Vector Markup Language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Vector Markup Language
Filename extension .htm or .html
Developed by Microsoft
Type of format Vector image format
Extended from XML
Standard(s) Part of ECMA-376 and ISO/IEC 29500:2008
Website ECMA-376,
ISO/IEC 29500:2008

Vector Markup Language (VML) is an XML language used to produce vector graphics. VML was submitted as a proposed standard to the W3C in 1998 by Microsoft, Macromedia, and others.[1] Around the same time other competing W3C submissions were received in the area of web vector graphics, such as PGML from Adobe Systems, Sun Microsystems, and others.[2] As a result of these submissions, a new W3C working group was created, which produced SVG.

Even though largely ignored by developers, Microsoft still implemented VML in Internet Explorer 5.0 and higher and in Microsoft Office 2000 and higher.

Google Maps currently uses VML to make vector paths work when running on Internet Explorer 5.5+, and SVG on all other browsers.[3]

The Vector Markup Language is now specified in Part 4 of the Office Open XML standards ISO/IEC 29500:2008 and ECMA-376.[4][5]


[edit] Example

The following code displays an oval filled in blue in recent versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer:

VML oval in Internet Explorer
<html xmlns:v="VML">
 <v:oval style="left:0;top:0;width:100;height:50" fillcolor="blue" stroked="f"/>

The Scalable Vector Graphics equivalent for this code would be:

How this example would look in any capable viewer
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1//EN"
<svg xmlns="" width="100" height="50">
  <ellipse cx="50" cy="25" rx="50" ry="25" fill="blue" stroke="none" />

One difference between the two is that VML uses CSS inside a style attribute for positions and sizes as well as presentation details such as colour and style, whereas SVG uses XML attributes for positions and sizes, and may use CSS stylesheets or XML attributes for presentation and style.[6]

[edit] Software

VML is used by most Microsoft Office applications, such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Visio etc to create online files, while using the 'Save As HTML' option (plain HTML or MHT). Such files retain complete vector information, and can be reopened for editing using other Microsoft applications, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. VML is natively supported by Microsoft's Internet Explorer within inline HTML using an undefined version of SGML namespaces; SVG is natively supported by Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Safari either separately or inline with XHTML using a W3C standard XML namespace.[7]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Personal tools