Table of keyboard shortcuts

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In computing, a keyboard shortcut is any of various finite sequences of input on an input device which, when activated, cause a command or function to be invoked by software or the operating system on a computer. Keyboard shortcuts are typically an alternate means for invoking one or more commands that would otherwise be accessible only through navigating one or more levels of a user interface or command console.

Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously.


[edit] Comparison of keyboard shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts (or key bindings) are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for Adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

[edit] Desktop shortcuts

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Activate Menu bar Alt, or F10 Ctrl+F2
File menu Alt+F Alt+F Alt+F
Edit menu Alt+E Alt+E Alt+E
View menu Alt+V Alt+V Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z ⌘ Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+Z
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Z ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Z ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Z
Cut the selected area and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X, or ⇧ Shift+Del ⌘ Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+X
Copy the selected area into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins ⌘ Cmd+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V, or ⇧ Shift+Ins ⌘ Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+V
Paste special Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V
Select everything in focused control or window Ctrl+A ⌘ Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+A

[edit] Text editing

Many of these commands may be combined with ⇧ Shift to select a region of text. [1]

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
start of line Home ⌘ Cmd+ Home Home
end of line End ⌘ Cmd+ End End
start of document Ctrl + Home Home (scroll only, cursor not moved) Ctrl + Home Ctrl + Home
end of document Ctrl + End End (scroll only, cursor not moved) Ctrl + End Ctrl + End
previous word Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ Ctrl+
next word Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+ Ctrl+
previous line break Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword) Ctrl+
next line break Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword) Ctrl+

[edit] Web browsers

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Bookmarks menu Alt+B ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B Alt+B Alt+B
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) Ctrl+↵ Enter ⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter Ctrl+↵ Enter Ctrl+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) ⇧ Shift +↵ Enter ⇧ Shift +↵ Enter ⇧ Shift +↵ Enter ⇧ Shift +↵ Enter
Add a bookmark for the current location Ctrl+D ⌘ Cmd+D Ctrl+B Ctrl+D
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B (Safari) Ctrl+B
Reload page from cache F5, or Ctrl+R ⌘ Cmd+R Ctrl+R
Reload page bypassing cache Ctrl+F5, or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+R F5 Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R

[edit] Go menu

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Go to Browser ⌘ Cmd+L
Go to the previous location in history Alt+ or ← Backspace(Internet Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+[ or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ ⌘ Cmd+] or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+(Vista only) or ← Backspace(Windows Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home ⌘ Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home Alt+Home
Go back a page ⌘ Cmd+{

[edit] Text formatting

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Make selected text bold/regular Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B Ctrl+B Ctrl+B
Toggle underlining of selected text Ctrl+U ⌘ Cmd+U Ctrl+U Ctrl+U
Make selected text italic/regular Ctrl+I ⌘ Cmd+I Ctrl+I Ctrl+I
Change to upper/lower case ⇧ Shift+F3 ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+C
Make selected text superscript Ctrl+⇧ Shift++
Make selected text subscript Ctrl++

[edit] Window management

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Switch to next/previous focused window Alt+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ⇆

⌘ Cmd+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Tab ⇆

Alt+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ⇆

Alt+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ⇆

Switch focus to the next/previous window (without dialog) Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Esc

Ctrl+F4 or ⌘ Cmd+` Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Esc

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktop Ctrl+Alt+Tab ⇆ / ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab ⇆
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog) Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Esc

Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Alt+Space then C or Ctrl + W ⌘ Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+F5
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M then Arrow Keys Alt+F7
Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S then Arrow Keys Alt+F8
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N ⌘ Cmd+M Win+- Alt+F9
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X Win++ Alt+F10
Maximize horizontally Win+=
Maximize vertically Win+Space
Minimize all Win+M ⌘ Cmd+Alt+M Ctrl+Alt+D Ctrl+Alt+D
Undo minimize all ⇧ Shift+Win+M Ctrl+Alt+D Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11 F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window ⌘ Cmd+M Win+_ Alt+F12
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace win+ctrl+arrow keys ⇧ Shift+Alt+Left / Right / Up / Down
Move window to desktop X Win+Alt+FX
Switch to next/previous desktop Ctrl+Right /

Ctrl+Left (Leopard)

Win+Tab ⇆ /

Win+⇧ Shift+Tab ⇆

Switch to next/previous desktop list Ctrl+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Tab ⇆

Go to desktop X Ctrl+FX /

⇧ Shift+Ctrl+FX

Go to left/right/up/down desktop Ctrl+Alt+Left /

Right / Up / Down

Show / hide desktop Win+D F11 Ctrl+Alt+D Ctrl+Alt+D
Activate window demanding attention Ctrl+Alt+A
Kill window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies [2] ⌘ Cmd+Q [3] Ctrl+Alt+Esc
Close dialog Esc Esc

[edit] Widget navigation

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab ⇆ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ⇆ Tab ⇆ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ⇆ Tab ⇆ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ⇆
Pop up tooltip for currently focused control ⇧ Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control ⇧ Shift+F1 ⌘ Cmd+? ⇧ Shift+F1 ⇧ Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 / Alt+F6 ⌘ Cmd+` F6 / ⇧ Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window's menu bar F10 or Alt Ctrl+F2 Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects ⇧ Shift+F10 or Menu Menu ⇧ Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc. ↵ Enter ↵ Enter ↵ Enter ↵ Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widget Home / End Home / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown

[edit] Tab management

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Create new tab Ctrl+T ⌘ Cmd+T Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N or Ctrl+T Ctrl+T
Close current tab Ctrl+W ⌘ Cmd+W Ctrl+W
Go to next/previous tab Ctrl+Tab ⇆ / Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ⇆ ⌘ Cmd+{ / ⌘ Cmd+} or ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+Left / ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+Right (Safari) Ctrl+, / Ctrl+. Ctrl+PageUp / Ctrl+PageDown

[edit] Desktop navigation

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS KDE GNOME
Run new application Win+R Alt+F2 Alt+F2
Open new browser window with same page as current Ctrl+N ⌘ Cmd+N (Non-default user option in Safari)
Start menu / Applications menu Win or Ctrl+Esc ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+A Alt+F1 Alt+F1
Copy a screenshot to clipboard Print Screen or Ctrl+Print Screen ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+⇧ Shift+3 (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3 to create as a file on the desktop) Ctrl+Print Print
Copy a screenshot of window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+⇧ Shift+4 then Space (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4 to create as a file on the desktop) Alt+Print Alt+Print
Lock desktop Win+L or Ctrl+Alt+Space Ctrl+Alt+L Ctrl+Alt+L
Show desktop Win+D F11 Ctrl+Alt+D Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch active user Win+L [4] Ctrl+Alt+L
Task manager Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc, Ctrl+Alt+Delete[5] ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Esc Ctrl+Esc
Rename file F2 ↵ Enter F2 F2

[edit] Command line shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.

Action Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands / / / ESC K/ESC J
Signal end-of-file Ctrl+Z Ctrl+D
Abort current command/typing Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Erase word to the left Ctrl+W
Erase word to the right Alt+D
Erase line to the left Esc Ctrl+U
Erase line to the right Esc Ctrl+End Ctrl+K
Move one word to the left (backward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+F
Move to beginning of line Home Home Ctrl+A
Move to end of line End End Ctrl+E
Reverse search of history F7 F8 Ctrl+R
Send current job to the background Ctrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatim Ctrl+V
Autocomplete command/file name Tab ⇆ (if enabled eg. via TweakUI) Tab ⇆ Tab ⇆ (usually twice) Esc (usually twice)

[edit] User interface shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used to select a User interface (UI).

Action Microsoft Windows Linux
X11 compiz
Mac OS X
CLI Ctrl+Alt+F1
GUI Ctrl+Alt+F7
GPU enhanced GUI

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ For the concept of "selected text" see also X Window selection
  2. ^ There is no single consistent shortcut for closing a document or quitting an application in Windows XP. In many multiple document interface applications, Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 closes a document and Alt+F4 quits. In other applications where each document is in its own window, such as later versions of Microsoft Word, Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4, and Alt+F4 close a document, and there is no consistent shortcut for quitting an application.
  3. ^ Mac OS uses ⌘ Cmd+W Close (window), ⌘ Cmd+Q Quit (application) and ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Esc Force Quit (application). Quit is closest to Kill.
  4. ^ Takes you to the "Switch User" screen when Fast User Switching has been enabled (enabled by default in XP).
  5. ^ Shows task manager in Windows XP if the welcome screen is enabled. Otherwise displays an NT-style menu, with the option of launching the task manager. Same with Vista, but with a prettier menu.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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