George Bernard Shaw

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George Bernard Shaw

Born 26 July 1856(1856-07-26)
Dublin, Ireland
Died 2 November 1950 (aged 94)
Hertfordshire, England
Occupation Playwright, critic, political activist
Nationality Irish
Genres Satire, Black comedy
Literary movement Reformist Socialist
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature

Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay
1938 Pygmalion

George Bernard Shaw, (pronounced /ˈbɝːnɚd ˈʃɔː/[1]) (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950) was an Irish playwright.

Although Shaw's first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, his talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. Nearly all his writings deal sternly with prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy to make their stark themes more palatable. Shaw examined education, marriage, religion, government, health care and class privilege, and found them all defective. He was most angered by the exploitation of the working class, and most of his writings censure that abuse. An ardent socialist, Shaw wrote many brochures and speeches for the Fabian Society. He became an accomplished orator in the furtherance of its causes, which included gaining equal political rights for men and women, alleviating abuses of the working class, rescinding private ownership of productive land, and promoting healthful lifestyles.

Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They settled in Ayot St. Lawrence in a house now called Shaw's Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries he incurred by falling.

He is the only person to have been awarded both the Nobel Prize for Literature (1925) and an Oscar (1938). These were for his contributions to literature and for his work on the film Pygmalion, respectively. Shaw wanted to refuse his Nobel Prize outright because he had no desire for public honors, but accepted it at his wife's behest: she considered it a tribute to Ireland. He did reject the monetary award, requesting it be used to finance translation of Swedish books to English.[2]


[edit] Biography

George Bernard Shaw was born in Synge Street, Dublin in 1856 to George Carr Shaw (1814–1885), whose father was Bernard Shaw, an unsuccessful grain merchant and sometime civil servant, and Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw, born Gurly (1830–1913), a professional singer. He had two sisters, Lucinda Frances (1853–1920), a singer of musical comedy and light opera, and Elinor Agnes (1854–1876). George briefly attended the Wesleyan Connexional School, a grammar school operated by the Methodist New Connexion, before moving to a private school near Dalkey and then transferring to Dublin's Central Model School. He ended his formal education at the Dublin English Scientific and Commercial Day School. He harbored a lifelong animosity toward schools and teachers, saying: "Schools and schoolmasters, as we have them today, are not popular as places of education and teachers, but rather prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents".[3]

Shaw expressed this attitude in the astringent prologue to Cashel Byron's Profession where young Byron's educational experience is a fictionalized description of Shaw's own schooldays. Later, he painstakingly detailed the reasons for his aversion to formal education in his Treatise on Parents and Children.[4] In brief, he considered the standardized curricula useless, deadening to the spirit and stifling to the intellect. He particularly deplored the use of corporal punishment, which was prevalent in his time.

When his mother left home and followed her voice teacher, George Vandeleur Lee, to London, Shaw was almost sixteen years old. His sisters accompanied their mother[5] but Shaw remained in Dublin with his father, first as a reluctant pupil, then as a clerk in an estate office. He worked efficiently, albeit discontentedly, for several years.[6] In 1876, Shaw joined his mother's London household. She, Vandeleur Lee, and his sister Lucy, provided him with a pound a week while he frequented public libraries and the British Museum reading room where he studied earnestly and began writing novels. He earned his allowance by ghostwriting Vandeleur Lee's music column,[7][8] which appeared in the London Hornet. His novels were rejected, however, so his literary earnings remained negligible until 1885, when he became self-supporting as a critic of the arts.

The front of Shaw's Corner as it stands today

Influenced by his reading, he became a dedicated Socialist and a charter member of the Fabian Society,[9] a middle class organization established in 1884 to promote the gradual spread of socialism by peaceful means.[6] In the course of his political activities he met Charlotte Payne-Townshend, an Irish heiress and fellow Fabian; they married in 1898. In 1906 the Shaws moved into a house, now called Shaw's Corner, in Ayot St. Lawrence, a small village in Hertfordshire; it was to be their home for the remainder of their lives, although they also maintained a residence at 29 Fitzroy Square in London.

Shaw's plays were first performed in the 1890s. By the end of the decade he was an established playwright. He wrote sixty-three plays and his output as novelist, critic, pamphleteer, essayist and private correspondent was prodigious. He is known to have written more than 250,000 letters.[10] Along with Fabian Society members Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb and Graham Wallas, Shaw founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895 with funding provided by private philanthropy, including a bequest of £20,000 from Henry Hunt Hutchinson to the Fabian Society. One of the libraries at the LSE is named in Shaw's honor; it contains collections of his papers and photographs.[11]

During his final years, Shaw enjoyed attending to the grounds at Shaw's Corner. His death, at 94, from renal failure, was precipitated by injuries incurred by falling while pruning a tree.[12] His ashes, mixed with those of his wife, were scattered along footpaths and around the statue of Saint Joan in their garden.[13]

[edit] Literary works

The International Shaw Society provides a detailed chronological listing of Shaw's writings.[14] See also George Bernard Shaw, Unity Theatre.[15] View Shaw's Works for listings of his novels and plays, with links to their electronic texts, if those exist.

[edit] Work as a critic

Shaw became a critic of the arts when, sponsored by William Archer, he joined the reviewing staff of the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885.[16] There he wrote under the pseudonym "Corno di Bassetto" ("basset horn")—chosen because it sounded European and nobody knew what a corno di basseto was. In a miscellany of other periodicals, including Dramatic Review (1885–86), Our Corner (1885–86), and the Pall Mall Gazette (1885–88) his byline was "GBS".[17] From 1895 to 1898, Shaw was the drama critic for Frank Harris' Saturday Review, in which position he campaigned brilliantly to displace the artificialities and hypocrisies of the Victorian stage with a theater of actuality and thought. His earnings as a critic made him self-supporting as an author and his articles for the Saturday Review made his name well-known.

Much of Shaw's music criticism, ranging from short comments to the book-length essay The Perfect Wagnerite, extols the work of the German composer Richard Wagner.[18] Wagner worked 25 years composing Der Ring des Nibelungen, a massive four-part musical dramatization drawn from the Teutonic mythology of gods, giants, dwarves and Rhine maidens; Shaw considered it a work of genius and reviewed it in detail. Beyond the music, he saw it as an allegory of social evolution where workers, driven by "the invisible whip of hunger", seek freedom from their wealthy masters. Wagner did have socialistic sympathies, as Shaw carefully points out, but made no such claim about his opus. Conversely, Shaw disparaged Brahms, deriding A German Requiem by saying "it could only have come from the establishment of a first-class undertaker".[19] Although he found Brahms lacking in intellect, he praised his musicality, saying "...nobody can listen to Brahms' natural utterance of the richest absolute music, especially in his chamber compositions, without rejoicing in his natural gift".[18] Shaw's writings about music gained great popularity because they were understandable and fair, as well as pleasantly light-hearted and free of affectation, thus contrasting starkly with the dourly pretentious pedantry of most critiques in that era.[20] All of his music critiques have been collected in Shaw's Music.[21]

As the drama critic for the Saturday Review, a post he held from 1895 to 1898, Shaw championed Henrik Ibsen whose realistic plays scandalized the Victorian public. His influential Quintessence of Ibsenism was written in 1891.[22]

[edit] Novels

Shaw wrote five unsuccessful novels at the start of his career between 1879 and 1883. Eventually all were published.

Shaw in 1925, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature

The first to be printed was Cashel Byron's Profession (1886),[23] which was written in 1882. Its eponymous character, Cashel, a rebellious schoolboy with an unsympathetic mother, runs away to Australia where he becomes a famed prizefighter. He returns to England for a boxing match, and falls in love with erudite and wealthy Lydia Carew. Lydia, drawn by sheer animal magnetism, eventually consents to marry despite the disparity of their social positions. This breach of propriety is nullified by the unpresaged discovery that Cashel is of noble lineage and heir to a fortune comparable to Lydia's. With those barriers to happiness removed, the couple settles down to prosaic family life with Lydia dominant; Cashel attains a seat in Parliament. In this novel Shaw first expresses his conviction that productive land and all other natural resources should belong to everyone in common, rather than being owned and exploited privately. The book was written in the year when Shaw first heard the lectures of Henry George who advocated such reforms.

Written in 1883, An Unsocial Socialist was published in 1887.[24] The tale begins with a hilarious description of student antics at a girl's school then changes focus to a seemingly uncouth laborer who, it soon develops, is really a wealthy gentleman in hiding from his overly affectionate wife. He needs the freedom gained by matrimonial truancy to promote the socialistic cause, to which he is an active convert. Once the subject of socialism emerges, it dominates the story, allowing only space enough in the final chapters to excoriate the idle upper class and allow the erstwhile schoolgirls, in their earliest maturity, to marry suitably.

Love Among the Artists was published in the United States in 1900 and in England in 1914,[25] but it was written in 1881. In the ambiance of chit-chat and frivolity among members of Victorian polite society a youthful Shaw describes his views on the arts, romantic love and the practicalities of matrimony. Dilettantes, he thinks, can love and settle down to marriage, but artists with real genius are too consumed by their work to fit that pattern. The dominant figure in the novel is Owen Jack, a musical genius, somewhat mad and quite bereft of social graces. From an abysmal beginning he rises to great fame and is lionized by socialites despite his unremitting crudity.

The Irrational Knot was written in 1880 and published in 1905.[26] Within a framework of leisure class preoccupations and frivolities Shaw disdains hereditary status and proclaims the nobility of workers. Marriage, as the knot in question, is exemplified by the union of Marian Lind, a lady of the upper class, to Edward Conolly, always a workman but now a magnate, thanks to his invention of an electric motor that makes steam engines obsolete. The marriage soon deteriorates, primarily because Marian fails to rise above the preconceptions and limitations of her social class and is, therefore, unable to share her husband's interests. Eventually she runs away with a man who is her social peer, but he proves himself a scoundrel and abandons her in desperate circumstances. Her husband rescues her and offers to take her back, but she pridefully refuses, convinced she is unworthy and certain that she faces life as a pariah to her family and friends. The preface, written when Shaw was 49, expresses gratitude to his parents for their support during the lean years while he learned to write and includes details of his early life in London.

Shaw's first novel, Immaturity, was written in 1879 but was the last one to be printed in 1931.[27] It relates tepid romances, minor misfortunes and subdued successes in the developing career of Robert Smith, an energetic young Londoner and outspoken agnostic. Condemnation of alcoholic behavior is the prime message in the book, and derives from Shaw's familial memories. This is made clear in the books's preface, which was written by the mature Shaw at the time of its belated publication. The preface is a valuable resource because it provides autobiographical details not otherwise available.

[edit] Short stories

Shaw writing in notebook at time of first production of his play Pygmalion.

A collection of Shaw's short stories, The Black Girl in Search of God and Some Lesser Tales, was published in 1934.[28] The Black Girl, an enthusiastic but misguided convert to Christianity, goes searching for God, whom she believes to be an actual person. Written as an allegory, somewhat reminiscent of Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, Shaw uses her adventures to expose flaws and fallacies in the religions of the world. At the story's happy ending, the Black Girl quits her searchings in favor of rearing a family with the aid of a red-haired Irishman who has no metaphysical inclination.

One of the Lesser Tales is The Miraculous Revenge (1885), which relates the misadventures of an alcoholic investigator while he probes the mystery of a graveyard—full of saintly corpses—that migrates across a stream to escape association with the body of a newly buried sinner. The story is so different from Shaw's ordinary style that it is hard to believe he wrote it.

[edit] Plays

The texts of plays by Shaw mentioned in this section, with the dates when they were written and first performed can be found in Complete Plays and Prefaces.[29]  Shaw began working on his first play destined for production, Widowers' Houses, in 1885 in collaboration with critic William Archer, who supplied the structure. Archer decided that Shaw could not write a play, so the project was abandoned. Years later, Shaw tried again and, in 1892, completed the play without collaboration. Widowers' Houses, a scathing attack on slumlords, was first performed at London's Royalty Theatre on 9 December 1892. Shaw would later call it one of his worst works, but he had found his medium. His first significant financial success as a playwright came from Richard Mansfield's American production of The Devil's Disciple (1897). He went on to write 63 plays, most of them full-length.

Often his plays succeeded in the United States and Germany before they did in London. Although major London productions of many of his earlier pieces were delayed for years, they are still being performed there. Examples include Mrs. Warren's Profession (1893), Arms and the Man (1894), Candida (1894) and You Never Can Tell (1897).

Shaw's plays, like those of Oscar Wilde, were fraught with incisive humor, which was exceptional among playwrights of the Victorian era; both authors are remembered for their comedy.[30] However, Shaw's wittiness should not obscure his important role in revolutionizing British drama. In the Victorian Era, the London stage had been regarded as a place for frothy, sentimental entertainment. Shaw made it a forum for considering moral, political and economic issues, possibly his most lasting and important contribution to dramatic art. In this, he considered himself indebted to Henrik Ibsen, who pioneered modern realistic drama, meaning drama designed to heighten awareness of some important social issue. Significantly, Widowers' Houses — an example of the realistic genre — was completed after William Archer, Shaw's friend, had translated some of Ibsen's plays to English and Shaw had written The Quintessence of Ibsensism.[31]

As Shaw's experience and popularity increased, his plays and prefaces became more voluble about reforms he advocated, without diminishing their success as entertainments. Such works, including Caesar and Cleopatra (1898), Man and Superman (1903), Major Barbara (1905) and The Doctor's Dilemma (1906), display Shaw's matured views, for he was approaching 50 when he wrote them. From 1904 to 1907, several of his plays had their London premieres in notable productions at the Court Theatre, managed by Harley Granville-Barker and J. E. Vedrenne. The first of his new plays to be performed at the Court Theatre, John Bull's Other Island (1904), while not especially popular today, made his reputation in London when King Edward VII laughed so hard during a command performance that he broke his chair.[32]

By the 1910s, Shaw was a well-established playwright. New works such as Fanny's First Play (1911) and Pygmalion (1912)—on which the award-winning My Fair Lady (1956) is based—had long runs in front of large London audiences. A musical adaptation of Arms and the Man (1894)—The Chocolate Soldier by Oscar Straus (1908)—was also very popular, but Shaw detested it and, for the rest of his life, forbade musicalization of his work, including a proposed Franz Lehár operetta based on Pygmalion; the Broadway musical My Fair Lady could be produced only after Shaw's death.

Shaw's outlook was changed by World War I, which he uncompromisingly opposed despite incurring outrage from the public as well as from many friends. His first full-length piece, presented after the War, written mostly during it, was Heartbreak House (1919). A new Shaw had emerged—the wit remained, but his faith in humanity had dwindled. In the preface to Heartbreak House he said:

"It is said that every people has the Government it deserves. It is more to the point that every Government has the electorate it deserves; for the orators of the front bench can edify or debauch an ignorant electorate at will. Thus our democracy moves in a vicious circle of reciprocal worthiness and unworthiness."[33]

The movable hut in the garden of Shaw's Corner, where Shaw wrote most of his works after 1906, including Pygmalion.

Shaw had previously supported gradual democratic change toward socialism, but now he saw more hope in government by benign strong men. This sometimes made him oblivious to the dangers of dictatorships. Near his life's end that hope failed him too. In the first act of Buoyant Billions (1946–48), his last full-length play, his protagonist asks:

"Why appeal to the mob when ninetyfive per cent of them do not understand politics, and can do nothing but mischief without leaders? And what sort of leaders do they vote for? For Titus Oates and Lord George Gordon with their Popish plots, for Hitlers who call on them to exterminate Jews, for Mussolinis who rally them to nationalist dreams of glory and empire in which all foreigners are enemies to be subjugated."[34]

In 1921, Shaw completed Back to Methuselah, his "Metabiological Pentateuch". The massive, five-play work starts in the Garden of Eden and ends thousands of years in the future; it showcases Shaw's postulate that a "Life Force" directs evolution toward ultimate perfection by trial and error. Shaw proclaimed the play a masterpiece, but many critics disagreed. The theme of a benign force directing evolution reappears in Geneva (1938), wherein Shaw maintains humans must develop longer lifespans in order to acquire the wisdom needed for self-government.

Methuselah was followed by Saint Joan (1923), which is generally considered to be one of his better works. Shaw had long considered writing about Joan of Arc, and her canonization supplied a strong incentive. The play was an international success, and is believed to have led to his Nobel Prize in Literature. He wrote plays for the rest of his life, but very few of them are as notable—or as often revived—as his earlier work. The Apple Cart (1929) was probably his most popular work of this era. Later full-length plays like Too True to Be Good (1931), On the Rocks (1933), The Millionairess (1935), and Geneva (1938) have been seen as marking a decline. His last significant play, In Good King Charles Golden Days has, according to St. John Ervine,[35] passages that are equal to Shaw's major works.

Shaw's published plays come with lengthy prefaces. These tend to be more about Shaw's opinions on the issues addressed by the plays than about the plays themselves. Often his prefaces are longer than the plays they introduce. For example, the Penguin Books edition of his one-act The Shewing-up Of Blanco Posnet (1909) has a 67-page preface for the 29-page playscript.

[edit] Polemical writing

In a letter to Henry James dated 17 January 1909,[36] Shaw said:

"I, as a Socialist, have had to preach, as much as anyone, the enormous power of the environment. We can change it; we must change it; there is absolutely no other sense in life than the task of changing it. What is the use of writing plays, what is the use of writing anything, if there is not a will which finally moulds chaos itself into a race of gods."[37]

Thus he viewed writing as a way to further his humanitarian and political agendas. His works were very popular because of their comedic content, but the public tended to disregard his messages and enjoy his work as pure entertainment. He was acutely aware of that. His preface to Heartbreak House (1919) attributes the rejection to the need of post-World War I audiences for frivolities, after four long years of grim privation, more than to their inborn distaste of instruction. His crusading nature led him to adopt and tenaciously hold a variety of causes, which he furthered with fierce intensity, heedless of opposition and ridicule. For example, Common Sense about the War (1914) lays out Shaw's strong objections at the onset of World War I.[38] His stance ran counter to public sentiment and cost him dearly at the box-office, but he never compromised.[39]

Shaw joined in the public opposition to vaccination against smallpox, calling it "a particularly filthy piece of witchcraft",[40][41] despite having nearly died from the disease when he contracted it in 1881. In the preface to Doctor’s Dilemma he made it plain he regarded traditional medical treatment as dangerous quackery that should be replaced with sound public sanitation, good personal hygiene and diets devoid of meat. Shaw became a vegetarian while he was twenty-five, after hearing a lecture by H. F. Lester.[42] In 1901, remembering the experience, he said "I was a cannibal for twenty-five years. For the rest I have been a vegetarian."[43] As a staunch vegetarian, he was a firm anti-vivisectionist and antagonistic to cruel sports for the remainder of his life. The belief in the immorality of eating animals was one of the Fabian causes near his heart and is frequently a topic in his plays and prefaces. His position, succinctly stated, was "A man of my spiritual intensity does not eat corpses."[44]

As well as plays and prefaces, Shaw wrote long political treatises, such as Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889),[45] and The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1912),[46] a 495-page book detailing all aspects of socialistic theory as Shaw interpreted it. Excerpts of the latter were republished in 1928 as Socialism and Liberty,[47] Late in his life he wrote another guide to political issues, Everybody's Political What's What (1944).

[edit] Friends and correspondents

Shaw corresponded with an array of people, many of them well-known. His letters to and from Mrs. Patrick Campbell were adapted for the stage by Jerome Kilty as Dear Liar: A Comedy of Letters,[48] as was his correspondence with the poet Lord Alfred 'Bosie' Douglas (the intimate friend of Oscar Wilde), into the drama Bernard and Bosie: A Most Unlikely Friendship by Anthony Wynn. His letters to the prominent actress, Ellen Terry,[49] to the boxer Gene Tunney,[50] and to H.G. Wells,[51] have also been published. Eventually the volume of his correspondence became insupportable, as can be inferred from apologetic letters written by assistants.[52] Shaw campaigned against the executions of the rebel leaders of the Easter Rising, and he became a personal friend of the Cork-born IRA leader Michael Collins, whom he invited to his home for dinner while Collins was negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Lloyd George in London. After Collins's assassination in 1922, Shaw sent a personal message of condolence to one of Collins's sisters. He had an enduring friendship with G. K. Chesterton, the Roman Catholic-convert British writer.[53]

Another friend was the composer Edward Elgar. The latter dedicated one of his late works, Severn Suite, to Shaw; and Shaw exerted himself (eventually with success) to persuade the BBC to commission from Elgar a third symphony, though this piece remained incomplete at Elgar's death. Shaw's correspondence with the motion picture producer Gabriel Pascal, who was the first to successfully bring Shaw's plays to the screen and who later tried to put into motion a musical adaptation of Pygmalion, but died before he could realize it, is published in a book titled Bernard Shaw and Gabriel Pascal. A stage play based on a book by Hugh Whitmore, The Best of Friends, provides a window on the friendships of Dame Laurentia McLachlan, OSB (late Abbess of Stanbrook) with Sir Sydney Cockerell and Shaw through adaptations from their letters and writings.

[edit] Socialism and political beliefs

Shaw asserted that each social class strove to serve its own ends, and that the upper and middle classes won in the struggle while the working class lost. He condemned the democratic system of his time, saying that workers, ruthlessly exploited by greedy employers, lived in abject poverty and were too ignorant and apathetic to vote intelligently.[54] He believed this deficiency would ultimately be corrected by the emergence of long-lived supermen with experience and intelligence enough to govern properly. He called the developmental process elective breeding but it is sometimes referred to as shavian eugenics, largely because he thought it was driven by a "Life Force" that led women—subconsciously—to select the mates most likely to give them superior children.[55] The outcome Shaw envisioned is dramatised in Back to Methuselah, a monumental play depicting human development from its beginning in the Garden of Eden until the distant future.[56]

In 1882, influenced by Henry George's views on land nationalization, Shaw concluded that private ownership of land and its exploitation for personal profit was a form of theft, and advocated equitable distribution of land and natural resources and their control by governments intent on promoting the commonwealth. Shaw believed that income for individuals should come solely from the sale of their own labour and that poverty could be eliminated by giving equal pay to everyone. These concepts led Shaw to apply for membership of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), led by H. M. Hyndman who introduced him to the works of Karl Marx. Shaw never joined the SDF, which favoured forcible reforms. Instead, in 1884, he joined the newly formed Fabian Society, which accorded with his belief that reform should be gradual and induced by peaceful means rather than by outright revolution.[57] Shaw was an active Fabian. He wrote many of their pamphlets,[45] lectured tirelessly on behalf of their causes and provided money to set up the The New Age, an independent socialist journal. As a Fabian, he participated in the formation of the Labour Party. The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism[46] provides a clear statement of his socialistic views. As evinced in plays like Major Barbara and Pygmalion, class struggle is a motif in much of Shaw's writing.

Shaw opposed the execution of Sir Roger Casement in 1916. He wrote a letter "as an Irishman"[58] to The Times, which they rejected, but it was subsequently printed by both the Manchester Guardian on 22 July 1916, and by the New York American on 13 August 1916.

After visiting the USSR in the 1930s where he met Stalin, Shaw became an ardent supporter of the Stalinist USSR. The preface to his play On the Rocks (1933) is primarily an effort to justify the pogroms conducted by the State Political Directorate (OGPU). In an open letter to the Manchester Guardian, he dismisses stories of a Soviet famine as slanderous and calls reports of its exploited workers falsehoods.[59] He wrote a defense of Stalin's espousal of Lysenkoism in a letter to Labour Monthly.[60]

[edit] Legacy

A statue of Shaw in Niagara-on-the-Lake

In his old age, Shaw was a household name both in Britain and Ireland, and was famed throughout the world. His ironic wit endowed English with the adjective "Shavian", used to characterize observations such as: "My way of joking is to tell the truth. It's the funniest joke in the world." Concerned about the vagaries of English spelling, Shaw willed a portion of his wealth (probated at £367,233 13s)[61] to fund the creation of a new phonemic alphabet for the English language.[62] However, the money available was insufficient to support the project, so it was neglected for a time. This changed when his estate began earning significant royalties from the rights to Pygmalion, once My Fair Lady—a musical adapted from the play by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe—became a hit. However, the Public Trustee found the intended trust to be invalid because its intent was to serve a private interest instead of a charitable purpose, and as a non-charitable purpose trust, it could not be enforced because it failed to satisfy the beneficiary principle.[63] In the end an out-of-court settlement granted only £8600 for promoting the new alphabet, which is now called the Shavian alphabet. The National Gallery of Ireland, RADA and the British Museum all received substantial bequests.

Shaw's home, now called Shaw's Corner, in the small village of Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire is a National Trust property, open to the public.[64] The Shaw Theatre, Euston Road, London, opened in 1971, was named in his honour.[65] Near its entrance, opposite the new British Library, a contemporary statue of Saint Joan commemorates Shaw as author of that play.

The Shaw Festival, an annual theater festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, began as an eight week run of Don Juan in Hell (as the long third act dream sequence of Man And Superman is called when staged alone) and Candida in 1962, and has grown into an annual festival with over 800 performances a year, dedicated to producing the works of Shaw and his contemporaries.[66]

He is also remembered as one of the pivotal founders of the London School of Economics, whose library is now called the British Library of Political and Economic Science. The Fabian Window designed by Shaw, hangs in the Shaw Library in the main building of the LSE.

[edit] Works

[edit] Novels

[edit] Short stories

[edit] Drama

[edit] Essays

  • Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891)
  • The Perfect Wagnerite, Commentary on the Ring (1898)
  • Maxims for Revolutionists (1903)
  • Preface to Major Barbara (1905)
  • How to Write a Popular Play (1909)
  • Treatise on Parents and Children (1910)
  • Common Sense about the War (1914)
  • The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1928)

[edit] Debate

  • Shaw v. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and G. K. Chesterton (2000) Third Way Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-9535077-7-7
  • Do We Agree, a debate between G. B. Shaw and G. K. Chesterton with Hilaire Belloc as chairman (1928)

[edit] References and footnotes

  1. ^ Bernard is pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
  2. ^ Gibbs, A. M. (2005). Bernard Shaw: A Life (pp. 375–376). Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. pp. 554. ISBN 0-8130-2859-0. 
  3. ^ George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), Anglo-Irish playwright, critic. Letter, August 7, 1919, to Thomas Demetrius O'Bolger. Sixteen Self Sketches: Biographers' Blunders Corrected, pp. 89–90. Constable and Co., London (1949)
  4. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1914). Misalliance, the Dark Lady of the Sonnets, and Fanny's First Play. With a Treatise on Parents and Children. London: Constable and Co.. pp. 210. 
  5. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1988). Bernard Shaw Vol. I, pp. 49–51. New York: Random House. pp. 486. ISBN 0-394-52577-9. 
  6. ^ a b Mazer, Cary M.. "Bernard Shaw: a Brief Biography". University of Pennsylvania's English Department. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  7. ^ Morrow, Laurie. "The Playwright in Spite of Himself". The World & I. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
  8. ^ Minney, R. J. (1969). The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw, p. 18. London: Leslie Frewin. pp. 223. ISBN 09096280 X. 
  9. ^ Pease, Edward R.; Paavo Cajander (trans.) (2004). The History of the Fabian Society. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2008-03-30. 
  10. ^ Laurence, Dan H. (1965). Bernard Shaw: Collected Letters, 1874–1897. London & Beccles: William Clowes & Sons, Ltd.. Introduction xi. 
  11. ^ "Bernard Shaw papers at LSE Archives". London School of Economics Library. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  12. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1991). Bernard Shaw. The Lure of Fantasy: 1918–1951. Random House, New York. pp. pp.509–511. ISBN 0-394-57554-7(v.3). 
  13. ^ Holyroyd, p. 515.
  14. ^ Pharand, Michael (2004). "Chronology of (Shaw's) Works". International Shaw Society. Retrieved on 2007-08-15. 
  15. ^ "George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)". Unity Theatre. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  16. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Sixteen Self Sketches: Nine Years of Failure as a Novelist Ending in Success as Critic. (pp. 39–41). London: Constable and Company, Ltd.. pp. 133. 
  17. ^ Cox, Gareth. "Shaw and the Don". Limerick Philosophical Society. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  18. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1909). The Perfect Wagnerite. New York: Brentano's. Brahms p. 143. 
  19. ^ Thuleen, Nancy. "Ein deutsches Requiem: Misconceptions of the Mass". Nancy Thuleen's Official Website. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  20. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1988). Bernard Shaw, Volume I (1856-1898). New York: Random House. pp. pp.230–246. ISBN 0-394-52577-9. 
  21. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1981). Laurence, Dan H.. ed. Shaw's Music. London: Bodley Head Ltd. ISBN 0370302494. 
  22. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1891). The Quintessence of Ibsenism. New York: Brentano's. 
  23. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1886). Cashel Byron's Profession. London: The Modern Press. 
  24. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1887). An Unsocial Socialist. London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowry & Co.. 
  25. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1900 & 1914). Love Among the Artists. Chicago & London: Herbert Stone & Co.. 
  26. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1905). The Irrational Knot, Being the Second Novel of His Nonage (revised). New York: Brentano's. 
  27. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1931). Immaturity. London: Constable. 
  28. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1934). The Black Girl in Search of God and Some Lesser Tales. London: Constable. pp. 305. 
  29. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1963). Complete Plays and Prefaces, Volumes I–VI. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. 
  30. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1991). Bernard Shaw Vol. III The Lure of Fantasy (pp. 190–194). New York: Random House, Inc.. pp. 544. ISBN 0-394-57554-7. 
  31. ^ Minney, R. J. (1969). The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw (pp. 66–7). London: Leslie Frewin Publishers, Ltd.. pp. 223. ISBN 0-0909-6280-X. 
  32. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1997). Bernard Shaw. The One-Volume Definitive Edition (p. 311). New York: Random House, Inc.. pp. 833. ISBN 0-0909-6280-X. 
  33. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; The Public Trustee (Executor of Shaw's Estate) (1962). Bernard Shaw: Complete Works with Prefaces, Volume I, p.452. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 804. 
  34. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; The Public Trustee (Executor of Shaw's Estate) (1962). Bernard Shaw: Complete Works with Prefaces, Volume I, Act I p. 757. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 804. 
  35. ^ Ervine, St. John (1949). Bernard Shaw: His Life, Work and Friends. London: Constable and Company Limited. pp. 383. 
  36. ^ Shaw, Bernard; Dan H. Laurence (editor) (1972). Collected Letters, 1898–1910. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 827–8. 
  37. ^ "George Bernard Shaw". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  38. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (November 29, 1914), "Common Sense About the War", The New York Times, 
  39. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1989). Bernard Shaw Vol. II The Pursuit of Power (p. 354). New York: Random House, Inc.. pp. 420. ISBN 0-394-57553-9. 
  40. ^ "Smallpox Resistance". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
  41. ^ Tucker, Jonathan B. (2002). Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. Berkeley, California: Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-87113-830-1. 
  42. ^ Henderson, Archibald (1956). George Bernard Shaw: Man of the Century. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc.. 
  43. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Who I am, and What I think: Sixteen Self Sketches. Constable. 
  44. ^ Pearson, Hesketh (1963). Bernard Shaw: His Life and Personality. Atheneum Press. 
  45. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1889). Fabian Essays in Socialism. New York: The Humboldt Publishing Co.. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  46. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1928). Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Communism. New York: Bretano's Publishers. 
  47. ^ "Socialism and Liberty". Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
  48. ^ Kilty, Jerome (1960). Dear liar; a comedy of letters adapted by Jerome Kilty from the correspondence of Bernard Shaw and Mrs. Patrick Campbell. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 95. 
  49. ^ St. John, Cristopher (1931). Ellen Terry and Bernard Shaw: A Correspondence. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons: Knickerbocker Press. pp. 334. 
  50. ^ Green, Benny (1978). Shaw’s champions : G. B. S. & prizefighting from Cashel Byron to Gene Tunney. London: Elm Tree Books. pp. 210. ISBN 0241897351. 
  51. ^ Smith (Editor), J. Percy (1995). Bernard Shaw and H.G. Wells. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 242. ISBN 0802030017. 
  52. ^ "Mr. Shaw regrets". Boston College Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  53. ^ The e-text of their famed debate, Shaw V. Chesterton is available, as is a book, Shaw V. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and G. K. Chesterton.
  54. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1930). An UnsocialSocialist. New York: Wm. H. Wise & Company. pp. 269. 
  55. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; Lewis Casson (Intro.) (1969). Man and Superman. New York: Heritage Press. 
  56. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (2007). Back to Methuselah—a Metabiological Penateuch. Hicks press. pp. 388. ISBN 1408631040. 
  57. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Sixteen Self Sketches: How I Became a Public Speaker, p. 58. London: Constable and Company, Ltd.. pp. 133. 
  58. ^ Shaw, GB. "Letter from GB Shaw". Stephen-Stratford. Retrieved on 2008-09-26. 
  59. ^ "Letters to the Editor: Social Conditions in Russia by George Bernard Shaw, published in The Manchester Guardian, 2 March 1933". Gareth Jones' Memorial Website. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  60. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (January 1949), "The Lysenko Muddle", Labour Monthly, 
  61. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1998). Bernard Shaw: A Biography. Vintage. 
  62. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1997). Bernard Shaw: The One-Volume Definitive Edition, Appendix (p.794). New York: Random House, Inc.. pp. 833. ISBN 0-375-50049-9. 
  63. ^ Mowbray Q.C., John. "Chapter 03: Trusts Created Expressly". Todd & Watt's Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 2008-04-09. 
  64. ^ The National Trust, Shaw's Corner,, retrieved on 2006-04-09 .
  65. ^ Off Westend Theatres, London, Shaw's Theatre,, retrieved on 2006-04-09 .
  66. ^ Holmes (editor), Katherine (1986). Celebrating Twenty-Five Years on the Stage at the Shaw Festival. Erin Canada: Boston Mills Press. pp. 64. ISBN 0-919783-48-1. 

[edit] Bibliography

  • Barzun, Jacques. “A Jacques Barzun Reader: Selections from his works”. Harper Collins, 2002
  • Brown, G.E. “George Bernard Shaw”. Evans Brothers Ltd, 1970
  • Chappelow, Alan. "Shaw the Villager and Human Being — a Biographical symposium", with a preface by Dame Sybil Thorndike, (1962). "Shaw — the 'Chucker-Out", 1969. ISBN 0-4040-8359-5
  • Evans, T.F. “Shaw: The Critical heritage”. The Critical Heritage series. Routlege & Kegan Paul, 1976
  • Gibbs, A.M (Ed.). “Shaw: Interviews and Recollections”.
  • Gibbs, A.M. "Bernard Shaw, A Life". University of Florida Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8130-2859-0
  • Henderson, Archibald. “Bernard Shaw: Playboy and Prophet”. D. Appleton & Co., 1932
  • Holroyd, Michael (Etd). “The Genius of Shaw: A symposium”, Hodder & Stoughton, 1979
  • Holroyd, Michael. "Bernard Shaw: The One-Volume Definitive Edition", Random House, 1998. ISBN 978-0393327182
  • Hubenka, Lloyd J. (Editor). “Bernard Shaw: Practical Politics: Twentieth-century views on politics and economics”. University of Nebraska Press, 1976
  • Minney, R.J. “The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw”. London, Frewin, 1969. ISBN 0-0909-6280-X
  • Ohmann, Richard M. "Shaw: The Style and the Man". Wesleyan University Press, 1962. ASIN: B000OKX9H2
  • Owen, Harold. “Common sense about the Shaw”. George Allen and Unwin, 1915
  • Peters, Sally. “Bernard Shaw: The Ascent of the Superman”. Yale University Press, 1996 ISBN 978-0300060973
  • Rider, Dan. “Adventures with Bernard Shaw”. Morley and Mitchell Kennerley Junior.
  • Smith, J. Percy. “Unrepentant Pilgrim: A study of the development of Bernard Shaw”. Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1965
  • Strauss, E. “Bernard Shaw: Art and Socialism”. Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1942
  • Weintraub, Stanley. “Bernard Shaw 1914–1918: Journey to Heartbreak”. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973
  • Weintraub, Stanley. “The Unexpected Shaw: Biographical approaches to G.B.S and his work”. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, 1982 ISBN 080442974X
  • West, Alick. “A good man fallen among Fabians: A study of George Bernard Shaw” Lawrence and Wishart, 1974 ISBN 9780853152880
  • Watson, Barbara Bellow: “A Shavian Guide to the intelligent women”. Chatto and Windus, 1964
  • Wilson, Colin. "Bernard Shaw: A Reassessment". Athenum, 1969.
  • Winsten, Stephen. “Jesting Apostle: The Life of Bernard Shaw”. Hutchinson and Co Ltd, 1956
  • Winsten, Stephen. “Salt and his circle: With a preface by Bernard Shaw”. Hutchinson and Co Ltd, 1951

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:

NAME Shaw, George Bernard
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish playwright, critic, and political activist
DATE OF BIRTH 26 July, 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH November 2, 1950
PLACE OF DEATH Ayot St Lawrence
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