List of English monarchs

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The Royal Arms of England, as introduced by King Richard the Lionheart in 1198, and before its later quarterings with other shields, additions of supporters and other embellishments.

The first person to assume the title King of the English was apparently Offa of Mercia, though his power did not survive him. In the 9th century the kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825, became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England. The conquest of Northumbria, East Anglia and half of Mercia by the Danes left Alfred the Great of Wessex as the only surviving English king by 885. He successfully resisted a series of Danish invasions and brought the remaining half of Mercia under the sovereignty of Wessex.

The continuous list of English monarchs traditionally begins with Egbert of Wessex in 829. The English kingdom was not permanently unified until 954, under Eadred. The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 and, in 1301, Edward invested his eldest son, Edward of Caernarfon, as Prince of Wales. Since that time, with the exception of Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. After the death of Elizabeth I of England in 1603, the crowns of England and Scotland were united under James I and VI. By royal proclamation James titled himself 'King of Great Britain'. England underwent political union with Scotland in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Since that date the title King or Queen of England is incorrect, though has remained in usage to the present day. In 1801 Great Britain incorporated the Kingdom of Ireland which had been under English rule since Henry II.


[edit] House of Mercia

According to some sources the first ruler to assume the title King of the English is said to have been Offa in 774, who had been King of Mercia since 757, but this claim is based on charters apparently forged in the 10th century.[1] However, on some of his coins Offa describes himself as Of Rx A, believed to stand for Offa Rex Anglorum.[2]

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Offa son of Thingfrith Cynethryth
five children
26 or 29 July 796

[edit] House of Wessex

The continuous list traditionally starts with Egbert, King of Wessex from 802, the first King of Wessex to have overlordship over much of England.[3] He defeated the Mercians in 825 and became Bretwalda in 829. However, permanent unity was not achieved until 927, under Athelstan.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Egbert c.775[5]
son of Ealhmund of Kent[4]
three children[4]
4 February 839
aged about 64[4]
5 February
Ethelwulf Aachen
son of Egbert and Redburga
(1) Osburga
six children
(2) Judith of Flanders
1 October 853
no children
13 January 858
62 or 63[3]
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
Judith of Flanders
no children
20 December 860
aged about 29[3]
21 December
Coin of Ethelbert c.835
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
two children
aged about 30[3]
Coin of Ethelred c.837
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
two children
23 April 871
aged about 34[3]
Alfred the Great
24 April
Statue of Alfred the Great in Wantage c.849
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga[7]
six children[8]
26 October 899
aged about 50[6]
Edward the Elder
27 October
Edward the Elder c.871-877
son of Alfred the Great and Ealhswith[10]
(1) Ecgwynn
three children
(2) Aelffaed
ten children
(3) Edgiva of Kent
four children[11]
17 July 924
Farndon, Cheshire
aged about 50[9]
18 July -
2 August 924[12]
Succession uncertain / disputed
No image
son of Edward the Elder and Aelffaed
unmarried 2 August 924
aged about 22
Athelstan the Glorious
3 August
The tomb of King Athelstan in Malmesbury Abbey 895
son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn[14]
unmarried[13] 27 October 939
aged about 44[13]
Edmund the Magnificent
28 October
Imaginary portrait of Edmund I c.921
son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent[15]
(1) Elgiva
three children
(2) Æthelflæd of Damerham
no children[16]
26 May 946
aged about 25 (murdered)[15]
27 May
Imaginary line engraving of Edred made by un unknown engraver after an unknown artist c.923
son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent[18]
unmarried[18] 23 November 955
aged about 32[19]
24 November
Line engraving of Edwy made by an unknown engraver after an unknown artist c.940
son of Edmund the Magnificent and Ælfgifu[21]
Ælfgifu[20] 1 October 959
aged about 19[20]
Edgar the Peaceable
2 October
King Edgar of England c.943
son of Edmund the Magnificent and Elgiva[23]
(1) Ethelflaed
1 son
(2) Ælfthryth
2 sons
8 July 975
aged about 32[24]
Saint Edward the Martyr
9 July
St. Edward the Martyr c.962
son of Edgar the Peaceable and Ethelflaed[26]
unmarried 18 March 978
Corfe Castle
aged about 16 (assassinated)[25]
Ethelred the Unready
(Æþelræd Unræd)
19 March
Image of Ethelred II with an oversize sword from the illuminated manuscript "The Chronicle of Abingdon" c.968
son of Edgar the Peaceable and Ælfthryth[28]
(1) Ælflaed of Northumbria
four children
(2) Aelgifu
six children
(3) Emma of Normandy
three children[29]
23 April 1016
aged about 48[27]
Edmund Ironside
24 April –
30 November 1016[30]
Edmund Ironside c.993
son of Ethelred the Unready and Ælflaed of Northumbria[30]
Edith of East Anglia
two children[31]
30 November 1016
aged about 23[30][31]

[edit] House of Denmark

England came under the rule of Danish kings during and following the reign of Ethelred the Unready.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Sweyn Forkbeard
(Svend Tveskæg)
25 December[32]
Sweyn Forkbeard, from an architectural element in the Swansea Guildhall, Swansea, Wales c.960
son of Harald Bluetooth and Gyrid Olafsdottir[34]
(1) Gunhilda of Poland
seven children
(2) Sigrid the Haughty
1 daughter[34]
3 February 1014
aged about 54[34]
1 December
son of Sweyn Forkbeard[35]
(1) Aelgifu of Northampton
two children
(2) Emma of Normandy
12 November 1035
aged about 40[35]
Harold Harefoot
13 November
son of Canute and Aelgifu of Northampton[36]
1 son[37]
17 March 1040
aged about 23 or 24[36]
18 June
son of Canute and Emma of Normandy[37]
unknown 8 June 1042
aged about 24[37]

[edit] House of Wessex (restored)

After Harthacanute, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066. After the Battle of Hastings, a decisive point in British history, William of Normandy became king of England.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Saint Edward the Confessor
9 June
Islip, Oxfordshire
son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy[39]
Edith of Wessex
23 January 1045
no children[39]
5 January 1066
Westminster Palace
aged about 60[39]
Harold Godwinson
(Harold Godwinesson)
6 January –
14 October 1066[39]
son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir[39]
(1) Edith Swannesha
six children

(2) Ealdgyth of Mercia
two sons[39]

14 October 1066
aged about 46 (died in battle)[39]
Edgar the Atheling
(Eadgar Æþeling)
15 October –
17 December 1066[40]
No image
son of Edward the Exile and Agatha[41]
unmarried[41] c.1125
aged about 72[40]

[edit] House of Normandy

In 1066, Duke William II of Normandy conquered the Anglo-Saxons. The invading Normans and their descendants replaced the English ruling class. The nobility of England were part of a single French-speaking culture and many had lands on both sides of the channel. Early Norman kings of England were, as Dukes of Normandy, vassals to the King of France. They may not have necessarily considered England to be their most important holding (although it brought the title of King - an important status symbol). King Richard I (the Lionheart) is often thought to epitomise a medieval English King, but he spoke only French and spent more time in Aquitaine or on Crusade than in England.

It was only after the Norman Conquest of 1066 that monarchs took regnal numbers in the French fashion, though the earlier custom of distinguishing monarchs by nicknames did not die out immediately.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
William I the Conqueror/the Bastard
(Willelm le Bâtard)
25 December
William the Conqueror depicted at the Battle of Hastings, on the Bayeux Tapestry c.1028
Falaise Castle
son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Herleva[42]
Matilda of Flanders
Chapel Notre Dame of the castle in Eu, Normandy
ten children[42]
9 September 1087
St. Gervais in Rouen
aged about 59[42]. Buried at Saint Etienne Abbey (Abbaye aux Hommes) of Caen
William II Rufus
(Willelm le Roux)
26 September
William Rufus depicted in the Stowe Manuscript c.1060
son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders[42]
unmarried 2 August 1100
New Forest
aged about 40[42]
Henry I
(Henri Beauclerc)
5 August
Henry I September 1068
son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders[43]
(1) Edith of Scotland
Westminster Abbey
11 November 1100
four children
(2) Adeliza of Louvain
Windsor Castle
29 January 1121
no children[43]
1 December 1135
Castle of Lyons-la-Forêt (Saint-Denis-en-Lyons)
aged 67[43]. Buried at Reading Abbey
Stephen I
(Étienne de Blois)
22 December
Stephen c.1096
son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy[43]
Matilda of Boulogne
five children[43]
25 October 1154
Dover Castle
aged about 58[43]
(Mathilde ou
Mahaut l'emperesse
7 April–1 November 1141[45]
Title disputed
Matilda 7 February 1102
Sutton Courtenay
only legitimate daughter of Henry I and Edith of Scotland[46]
(1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
6 January 1114
no children
(2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
Le Mans Cathedral
22 May 1128
three children
10 September 1167
Notre Dame du Pré in Rouen
aged 65[45]

[edit] House of Plantagenet

Stephen came to an agreement in November 1153, with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford where Stephen recognised Henry, son of Matilda, as his heir to the throne in lieu of his own son.

The early Plantagenets ruled many territories in France, and did not regard England as their primary home until after most of their French possessions were lost by King John. This long-lived dynasty is usually divided into three houses: the Angevins, the House of Lancaster, and the House of York.

[edit] Angevins

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry II
(Henri Court-mantel)
19 December
Henry II 5 March 1133
Le Mans
son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda[47]
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Bordeaux Cathedral
18 May 1152
eight children[47]
6 July 1189
Château Chinon
aged 56.[47] Buried at Fontevraud Abbey
Henry the Young King
(Henri le Jeune Roy)
(coregent with his father)
14 June
Henry 28 February 1155

son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

Marguerite of France
Winchester Cathedral
27 August 1172
one child
11 June 1183
Martel, Limoges
aged 28. Buried at Rouen Cathedral (Notre-Dame)
Richard I
(Richard Cœur de Lion)
3 September
Richard the Lionheart, an illustration from a 12th century codex 8 September 1157
Beaumont Palace
son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine[47]
Berengaria of Navarre
12 May 1191
no children[47]
6 April 1199
aged 41.[47] Buried: Heart at Rouen Cathedral. Body at Fontevraud Abbey
(Jean Sans Terre)
27 May
Tomb effigy of John 24 December 1167
Beaumont Palace
son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine[48]
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough Castle
29 August 1189
no children

(2) Isabella of Angoulême
Bordeaux Cathedral
24 August 1200
five children[48]

19 October 1216
Newark Castle
aged 48.[48] Buried at Worcester Cathedral
Henry III
(Henry of Winchester)
28 October
Henry III 1 October 1207
Winchester Castle
son of John and Isabella of Angoulême[49]
Eleanor of Provence
Canterbury Cathedral
14 January 1236
nine children[49]
16 November 1272
Westminster Palace
aged 65[49]
Edward I
(Edward Longshanks)
20 November
17 June 1239
Westminster Palace
son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence[50]
(1) Eleanor of Castile
Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas
18 October 1254
17 children

(2) Marguerite of France
10 September 1299
three children[50]

7 July 1307
Burgh by Sands
aged 68[50]
Edward II
7 July 1307 –
25 January 1327[51]
Modern depiction of Edward II 25 April 1284
Caernarfon Castle
son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile[51]
Isabella of France
Boulogne Cathedral
25 January 1308
five children[51]
21 September 1327
Berkeley Castle
aged 43 (murdered)[51]
Edward III
25 January
Edward III 13 November 1312
Windsor Castle
son of Edward II and Isabella of France[52]
Philippa of Hainault
York Minster
24 January 1328
14 children[52]
21 June 1377
Sheen Palace
aged 64[52]
Richard II
21 June 1377 –
29 September 1399[53]
Richard II, by André Beauneveu, 1390s 6 January 1367
son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan of Kent[53]
(1) Anne of Bohemia
14 January 1382
no children

(2) Isabella of Valois
4 November 1396
no children[53]

14 February 1400
Pontefract Castle
aged 33[53]

[edit] House of Lancaster

This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry IV
(Henry Bolingbroke)
30 September
Henry IV 3 April 1366/7
Bolingbroke Castle
son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster[54]
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
27 July 1380
seven children

(2) Joanna of Navarre
Winchester Cathedral
7 February 1403
no children[54]

20 March 1413
Westminster Abbey
aged 45 or 46[55]
Henry V
20 March
Henry V 9 August 1387 (or 16 September)
Monmouth Castle
son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun[54]
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral
2 June 1420
one son[54]
31 August 1422
Château de Vincennes
aged 35[54]
Henry VI
31 August 1422 – 4 March 1461[56]
Henry VI 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois[56]
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son[56]
21 May 1471
Tower of London
aged 49 (murdered)[56]

[edit] House of York

The House of York was descended from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward IV
4 March 1461 – 2 October 1470[57]
Edward IV 28 April 1442
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[57]
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
ten children[57]
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
aged 40[57]

[edit] House of Lancaster (restored)

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VI
2 October 1470 – 11 April 1471[56]
Henry VI 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois[56]
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son[56]
21 May 1471
Tower of London
aged 49 (murdered)[56]

[edit] House of York (restored)

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward IV
11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483[57]
Edward IV 28 April 1442
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[57]
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
ten children[57]
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
aged 40[57]
Edward V
9 April – 25 June 1483[58]
Edward V 2 November 1470
son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville[58]
unmarried c. 1483
aged about 12 (traditionally murdered)[59]
Richard III
26 June
1483 – 1485[60]
Richard III 2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[61]
Anne Neville
Westminster Abbey
12 July 1472
1 son[61]
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
aged 32 (killed in battle)[61]

[edit] House of Tudor

The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of 14th Century English Prince John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (third surviving son of Edward III of England), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. The descendants of an illegitimate child of English Royalty would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year (also enshrined in an Act of Parliament in 1397). A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognized the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible to ever inherit the throne. Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster.

John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort, a considerable heiress, was married to Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tewdr (anglicised to "Owen Tudor") and Katherine of Valois, widowed Queen Consort of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed.

With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VII
22 August
Henry VII, by Michel Sittow, 1505 28 January 1457
Pembroke Castle
son of Edmund Tudor and Lady Margaret Beaufort[62]
Elizabeth of York
Westminster Abbey
18 January 1486
eight children[62]
21 April 1509
Richmond Palace
aged 52[62]
Henry VIII
21 April
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein, c.1536 28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York[63]
Catherine of Aragon
11 June 1509
one daughter
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
aged 55[63]
Anne Boleyn
Westminster Palace
25 January 1533
one daughter
Jane Seymour
Whitehall Palace
30 May 1536
one son
Anne of Cleves
Greenwich Palace
6 January 1540
Catherine Howard
Hampton Court Palace
28 July 1540
Catherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace
12 July 1543
Edward VI
28 January
Edward VI, by Hans Eworth 12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour[64]
unmarried 6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
aged 15[64]
(The Nine Days Queen)
10 July–19 July 1553[65]
title disputed
October 1537
Bradgate Park
daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon[65]
Lord Guildford Dudley
The Strand
21 May 1553
no children[66]
12 February 1554
Tower of London
aged 16 (beheaded)[65]
Mary I
(Bloody Mary)
19 July
Mary I, by Antonius Mor, 1554 18 February 1516
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon[64]
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
no children[64]
17 November 1558
St. James's Palace
aged 42[64]
Elizabeth I
(The Virgin Queen)
17 November
Elizabeth I, by Darnley 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn[64]
unmarried 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace
aged 69[64]

[edit] House of Stuart

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, the Scottish king, James VI, succeeded to the English throne as James I in what became known as the Union of the Crowns. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. In 1604 he adopted the title King of Great Britain, although the two kingdoms remained separate.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James I
24 March
James I, by Paulus van Somer 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots[67]
Anne of Denmark
23 November 1589
seven children[67]
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
aged 58[67]
Charles I
(Saint Charles the Martyr)
27 March
Charles I, by Anthony van Dyck 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace
son of James I and Anne of Denmark[68]
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Abbey
13 June 1625
nine children[68]
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace
aged 48 (beheaded)[68]

[edit] Commonwealth

There was no reigning monarch between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Despite this, from 1653 the following individuals held power as Lords Protector, during the period known as the Protectorate.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Oliver Cromwell
(Old Ironsides)
16 December
Oliver Cromwell, an unfinished portrait miniature by Samuel Cooper 25 April 1599
son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Stewart[70]
Elizabeth Bourchier
St Giles[71]
22 August 1620
nine children[69]
3 September 1658
aged 59[69]
Richard Cromwell
(Tumbledown Dick)
3 September 1658
– 7 May 1659[72]
Richard Cromwell, c.1650 4 October 1626
son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier[72]
Dorothy Maijor
May 1649
no children[72]
12 July 1712
aged 85[73]

[edit] House of Stuart (restored)

Although the monarchy was restored in 1660, no stable settlement proved possible until the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when parliament finally asserted the right to choose whomsoever it pleased as monarch.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
Royalists dated his reign from 1649
29 May 1630
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[75]
Catherine of Braganza
21 May 1662
three children (none survived infancy)[75]
6 February 1685
Whitehall Palace
aged 54[75]
James II
6 February 1685 –
23 December 1688[76]
14 October 1633
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[76]
(1) Anne Hyde
The Strand
3 September 1660
eight children

(2) Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
seven children[76]

16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
aged 67[76]
William III of Orange
(Willem van Oranje)
13 February
4 November 1650
The Hague
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart[78]
St. James's Palace
4 November 1677
three children (none survived infancy)[77]
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
aged 51[77]
Mary II
13 February
30 April 1662
St. James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[76]
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace
aged 32[76]
8 March
Great Britain
1 May 1707-1714
6 February 1665
St. James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[80]
George of Denmark
St. James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children[80]
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49[80]

[edit] Timeline of English Monarchs

[edit] Acts of Union

The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on July 22, 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into a single United Kingdom of Great Britain.[81]

The two countries had shared a monarch for about 100 years (since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I). Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been three attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689 to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons.

[edit] Titles

The standard title for all monarchs from Alfred the Great until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum (King of the English). In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows:

  • Alfred the Great: Rex Angulsaxonum (King of the Anglosaxons) and Rex Anglorum et Saxonum (King of the Angles and Saxons)
  • Athelstan: Rex Anglorum per omnipatrantis dexteram totius Bryttaniæ regni solio sublimatus
  • Edmund the Magnificent: Rex Britanniae and Rex Anglorum caeterarumque gentium gobernator et rector
  • Edred: Regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Norþhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque
  • Edwy the Fair: Rex nutu Dei Angulsæxna et Northanhumbrorum imperator paganorum gubernator Breotonumque propugnator
  • Edgar the Peaceable: Totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus
  • Canute: Rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis gubernator et rector and Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus

In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English").

From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex Anglie, or Regina Anglie ("Queen of England") if female.

In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was of course Queen of Great Britain rather than king).[82]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Keynes, Simon (1999), "Offa", in Lapidge, Michael, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford, pp. 301–341, ISBN 0-631-22492-0  "The notion that Offa claimed to be 'king of the English', or 'king of the whole country of England', has been shown to depend, however, on charters forged in the tenth century. In his own day he was 'king of the Mercians', and proud enough to be so." (p. 341) Wormald, Patrick (1982), "The Age of Offa and Alcuin", in Campbell, James, The Anglo-Saxons, London: Phaidon, pp. 101–128, ISBN 0-14-0143950-5  "Charlemagne, moreover, saw England as if it were ruled by two kings only; Aethelred ruling Northumbria, and Offa everything to the south." (p. 101)
  2. ^ The Earliest English Kings, D.P. Kirby
  3. ^ a b c d e Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d " - Æthelbald, King of Wessex and others". Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 
  5. ^ "King Egbert". Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 
  6. ^ a b Alfred (the Great) @ URL last accessed 15 March 2007.
  7. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Alfred the Great. URL last accessed 14 March 2007.
  8. ^ Alfred the Great. URL last accessed 14 March 2007.
  9. ^ a b EADWEARD (Edward the Elder) @ URL last accessed on 15 March 2007.
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[edit] External links

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