamist organizations, such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad. Reportedly, Arabic editions issued in the Middle East were found on sale as far away as London.[56] There are at least nine different Arabic translations of the Protocols and more editions than in any other language including German.[50] The Protocols also figure prominently in the antisemitic propaganda distributed internationally by the Arab countries and have spread to other Muslim countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia, and Indonesia.[50]

[edit] Syria

This 2005 Syrian edition includes an "historical and contemporary investigative study" that repeats the blood libel among other antisemitic accusations, and argues that the Torah and Talmud encourage Jews "to commit treason and to conspire, dominate, be arrogant and exploit other countries".[57]

The Protocols is a best-seller in Syria[58] and, together with other antisemitic materials published there, is distributed throughout the Arab world.[59] In 1997, the two-volume 8th edition of the Protocols, translated and edited by 'Ajaj Nuwayhid, was published by Mustafa Tlass's publishing house and exhibited and sold at the Damascus International Book Fair (IBF) and at the Cairo IBF. At the 2005 Cairo IBF a stand of the Syrian publisher displayed a new, 2005 edition of the Protocols authorized by the Syrian Ministry of Information.[60][61] In Syria government-controlled television channels occasionally broadcast mini-series concerning the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, along with several other anti-semitic themes.[62]

[edit] Egypt

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt was the main source of internationally distributed antisemitic propaganda. In 1960, the Protocols were featured in an article published by Salah Dasuqi, military governor of Cairo, in al-Majallaaa, the official cultural journal.[50] In 1965, the Egyptian government released an English-language pamphlet titled Israel, the Enemy of Africa and distributed it throughout the English-speaking countries of Africa. The pamphlet used the Protocols and The International Jew as its sources and concluded that all the Jews were cheats, thieves, and murderers.[50]

In a foreword to a translation of Shimon Peres' book The New Middle East, the Egyptian state-owned publisher al-Ahram editorialized in 1995:

'When The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were discovered, some 200 years ago, and translated in various languages, including Arabic, the World Zionist Organization attempted to deny the existence of the plot, and claimed forgery. The Zionists even endeavoured to purchase all the existing copies, in order to prevent their circulation. But today, Shimon Peres proves unequivocally that the Protocols are authentic, and that they tell the truth.'

An article in the Egyptian state-owned newspaper al-Akhbar on February 3, 2002 stated:

All the evils that currently affect the world are the doings of Zionism. This is not surprising, because the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which were established by their wise men more than a century ago, are proceeding according to a meticulous and precise plan and time schedule, and they are proof that even though they are a minority, their goal is to rule the world and the entire human race."

In October 2002, a private Egyptian television company Dream TV produced a 41-part "historical drama" A Knight Without a Horse (Fars Bela Gewad), largely based on the Protocols,[63] which ran on 17 Arabic-language satellite television channels, including government-owned Egypt Television (ETV), for a month, causing concerns in the West.[64] Egypt's Information Minister Safwat El-Sherif announced that the series "contains no antisemitic material".[65]

On November 17, 2003, an Egyptian weekly al-Usbu‘ reported that the manuscript museum at the Alexandria Library, displayed the first Arabic translation of the Protocols at the section of the holy books of Judaism, next to a Torah scroll. The museum's director Dr. Youssef Ziedan was quoted as saying in an interview:

" has become one of the sacred [texts] of the Jews, next to their first constitution, their religious law ... more important to the Zionist Jews of the world than the Torah, because they conduct Zionist life according to it ... It is only natural to place the book in the framework of an exhibit of Torah."[66]

It also quoted him as saying that no more than one million Jews were killed by the Nazis, but Zionists manipulated the "knowledge that has reached the world".[66] See also:- Holocaust denial.

Dr. Ziedan strongly denies these quotes, accusing al-Usbu‘ of attributing "fabricated, groundless lies" to him and stating that "the Protocols is a racist, silly, fabricated book":

"The story began with an article in an Egyptian newspaper, al-Usbu‘, two weeks ago (on November 17, 2003), which alleged quoting from me utterly senseless statements intertwining facts with fancies. A month before, a journalist from the aforementioned newspaper interviewed me concerning the recent refurbishment of the manuscript and rare book museum. I handed her a written statement, as was the case with other journalists who covered the same news. Although, she concluded her article with my exact words, she started it with fabricated, groundless lies. She falsely reported me saying that I placed an edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion at the center of the museum alongside the Jewish Torah and divine books. Moreover, she claimed that I told her that this book is more significant then the Torah... On my part, I would like to maintain to the visitors of that the Protocols is a racist, silly, fabricated book. Perhaps, I should consider more thoroughly the Jewish issue on the academic level and furnish my vision of the interaction of religions. As civilized people, we totally renounce racism and call for tolerance and constructive interaction between people."[67]

After the publication, director of the Library Dr. Ismail Serageldin issued a statement:

"Preliminary investigation determined that the book was briefly displayed in a showcase devoted to rotating samples of curiosities and unusual items in our collection. ... The book is a well-known 19th century fabrication to foment anti-Jewish feelings. The book was promptly withdrawn from public display, but its very inclusion showed bad judgment and insensitivity..."[68]

[edit] Iran

The first Iranian edition of the Protocols was issued during the summer of 1978 before the Iranian Revolution after which the Protocols were widely publicized by the Iranian government. A publication called Imam, published by the Iranian embassy in London, quoted extensively from the Protocols in its issues of 1984 and 1985.[50] In 1985 a new edition of the Protocols was printed and widely distributed by the Islamic Propagation Organization, International Relations Department, in Tehran. The Astan Quds Razavi Foundation in Mashhad, Iran, one of the wealthiest institutions in Iran, financed publication of the Protocols in 1994. Parts of the Protocols were published by the daily Jomhouri-ye Eslami in 1994, under the heading The Smell of Blood, Zionist Schemes. Sobh, a far right monthly newspaper, published excerpts from the Protocols under the heading The text of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion for establishing the Jewish global rule in its December 1998–January 1999 issue, illustrated with a caricature of the Jewish snake swallowing the globe.

Iranian writer and researcher Ali Baqeri, who researched the Protocols, finds their plan for world domination to be merely part of an even more grandiose scheme, saying in Sobh in 1999:

"The ultimate goal of the Jews... after conquering the globe... is to extract from the hands of the Lord many stars and galaxies".

In April 2004, the Iranian television station Al-Alam broadcast Al-Sameri wa Al-Saher, a series that reported as fact several conspiracy theories about the Holocaust, Jewish control of Hollywood, and the Protocols.[69] The Iran Pavilion of the 2005 Frankfurt Book Fair had the Protocols, as well as The International Jew available.[70] In 2008 "The Secret of Armageddon" - An Iranian TV "Documentary" Claiming That "a Jewish Plan for the Genocide of Humanity," includes a conspiracy for the takeover of Iran by local Jewish and Bahá'í communities was based on the Protocols.[71]

On the other hand, Iranian author Abdollah Shahbazi, known for his historical reports of several important events of Iran's history, has denied the authenticity of the Protocols officially on his website and has referred to several international investigations as the basis of his claim.[72]

[edit] Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian schoolbooks contain explicit summaries of the Protocols as factual:

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: These are secret resolutions, most probably of the aforementioned Basel congress. They were discovered in the nineteenth century. The Jews tried to deny them, but there was ample evidence proving their authenticity and that they were issued by the elders of Zion. The Protocols can be summarized in the following points:

  1. Upsetting the foundations of the world's present society and its systems, in order to enable Zionism to have a monopoly of world government.
  2. Eliminating nationalities and religions, especially the Christian nations.
  3. Striving to increase corruption among the present regimes in Europe, as Zionism believes in their corruption and [eventual] collapse.
  4. Controlling the media of publication, propaganda and the press, using gold for stirring up disturbances, seducing people by means of lust and spreading wantonness.
The cogent proof of the authenticity of these resolutions, as well as of the hellish Jewish schemes included therein, is the [actual] carrying out of many of those schemes, intrigues and conspiracies that are found in them. Anyone who reads them — and they were published in the nineteenth century — grasps today to what extent much of what is found there has been realized.[73]

According to Freedom House 2006 report, Saudi "textbook for boys for Tenth Grade on Hadith and Islamic Culture contains a lesson on the "Zionist Movement." It is a curious blend of wild conspiracy theories about Masonic Lodges, Rotary Clubs, and Lions Clubs with antisemitic invective. It asserts that the Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an authentic document and teaches students that it reveals what Jews really believe. It blames many of the world’s wars and discord on the Jews."[74]

[edit] Lebanon and Hezbollah

In March 1970, the Protocols were reported to be the top 'nonfiction' bestseller in Lebanon.[75] The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2004 by the US Department of State states that "the television series, Ash-Shatat ("The Diaspora"), which centred on the alleged conspiracy of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion to dominate the world, was aired in October and November 2003 by the Lebanon-based satellite television network Al-Manar, owned by Hezbollah."[76]

[edit] Hamas

The Charter of Hamas explicitly refers to the Protocols, accepting them as factual and makes several references to Freemasons as one of the "secret societies" controlled by "Zionists". The Article 32 of the Hamas Charter states:

The Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying.[77]

[edit] Palestinian National Authority

The PNA frequently used the Protocols in the media and education under their control and some Palestinian academics presented the forgery as a plot upon which Zionism is based. For example, on January 25, 2001, the official PNA daily Al-Hayat al-Jadida cited the Protocols on its Political National Education page to explain Israel's policies:

Disinformation has been one of the bases of moral and psychological manipulation among the Israelis ... The Protocols of the Elders of Zion did not ignore the importance of using propaganda to promote the Zionist goals. The second protocol reads: 'Through the newspapers we will have the means to propel and to influence'. In the twelfth protocol: 'Our governments will hold the reins of most of the newspapers, and through this plan we will possess the primary power to turn to public opinion.'

Later that year the same newspaper wrote: "The purpose of the military policy is to impose this situation on the residents and force them to leave their homes, and this is done in the framework of the Protocols of Zion..."[78]

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri appeared on the Saudi satellite channel Al-Majd on February 20, 2005, commenting on the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. "Anyone who studies The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and specifically the Talmud," he said, "will discover that one of the goals of these Protocols is to cause confusion in the world and to undermine security throughout the world."[79]

In 2005, it was reported that the Palestinian Authority was referring to the Protocols in a textbook for 10th grade students. After media exposure, the PA issued a revised edition of the textbook that does not include references to the Protocols.[80]

The New York Times reported that Palestinian Authority Minister of Information Nabil Shaath removed from his ministry's web site an Arabic translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[81]

[edit] Other contemporary appearances

This Spanish-language edition of the Protocols, published in Mexico City in 2005, says that whether or not the Protocols are authentic, history shows that Zionists intend to dominate the world. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
In this edition, published in Tokyo in 2004, Ota Ryu writes that Jews dominate Western nations and that Japan must guard against a Jewish takeover. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
An English-language edition was published in Selangor, Malaysia in 2006. This shows a copy for sale at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in January 2008.

To a great degree, the text is still accepted as truthful in large parts of South America and Asia, especially in Japan where variations on the Protocols have frequently made the bestseller lists.[82]

In Turkey, particularly by ultra-nationalist and Islamist circles. The Protocols was first published in the magazine Millî İnkılâb (National Revolution) in 1934 and triggered the Thracian pogroms (Trakya Olayları) the same year. It ran through over 100 editions from 1943 to 2004 and remains a best-seller.[83]

In Greece The Protocols is published by several ultra-right-wing publishers such as Ouranos and Mpimpis. During the last decade, the book has received wide promotion by parliamentary right-wing extremists, most notably Kyriakos Velopoulos.

In the United Kingdom, The Protocols have been endorsed by excommunicated Bishop Richard Williamson of the Society of St. Pius X.

In Romania The Protocols was published in the early 90's by nationalist writers and neo-legionar groups as |Protocoalele Înţelepţilor Sionului. It was widely read in urban areas and mentioned by the people who were disappointed by the new economic rules and inflation.

In February 2003, an Australian new age publication Hard Evidence presented the Protocols as factual and claimed that Jews were responsible for 2002 Bali bombing.[84]

The New Zealand National Front sells copies published by their former national secretary, Kerry Bolton. Bolton also publishes (and the NZNF sells) a book entitled The Protocols of Zion in Context that seeks to refute the idea that the Protocols are a forgery.

Idi Amin, the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979, cited the book as evidence of a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, and as justification for his self-proclaimed plans to destroy Israel. He reveals this in an interview during the 1974 documentary Idi Amin Dada.

In Indonesia a translation of the Protocols is available in Indonesian in a bundle with The International Jew. The books were translated and published in 2006 by the Hikmah division of the publisher Mizan. The front cover of The International Jew shows a quote by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: "The big question is how can the American government support this despicable Zionist regime".

[edit] United States

The Protocols have had a tumultuous history in the United States ever since influential people such as Henry Ford began publishing them under the title of The International Jew. The Protocols were republished as fact in 1991 in Milton William Cooper's conspiracy book Behold a Pale Horse, though Cooper himself holds the Illuminati and not the Jews at fault.

The Plot, the final graphic novel by famed writer/artist Will Eisner, was about the history of the Protocols and the fact that they had been proven to be false numerous times.

The American retail chain Wal-Mart, was criticized for selling The Protocols of the Elders of Zion on its website with a description that suggested it might be genuine.[85] It was withdrawn from sale in September 2004, as 'a business decision'. It was distributed in the United States by Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam.[86]

In 2002, the Paterson, New Jersey-based Arabic language newspaper The Arab Voice published excerpts from the Protocols as true.[87] The paper's editor and publisher Walid Rabah defended himself from criticism with the protestation that "some major writers in the Arab nation accept the truth of the book."[88]

During his October 2003 presentation at the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, Samir Makhlouf of the Presbyterian Peacemakers organization stated that the Protocols was a factual text that explains how Zionists have been taking over the world's politics, economics and communications. After the controversy became public, the group's sponsors "agreed that they had made a grave mistake, and ... that antisemitism is anti-Christianity."[89][90]

Abraham H. Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League has said "The non-Jewish world to a large extent believes in the myth of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and to some extent we in the Jewish community have not disabused them. Look. I know every time I meet with a world leader who comes to see me, he's not coming to see me because I'm Abe Foxman, the national director of the ADL. I know he's coming because he's been told, or someone sold him on the concept, that the Jewish community is very strong and powerful. You know it because ... they want to know what you can do for them in the media, what you can do for them in the Congress, and so on. That's why the Prime Minister of Bosnia comes ... Nicaragua, you name it. You've got to ask yourself, what is this about. The answer is, it's because they believe a little of that."[91]

[edit] Soviet Union and post-Soviet states

[edit] The Soviet Union

Howard Sachar describes the allegations of global Jewish conspiracy resurrected during the Soviet "anti-Zionist" campaign in the wake of the Six-Day War:

"In late July 1967, Moscow launched an unprecedented propaganda campaign against Zionism as a "world threat." Defeat was attributed not to tiny Israel alone, but to an "all-powerful international force" ... In its flagrant vulgarity, the new propaganda assault soon achieved Nazi-era characteristics. The Soviet public was saturated with racist canards. Extracts from Trofim Kichko's notorious 1963 volume, Judaism Without Embellishment, were extensively republished in the Soviet media. Yuri Ivanov's Beware: Zionism, a book essentially replicated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was given nationwide coverage."[92]

A similar picture is drawn by Paul Johnson:

(the mass media) "all over the Soviet Union portrayed the Zionists and Israeli leaders as engaged in a world-wide conspiracy along the lines of the old Protocols of Zion. It was, Sovietskaya Latvia wrote 5 August 1967, an 'international Cosa Nostra with a common centre, common programme and common funds'".[93]

[edit] The Russian Federation

Despite stipulations against fomenting hatred based on ethnic or religious grounds (Article 282 of Russia Penal Code), the Protocols have enjoyed numerous reprints in the nationalist press after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 2003, one century after the first publication of the Protocols, an article[94] in the most popular Russian weekly Argumenty i fakty referred to it as a "peculiar bible of Zionism" and showed a photo of the First Zionist Congress of 1897. The co-president of the National-Patriot Union of Russia Alexander Prokhanov wrote: "It does not matter whether the Protocols are a forgery or a factual conspiracy document." The article also contained refutation of the allegations by the president of the Russian Jewish congress Yevgeny Satanovsky.

As recently as 2005, the Protocols was "a frequent feature in Patriarchate churches".[95][96] On January 27, 2006, members of the Public Chamber of Russia and human rights activists proposed to establish a list of extremist literature whose dissemination should be formally banned for uses other than scientific research.

[edit] Malaysia

In 2006, Masterpiece Publications issued a version of the Protocols under the title World Conquest Through World Jewish Government (ISBN 983-3710-28-X). Copies of the book are held at the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia.[97]

[edit] References

  1. ^ [
  2. ^ Protocols of the Elders of Zion
  3. ^ The Truth about the Protocols: 1 of 6
  4. ^ The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion Reviews
  5. ^ Anti-Semitic "Protocols of Zion" Endure, Despite Debunking
  6. ^ Protocols of the Elders of Zion
  7. ^ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
  8. ^ The Straight Dope: What's the story with the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"?
  9. ^ The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion Plagiarism at its Best
  10. ^ "The protocols plagiarized the work of Maurice Joly's "Dialogues in Hell.""
  11. ^ "PRINCESS RADZIWILL QUIZZED AT LECTURE; Stranger Questions Her Title After She Had Told of Forgery of "Jewish Protocols." CREATES STIR AT ASTOR Leaves Without Giving His Name-- Mrs. Huribut Corroborates the Princess. Stranger Quizzes Princess. Corroborates Mme. Radziwill. Never Reached Alexander III. The Corroboration. Says Orgewsky Was Proud of Work.". New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  12. ^ a b Segel, Binjamin W. A Lie and a Libel: The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (translated and edited by Levy, Richard S.), p. 97 (1996, originally published in 1926), University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-9245-7.
  13. ^ "Google Translation Tool". Retrieved on 2008-10-17 {{{accessyear}}}. 
  14. ^ "Translation протокол in the Russian-English Collins dictionary". Retrieved on 2008-10-17 {{{accessyear}}}. 
  15. ^ "Google Translation Tool". Retrieved on January 2009 {{{accessyear}}}. 
  16. ^ The Non-Existent Manuscript, Cesare G. De Michelis, (Lincoln and London: University on Nebraska Press, 1998, 2004).
  17. ^ A Hoax of Hate
  18. ^ Svetlana Boym, "Conspiracy theories and literary ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kis and The Protocols of Zion": Comparative Literature, Spring 1999.
  19. ^ An Appraisal of the "Protocols of Zion", John S. Curtiss (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942).
  20. ^ This material was originally exposed by Philip Graves in “The Source of The Protocols of Zion” published in The Times, August 16-18, 1921, and the exposure has since been expanded in many sources.
  21. ^ Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elder of Zion (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1966) 32–36.
  22. ^ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
  23. ^ See INRI, Jewish Messiah, Judaism's view of Jesus.
  24. ^ Umberto Eco, Foucault's Pendulum (London: Picador, 1990), p.490
  25. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Schuster) p.85. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  26. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Schuster) p.86–87. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  27. ^ a b Forging Protocols by Charles Paul Freund. Reason Magazine, February 2000
  28. ^ "PRINCESS RADZIWILL QUIZZED AT LECTURE; Stranger Questions Her Title After She Had Told of Forgery of "Jewish Protocols." CREATES STIR AT ASTOR Leaves Without Giving His Name-- Mrs. Huribut Corroborates the Princess. Stranger Quizzes Princess. Corroborates Mme. Radziwill. Never Reached Alexander III. The Corroboration. Says Orgewsky Was Proud of Work.". New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  29. ^ (French)Éric Conan. Les secrets d'une manipulation antisémite L’Express, 16/11/1999.
  30. ^ Vadim Skuratovsky: The Question of the Authorship of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion". (Judaica Institute, Kiev, 2001) ISBN 966-7273-12-1
  31. ^ (Russian)T. Karasova and D. Chernyakhovsky. Afterword to the Russian translation of Norman Cohn's Warrant for Genocide
  32. ^ a b c "The Fraud of a Century, or a book born in hell". Archived from the original on 2005-12-17. , by Valery Kadzhaya (Retrieved September 2005)
  33. ^ Morris Kominsky, The Hoaxers, 1970. p. 209 ISBN 0-8283-1288-5
  34. ^ (Russian) P. Stolypin's attempt to resolve the Jewish question by Boris Fyodorov
  35. ^ (Russian) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery by Vladimir Burtsev (Paris, 1938) p.106 (Ch.4)
  36. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Schuster) p.94. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  37. ^ Geheimnisse der Weisen von Zion (Charlottesburg: Auf Vorposten, 1919).
  38. ^ a b c Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Shuster) p.95. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  39. ^ Alfred Rosenberg: Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion und die jüdische Weltpolitik (Munich: Deutscher Volksverlag, 1923).
  40. ^ Jenkins, Philip (1997). Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925-1950. UNC Press. p. 114. ISBN 0807823163. 
  41. ^ Henry Wickham Steed, "A Disturbing Pamphlet: A Call for Enquiry", The Times, May 8, 1920.
  42. ^ Max Wallace, The American Axis St. Martin's Press, 2003
  43. ^ Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration by Michael Dobbs. The Washington Post 1998-11-30; Page A01. Retrieved March 20, 2006.
  44. ^ Introduction to English edition by Victor E. Marsden
  45. ^ Peter Grose, in Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Houghton Mifflin 1994)
  46. ^ Poliakov, Leon (1997). "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion". Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  47. ^ "Jewish World Plot": An Exposure. The Source of "The Protocols of Zion". Truth at LastPDF (1.08 MB) by Philip Graves published at The Times, August 16–18, 1921
  48. ^ The New York Times, September 4, 1921. Front page, Section 7
  49. ^ The History of a Lie at Project Gutenberg
  50. ^ a b c d e f Lewis, Bernard (1986). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (First edition ed.). W. W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-02314-1. 
  51. ^ a b Hafner, Urs (23 December 2005). "Die Quelle allen Übels? Wie ein Berner Gericht 1935 gegen antisemitische Verschwörungsphantasien vorging" (in German). Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Retrieved on 2008-10-11. 
  52. ^ Hadassa Ben-Itto, The Lie That Wouldn’t Die: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Chapter 11.
  53. ^ Nora Levin, The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945. Quoting from [1]
  54. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf: Chapter XI: Nation and Race, Vol I, pp. 307–308.
  55. ^ Islamic Antisemitism in Historical PerspectivePDF (276 KB) at Anti-Defamation League
  56. ^ Exporting Arabic antisemitic publications issued in the Middle East to Britain Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (ITC CSS). October 10, 2005
  57. ^ ITC CSS
  58. ^ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a Syrian best-seller at ITC CSS. April 20, 2005
  59. ^ UNISPAL. Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and All Forms of Discrimination. Question of Violation of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Any Part of the World. Written statement submitted by the Association for World Education. 10 February 2004
  60. ^ A new 2005 Syrian edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion at ITC CSS. February 28, 2005
  61. ^ Syria unveils updated antisemitic work. Damascus releases updated 'Protocols' book filled with canards about 'treacherous' Zionists by Aaron Klein at WorldNetDaily. March 9, 2005
  62. ^ Al-Shatat: The Syrian-Produced Ramadan 2003 TV Special
  63. ^ Plot summary at the Anti-Defamation League
  64. ^ Egypt: U.S. Concerns Regarding Proposed Antisemitic Mini-Series Office of the Spokesman at the U.S. State Department
  65. ^ Protocols, politics and Palestine at al-Ahram Weekly
  66. ^ a b Jewish Holy Books On Display at the Alexandria Library: The Torah & the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion' December 3, 2003
  67. ^ First Statement: Necessary Explanation at (March 11, 2006)
  68. ^ Public Statement by the Director of the Library of Alexandria
  69. ^ Iranian TV Series Based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Jewish Control of Hollywood. MEMRI. April 30, 2004
  70. ^ The Booksellers of Tehran,” The Wall Street Journal Online, October 28, 2005
  71. ^ "The Secret of Armageddon" on memri
  72. ^ His article about Protocols on the 'Official Site of Abdollah Shahbazi'
  73. ^ CMIP report: The Jews in World History according to the Saudi textbooks. The Danger of World Jewry, by Abdullah al-Tall, pp. 140–141 (Arabic). Hadith and Islamic Culture, Grade 10, (2001) pp. 103–104.
  74. ^ "2006 Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2006-08-23.  Report by Center for Religious Freedom of Freedom House. 2006
  75. ^ Efraim Karsh, Rethinking the Middle East, Routledge, 2003. p. 101
  76. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004 Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the US State Department February 28, 2005
  77. ^ The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) August 18, 1988 (The Avalon Project at Yale Law School) retrieved October 2005
  78. ^ "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in official PA ideology, 2001–2002 a Bulletin by Itamar Marcus at Palestinian Media Watch. (Retrieved January 2006)
  79. ^ The anti-Jewish lie that refuses to die by Steve Boggan, The Times, March 2, 2005
  80. ^ Analysis and Evaluation of the New Palestinian Curriculum; Reviewing Palestinian Textbooks and Tolerance Education Program Grades 5 & 10 by Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information (IPCRI) Submitted to: The Public Affairs Office US Consulate General Jerusalem, July 2006
  81. ^ PNA Minister of Information removes the Protocols from their website New York Times, 2005-05-19
  82. ^ Antisemitism Worldwide 1995–6 (Project for the Study of Antisemitism, Tel Aviv University), pp. 265–6.
    For more information on the popularity of the Protocols in Japan, see:
  83. ^ Kavgam ve Siyon Protokolleri, Ayşe Hür, Radikal 2, 13.03.2005
    For more information on popularity of antisemitic literature in Turkey, see:
  84. ^ Confronting Reality: Antisemitism in Australia Today by Jeremy Jones. Fall 2004
  85. ^ Walmart description (excerpt): "If, however, The Protocols are genuine (which can never be proven conclusively), it might cause some of us to keep a wary eye on world affairs." Walmart rolls back Ant-Semitic book at the Southern Poverty Law Center website
  86. ^ Arthur Hertzberg, Jews: The Essence and Character of a People Harper Collins, 1999. p 34.
  87. ^ The Paterson 'Protocols' by Daniel Pipes. New York Post. November 5, 2002
  88. ^ A documentary film, Protocols of Zion (2005)[2], connects the Protocols to a resurgence of antisemitism following the September 11 World Trade Center attacks.
  89. ^ Message of hate brought to Wooster campus
  90. ^ College of Wooster begins bridge building published in Cleveland Jewish News (retrieved February 19, 2006)
  91. ^ Jonathan Jeremy Goldberg (1996). Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment. Basic Books. p. p.17. 
  92. ^ Howard Sachar, A History of the Jews in the Modern World (Knopf, NY. 2005) p.722
  93. ^ Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews (1987) p.575–576
  94. ^ "Protocols of contention". Archived from the original on 2005-11-05. , Argumenty i fakty, September 10, 2003
  95. ^ "Eye on Eurasia: Believing the Protocols". Archived from the original on 2005-11-26.  By Paul Goble UPI, April 13, 2005
  96. ^ Antisemitism in the Post-Soviet States by Betsy Gidwitz. (JCPA) (April 2003)
  97. ^ Library of the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

[edit] Further reading

[edit] See also

Pertinent concepts
Related or similar texts

[edit] External links

by Maurice Joly, 1864, e-text supplied by Project Gutenberg
This is the book source from which the substantial plagiarism was made.
by Howell Arthur Gwynne, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920, 264pp.
This is the greatly expanded commentary edition published in London and New York.
This is the first American edition, Including a Translation and Analysis of "The Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom,"
Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, 1920.

This is a disclaimer published as a result of a conference held in New York City on November 30, 1920.

  • The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affairs, by Lucien Wolf, 1920: [7]

This is an edited compilation of articles - published previously in various periodicals - denying the authenticity of "The Protocols."

by Philip Graves, August 16, August 17, and August 18, 1921
This is the article in which the discovered plagiarism is first published and revealed to the world.
  • The History of a Lie: "The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion"
(New York: J. S. Ogilvie Pub. Co., c 1921), by Herman Bernstein (at, The Online Books Page [8]
This is an early textual study.
This greatly expanded compilation incorporates material from the International Jew.
  • Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Fabricated "Historic" Document (1964)
by United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary (PDF at Online Books Page [9]
This is a report on the official investigation and findings of the United States Senate.

[edit] Notable web resources

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