Japanese grammar

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Japanese grammar (日本語文法) in Japanese.

The Japanese language has a highly regular agglutinative verb morphology, with both productive and fixed elements. In language typology, it has many features highly divergent from most European languages. Its phrases are exclusively head final and compound sentences are exclusively left-branching[1]. There are many such languages, but few in Europe. It is a topic-prominent language. There are a fair number of other such languages, but none in Europe. Additionally, Japanese has a highly distinctive system of word classes which has only recently been recognized and which is very rare.


[edit] Some distinctive aspects of modern Japanese sentence structure

[edit] Word order: head final and left branching

The modern theory of constituent order ("word order"), usually attributed to Joseph Greenberg, identifies several kinds of phrase. Each one has a head and possibly a modifier. The head of a phrase either precedes its modifier (head initial) or follows it (head final). Some of these phrases types, with the head marked in boldface, are:

  • genitive phrase, i.e., noun modified by another noun (the cover of the book, the book's cover);
  • noun governed by an adposition (on the table, underneath the table);
  • comparison ([X is] bigger than Y, i.e., "compared to Y, X is big").
  • noun modified by an adjective (black cat).

Some languages are inconsistent in constituent order, having a mix of head initial phrase types and head final phrase types. Looking at the preceding list, English for example is mostly head initial, but nouns follow the adjectives which modify them. Moreover, genitive phrases can be either head initial or head final in English. Japanese, by contrast, is the epitome of a head final language:

  • genitive phrase: neko no iro, cat OF color = 'the color (iro) of the cat (neko)';
  • noun governed by an adposition (nihon ni, Japan in = 'in Japan');
  • comparison (Y than big = 'bigger than Y');
  • noun modified by an adjective (kuroi neko = 'black cat').

Head finality in Japanese sentence structure carries over to the building of sentences using other sentences. In sentences that have other sentences as some of their constituents, the subordinated sentences (relative clauses, for example), always precede what they refer to, since they are modifiers and what they modify has the syntactic status of phrasal head. "The man who was walking down the street" thus has a Japanese translation whose word order is "was walking down street man" (Japanese does not have a definite article). More accurately, given the other rules of word order already mentioned, the Japanese word order would be "street down walking was man". Head finality prevails also when sentences are coordinated instead of subordinated. Typically in the world's languages, it is common to avoid repetition between coordinated sentences by optionally deleting a constituent common to the two parts, as in "Bob bought some flowers and Mary a vase", where the second "bought" is omitted. In Japanese, such "gapping" must precede in the reverse order: "Bob some flowers and Mary a vase bought". The reason for this is that in Japanese, sentences always end in a verb—the only exceptions being a very few particles (such as ka, ne). The particle ka turns a statement into a question, while the other sentence final particles express the speaker's emotion.

[edit] Unusual word class system

Japanese has five major lexical word classes:

verbal nouns (correspond to English gerunds like 'studying', 'jumping', which denote activities)
nominal adjectives (called "adjectival nouns" by some scholars)
adjectives (so-called i-adjectives)

Verbal nouns and nominal adjectives are in fact subcategories of noun.

Japanese morphology has a feature which is highly unusual cross-linguistically: the two classes of verb and adjective are closed classes, meaning they do not accept new members.[2] In most languages, grammatical function word classes such as conjunctions (and, but, nevertheless, etc.), prepositions (of, in, at, for, from, etc.), and postpositions are closed classes. Taking English as an example, the set of prepositions 'in, at, to, for', etc. is a small set with two dozen or so members which has hardly changed for centuries. But for lexical word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives) to be closed is exceedingly unusual. Japanese vocabulary is flooded with Chinese loanwords, nearly all of which go back more than one thousand years, yet virtually none of them are verbs or "i-adjectives". When it comes to adding vocabulary for attributes or actions, the strategy of the Japanese language is to place new words for attributes in the nominal adjective class and new words for activities in the verbal noun class.[3] New phrasal verbs are coined in Japanese by combining a verbal noun with the verb suru 'do'. For example,

benkyoo suru 'do studying = study'
denwa suru 'do telephoning = make a telephone call'
keikoku suru 'do warning = give a warning'

Verbal nouns are uncontroversially nouns, having only minor syntactic differences to distinguish them from pure nouns like 'mountain'. Nominal adjectives have more syntactic differences versus pure nouns, but they, too, are ultimately a subcategory of nouns.

The system of word classes in Japanese has yet another typologically unusual characteristic: the subclass of nominal adjectives is syntactically heterogeneous. It has its own subdivisions defined by the array of syntactic divergences they have versus the pure nouns.

[edit] Japanese as a topic-prominent language

In discourse pragmatics, the term topic refers to what a section of discourse is about. At the beginning of a section of discourse, the topic is usually unknown, in which case it is usually necessary to explicitly mention it. As the discourse carries on, the topic need not be the grammatical subject of each new sentence.

Starting with Middle Japanese, the grammar evolved so as to explicitly distinguish topics from nontopics. This is done by two distinct particles (short words which do not change form). Consider the following pair of sentences:

taiyō ga noboru
sun NONTOPIC rise
taiyō wa noboru
sun TOPIC rise

Both sentences translate as "the sun rises". In the first sentence the sun (太陽 taiyō) is not a discourse topic—not yet; in the second sentence it now is a discourse topic. In linguistics (specifically, in discourse pragmatics) a sentence such as the first one (with ga) is termed a presentational sentence because its function in the discourse is to present sun as a topic, to "broach it for discussion". Once a referent has been established as the topic of the current monolog or dialog, then in (formal) modern Japanese its marking will change from ga to wa. To better explain the difference, the translation of the second sentence can be enlarged to "As for the sun, it rises" or "Speaking of the sun, it rises"; these renderings reflect a discourse fragment in which "the sun" has previously been established as the topic.

[edit] Liberal omission of the subject of a sentence

The grammatical subject is commonly omitted in Japanese, as in

nihon ni ikimashita

The sentence literally expresses "went to Japan". Subjects are mentioned when a topic is introduced, or in situations where an ambiguity might result from their omission. The preceding example sentence would most likely be uttered in the middle of a discourse, where who it is that "went to Japan" will be clear from what has already been said (or written).

[edit] Sentence structure and phonology

Text (文章 bunshō) is composed of sentences (文 bun), which are in turn composed of phrases (文節 bunsetsu), which are its smallest coherent components. Like Chinese and classical Korean, written Japanese does not typically demarcate words with spaces; its agglutinative nature further makes the concept of a word rather different from words in English. The listener identifies word divisions by semantic cues and a knowledge of phrase structure. Phrases have a single meaning-bearing word, followed by a string of suffixes, auxiliary verbs and particles to modify its meaning and designate its grammatical role. In the following example, bunsetsu are indicated by vertical bars:

taiyō ga | higashi no | sora ni | noboru
sun SUBJECT | east POSSESSIVE | sky LOCATIVE | rise
The sun rises in the eastern sky.

Some scholars romanize Japanese sentences by inserting spaces only at phrase boundaries (i.e., "taiyō-ga higashi-no sora-ni noboru"), treating an entire phrase as a single word. This represents an almost purely phonological conception of where one word ends and the next begins. There is some validity in taking this approach: phonologically, the postpositional particles merge with the structural word that precedes them, and within a phonological phrase, the pitch can have at most one fall. Usually, however, grammarians adopt a more conventional concept of word (単語 tango), one which invokes meaning and sentence structure.

[edit] Word classification

In linguistics generally, words and affixes are often classified into two major word categories: lexical words, those that refer to the world outside of a discourse, and function words—also including fragments of words—which help to build the sentence in accordance with the grammar rules of the language. Lexical words include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and sometimes "prepositions" and "postpositions", while grammatical words or word parts include everything else. The native tradition in Japanese grammar scholarship seems to concur in this view of classification. This native Japanese tradition uses the terminology jiritsugo (自立語), "independent words", for words having lexical meaning, and fuzokugo (付属語), "ancillary words", for words having a grammatical function.

Classical Japanese had some auxiliary verbs (i.e., they were independent words) which have become grammaticized in modern Japanese as inflectional suffixes, such as the past tense suffix -ta (which might have developed as a contraction of -te ari).

Traditional scholarship proposes a system of word classes differing somewhat from the above mentioned.[citation needed] The "independent" words have the following categories.

katsuyōgo (活用語), word classes which have inflections
dōshi (動詞), verbs,
keiyōshi (形容詞), i-type adjectives.
hikatsuyōgo (非活用語) or mukatsuyōgo (無活用語), word classes which do not have inflections[citation needed]
keiyōdōshi (形容動詞), na-type adjectives
meishi (名詞), nouns
daimeishi (代名詞), pronouns
fukushi (副詞), adverbs
setsuzokushi (接続詞), conjunctions
kandōshi (感動詞), interjections
rentaishi (連体詞), prenominals

Ancillary words also divide into a nonconjugable class, containing grammatical particles (助詞 joshi) and counter words (助数詞 josūshi), and a conjugable class consisting of auxiliary verbs (助動詞 jodōshi). There is not wide agreement among linguists as to the English translations of the above terms.

[edit] Controversy over the characterization of nominal adjectives

Uehara (1998)[4] observes that Japanese grammarians have disagreed as to the criteria that make some words "inflectional", katsuyō, and others not, in particular, the "na-adjectives". (It is not disputed that nouns like 'book' and 'mountain' are noninflectional and that verbs and i-adjectives are inflectional.) The claim that na-adjectives are inflectional rests on the claim that the syllable da 'is', usually regarded as a "copula verb", is really a suffix—an inflection. Thus hon 'book', generates a one-word sentence, honda 'it is a book', not a two-word sentence, hon da. However, numerous constructions seem to be incompatible with the suffixal copula claim.

(1) Reduplication for emphasis
Hora! Hon, hon! 'See, it is a book!'
Hora! Kirei, kirei! 'See, it is pretty!'
Hora! Furui, furui! 'See, it is old!' (the adjectival inflection -i cannot be left off)
Hora! Iku, iku! 'See, it does go!' (the verbal inflection -u cannot be left off)
(2) Questions. In Japanese, questions are formed by adding the particle ka (or in colloquial speech, just by changing the intonation of the sentence).
Hon/kirei ka? 'Is it a book? ; Is it pretty?'
Furu-i/Ik-u ka? 'Is it old? ; Does it go?' (the inflections cannot be left off)
(3) Several auxiliary verbs, e.g., mitai, 'looks like it's'
Hon mitai da; Kirei mitai da 'It seems to be a book; It seems to be pretty'
Furu-i mitai da; Ik-u mitai da 'It seems to be old; It seems to go'

On the basis of such constructions, Uehara (1998) finds that the copula is indeed an independent word, and that regarding the parameters on which i-adjectives share the syntactic pattern of verbs, the nominal adjectives pattern with pure nouns instead.

[edit] Nouns

Japanese has no grammatical gender, number, or articles. Thus, specialists have agreed that Japanese nouns are noninflecting: 猫 (neko) can be translated as "cat", "cats", "a cat", "the cat", "some cats" and so forth, depending on context. However, as part of the extensive pair of grammatical systems that Japanese possesses for honorification (making discourse deferential to the addressee or even to a third party) and politeness, nouns too can be modified. Nouns take politeness prefixes (which have not been regarded as inflections): o- for native nouns, and go- for Sino-Japanese nouns. A few examples are given in the following table. In a few cases, there is suppletion, as with the first of the examples given below, 'rice'. (Note that while these prefixes are almost always in Hiragana — that is, as お (o-) or ご (go) — the kanji 御 is used for both o and go prefixes in formal writing.)

respectful forms of nouns
meaning plain respectful
rice meshi ご飯 go-han
money kane お金 o-kane
body karada お体 o-karada
御身 onmi
word(s) 言葉 kotoba お言葉 o-kotoba

Lacking number, Japanese does not differentiate between count and mass nouns. (An English speaker learning Japanese would be well advised to treat Japanese nouns as mass nouns.) A small number of nouns have collectives formed by reduplication (possibly accompanied by rendaku); for example: hito 'person' and hitobito 'people'. Reduplication is not productive. Words in Japanese referring to more than one of something are collectives, not plurals. Hitobito, for example, means "a lot of people" or "people in general". It is never used to mean "two people". A phrase like edo no hitobito would be taken to mean "the people of Edo", or "the population of Edo", not "two people from Edo" or even "a few people from Edo". Similarly, yamayama means "many mountains".

A limited number of nouns have collective forms that refer to groups of people. Examples include watashi-tachi, 'we'; anata-tachi, 'you (plural)'; bokura, 'we (adolescent males)' (boku, a word for 'I' which discussions of the language unfailingly cite, actually is a word that is only used in informal situations among adolescent boys). One uncommon personal noun, ware, 'I', or in some cases, 'you', has a much more common reduplicative collective form wareware 'we'.

The suffixes -tachi (達) and -ra (等) are by far the most common collectivizing suffixes. These are, again, not pluralizing suffixes: tarō-tachi does not mean "some number of people named Taro", but instead indicates the group including Taro. Depending on context, tarō-tachi might be translated into "Taro and his friends", "Taro and his siblings", "Taro and his family", or any other logical grouping that has Taro as the representative. Some words with collectives have become fixed phrases and (commonly) refer to one person. Specifically, kodomo 'child' and tomodachi 'friend' can be singular, even though -[t]omo and -[t]achi were originally collectivizing in these words; to unambiguously refer to groups of them, an additional collectivizing suffix is added: kodomotachi 'children' and tomodachitachi 'friends', though tomodachitachi is somewhat uncommon. Tachi is sometimes applied to inanimate objects, kuruma 'car' and kuruma-tachi, 'cars', for example, but this usage is colloquial and indicates a high level of anthropomorphisation and childlikeness, and is not more generally accepted as standard.

[edit] Pronouns

some common pronouns
person plain, informal polite respectful
first 僕 (boku, male)
あたし (atashi, female)
私 (watashi, both)
俺 (ore, male)
私 (watashi) 私 (watakushi)
second 君 (kimi)
お前 (omae)
貴方 (anata)
そちら (sochira)
貴方様 (anata-sama)
third 彼 (kare, male)
彼女 (kanojo, female)

Although many grammars and textbooks mention pronouns (代名詞 daimeishi), Japanese lacks true pronouns. (Daimeishi can be considered a subset of nouns.) Strictly speaking, pronouns do not take modifiers, but Japanese daimeishi do: 背の高い彼 (se no takai kare, lit. tall he) is valid in Japanese. Also, unlike true pronouns, Japanese daimeishi are not closed-class: new daimeishi are introduced and old ones go out of use relatively quickly.

A large number of daimeishi referring to people are translated as pronouns in their most common uses. Examples: 彼 (kare, he); 彼女 (kanojo, she); 私 (watashi, I); see also the adjoining table or a longer list.[5] Some of these "personal nouns" such as 己 onore, I (exceedingly humble), or 僕 boku, I (young male), also have second-person uses: おのれ (onore) in second-person is an extremely rude "you", and boku in second-person is a diminutive "you" used for young boys. This further differentiates daimeishi from pronouns, which cannot change their person. Kare and kanojo also mean "boyfriend" and "girlfriend" respectively, and this usage of the words is possibly more common than the use as pronouns.

Like other subjects, Japanese deemphasizes personal daimeishi, which are seldom used. This is partly because Japanese sentences do not always require explicit subjects, and partly because names or titles are often used where pronouns would appear in a translation:

Kinoshita-san wa, se ga takai desu ne.
(addressing Mr. Kinoshita) "You're pretty tall, aren't you?"
Semmu, asu Fukuoka-shi nishi-ku no Yamamoto-shōji no shachō ni atte itadakemasuka?
(addressing the managing director) "Would it be possible for you to meet the president of Yamamoto Trading Co. of Fukuoka's West Ward tomorrow?"

While there is no lexical difference between nouns and daimeishi, the possible referents of daimeishi can be constrained depending on the order of occurrence. The following pair of examples (due to Bart Mathias)[6] illustrates one such constraint.

Honda-kun ni atte, kare no hon o kaeshita (ホンダ君にあって、彼の本を返した。)
(I) met Honda and returned his book. ("His" here can refer to Honda.)
kare ni atte, Honda-kun no hon o kaeshita (彼に会って、ホンダ君の本を返した。)
(I) met him and returned Honda's book. (Here, "him" cannot refer to Honda.)

[edit] Reflexive pronouns

English has a reflexive form of each personal pronoun (himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc.); Japanese, in contrast, has one main reflexive daimeishi, jibun (自分), which can also mean 'I'. The uses of the reflexive (pro)nouns in the two languages are very different, as demonstrated by the following literal translations (*=impossible, ??=ambiguous):

English Japanese reason
History repeats itself. *Rekishi wa jibun o kurikaesu. (*歴史は自分を繰り返す。) the target of jibun must be animate
Hiroshi talked to Kenji about himself (=Hiroshi) Hiroshi wa Kenji ni jibun no koto o hanashita. (ひろしは健司に自分のことを話した。) there is no ambiguity in the translation as explained below
*Makoto expects that Shizuko will take good care of himself.  ??誠は静子が自分を大事にすることを期待している。
??Makoto wa Shizuko ga jibun o daiji ni suru koto o kitai shite iru.
either "Makoto expects that Shizuko will take good care of him", or "Makoto expects that Shizuko will take good care of herself."
jibun can be in a different sentence or dependent clause, but its target is ambiguous

If the sentence has more than one grammatical or semantic subject, then the target of jibun is the subject of the primary or most prominent action; thus in the following sentence jibun refers unambiguously to Shizuko (even though Makoto is the grammatical subject) because the primary action is Shizuko's reading.

Makoto wa Shizuko ni jibun no uchi de hon o yomaseta.
Makoto made Shizuko read book(s) in her house.

In practice the main action is not always discernible, in which case such sentences are ambiguous. The use of jibun in complex sentences follows non-trivial rules.

There are also equivalents to jibun such as mizukara. Other uses of the reflexive pronoun in English are covered by adverbs like hitorideni which is used in the sense of "by oneself". For example

kikai ga hitorideni ugokidashita
"The machine started operating by itself."

Change in a verb's valency is not accomplished by use of reflexive pronouns (in this Japanese is like English but unlike many other European languages). Instead, separate (but usually related) intransitive verbs and transitive verbs are used. There is no longer any productive morphology to derive transitive verbs from intransitives ones, or vice versa.

[edit] Demonstratives

ko- so- a- do-
-re kore
this one
that one
that one over there
which one?
-no kono
(of) this
(of) that
(of) that over there
(of) what?
-nna konna
like this
like that
like that over there
what sort of?
-ko koko
asoko *
over there
-chira kochira
this way
that way
that way over there
which way?
-u **
in this manner

in that manner
ā *
in that (other) manner

how? in what manner?
-itsu koitsu
this person
that person
that (other) person
* irregular formation
** -ou is represented by

Demonstratives occur in the ko-, so-, and a- series. The ko- (proximal) series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the so- (mesial) series for things closer to the hearer, and the a- (distal) series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With do-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding question form. Demonstratives can also be used to refer to people, for example

Kochira wa Hayashi-san desu.
"This is Mr. Hayashi."

Demonstratives limit, and therefore precede, nouns; thus この本 (kono hon) for "this/my book", and その本 (sono hon) for "that/your book".

When demonstratives are used to refer to things not visible to the speaker or the hearer, or to (abstract) concepts, they fulfill a related but different anaphoric role. The anaphoric distals are used for shared information between the speaker and the listener.

A: Senjitsu, Sapporo ni itte kimashita.
A: I visited Sapporo recently.
B: Asoko (*Soko) wa itsu itte mo ii tokoro desu ne.
B: Yeah, that's a great place to visit whenever you go.

Soko instead of asoko would imply that B doesn't share this knowledge about Sapporo, which is inconsistent with the meaning of the sentence. The anaphoric mesials are used to refer to experience or knowledge that is not shared between the speaker and listener.

Satō : Tanaka to iu hito ga kinō shinda tte...
Sato: I heard that a man called Tanaka died yesterday...
Mori: E', hontō?
Mori: Oh, really?
Satō : Dakara, sono (*ano) hito, Mori-san no mukashi no rinjin ja nakatta 'kke?
Sato: It's why I asked... wasn't he an old neighbour of yours?

Again, ano is inappropriate here because Sato doesn't (didn't) know Tanaka personally. The proximal demonstratives do not have clear anaphoric uses. They can be used in situations where the distal series sound too disconnected:

Ittai nan desu ka, kore (*are) wa?
What on earth is this?

[edit] Conjugable words

[edit] Stem forms

Prior to discussing the conjugable words, a brief note about stem forms. Conjugative suffixes and auxiliary verbs are attached to the stem forms of the affixee. In modern Japanese there are the following six stem forms.

Imperfective form (未然形 mizenkei
is used for plain negative (of verbs), causative and passive constructions. The most common use of this form is with the -nai auxiliary that turns verbs into their negative (predicate) form. (See Verbs below.)
Continuative form (連用形 ren'yōkei
is used in a linking role. This is the most productive stem form, taking on a variety of endings and auxiliaries, and can even occur independently in a sense similar to the -te ending. This form is also used to negate adjectives.
Terminal form (終止形 shūshikei
is used at the ends of clauses in predicate positions. This form is also variously known as plain form (基本形 kihonkei) or dictionary form (辞書形 jishokei).
Attributive form (連体形 rentaikei
in modern Japanese is practically identical to the terminal form (but see Adjectives, below), but differs in use: it is prefixed to nominals and is used to define or classify the noun.
Hypothetical form (仮定形 kateikei
is used for conditional and subjunctive forms, using the -ba ending.
Imperative form (命令形 meireikei
is used to turn verbs into commands. Adjectives do not have an imperative stem form.

The application of conjugative suffixes to stem forms follow certain euphonic principles (音便 onbin), which is discussed below.

[edit] Verbs

Verbs (動詞 dōshi) in Japanese are rigidly constrained to the ends of clauses in what is known as the predicate position.

neko wa sakana o taberu
Cats TOPIC fish OBJECT eat
Cats eat fish.

The subject and objects of the verb are indicated by means of particles (see the section below), and the grammatical functions of the verb — primarily tense and voice — are indicated by means of conjugation. When the subject and the dissertative topic coincide, the subject is often omitted; if the verb is intransitive, the entire sentence may consist of a single verb. Verbs have two tenses indicated by conjugation, past and nonpast. The semantic difference between present and future is not indicated by means of conjugation. Usually there is no ambiguity because few verbs can operate in both uses. Voice and aspect are also indicated by means of conjugation, and possibly agglutinating auxiliary verbs. For example, the continuative aspect is formed by means of the continuative conjugation known as the gerundive or -te form, and the auxiliary verb iru; to illustrate, 見る (miru, to see) → 見ている (mite-iru, is seeing).

Verbs can be semantically classified based on certain conjugations.

Stative verbs
indicate existential properties, such as to be (いる iru), can do (出来る dekiru), need (要る iru), etc. These verbs generally don't have a continuative conjugation with -iru because they are semantically continuative already.
Continual verbs
conjugate with the auxiliary -iru to indicate the progressive aspect. Examples: to eat (食べる taberu), to drink (飲む nomu), to think (考える kangaeru). To illustrate the conjugation, 食べる (taberu, to eat) → 食べている (tabete-iru, is eating).
Punctual verbs
conjugate with -iru to indicate a repeated action, or a continuing state after some action. Example: 知る (shiru, to know) → 知っている (shitte iru, am knowing); 打つ (utsu, to hit) → 打っている (utte iru, is hitting (repeatedly)).
Non-volitional verb
indicate uncontrollable action or emotion. These verbs generally have no volitional, imperative or potential conjugation. Examples: 好む (konomu, to like, emotive), 見える (mieru, to be visible, non-emotive).
Movement verbs
indicate motion. Examples: 歩く (aruku, to walk), 帰る (kaeru, to return). In the continuative form (see below) they take the particle ni to indicate a purpose.

There are other possible classes, and a large amount of overlap between the classes.

Lexically, nearly every verb in Japanese is a member of exactly one of the following three regular conjugation groups.

Group 2a (上一段 kami ichidan, lit. upper 1-row group)
verbs with a stem ending in i. The terminal stem form always rhymes with -iru. Examples: 見る (miru, to see), 着る (kiru, to wear).
Group 2b (下一段 shimo ichidan, lit. lower 1-row group)
verbs with a stem ending in e. The terminal stem form always rhymes with -eru. Examples: 食べる (taberu, to eat), くれる (kureru, to give). (Note that some Group 1 verbs resemble Group 2b verbs, but their stems end in r, not e.)
Group 1 (五段 godan, lit. 5-row group)
verbs with a stem ending in a consonant. When this is r and the verb ends in -eru, it is not apparent from the terminal form whether the verb is Group 1 or Group 2b, e.g. 帰る (kaeru, to return). If the stem ends in w, that sound only appears in the irrealis form before a.

Historical note: classical Japanese had upper and lower 1- and 2-row groups and a 4-row group (上/下一段 kami/shimo ichidan, 上/下二段 kami/shimo nidan, and 四段 yodan), the nidan verbs becoming most of today's ichidan verbs (there were only a handful of kami ichidan verbs and only one single shimo ichidan verb in classical Japanese), and the yodan group, due to the writing reform in 1946 to write Japanese as it is pronounced, naturally became the modern godan verbs. Since verbs have migrated across groups in the history of the language, conjugation of classical verbs is not predictable from a knowledge of modern Japanese alone.

Of the irregular classes, there are two:

which has only one member, する (suru, to do). In Japanese grammars these words are classified as サ変 (sa-hen), an abbreviation of サ行変格活用 (sa-gyou henkaku katsuyō, sa-row irregular conjugation).
which also has one member, 来る (kuru, to come). The Japanese name for this class is カ行変格活用 (ka-gyou henkaku katsuyō) or simply カ変 (ka-hen).

Classical Japanese had two further irregular classes, the na-group, which contained 死ぬ (shinu, to die) and 往ぬ (inu, to go, to die), the ra-group, which included such verbs as あり (ari, the equivalent of modern aru), as well as quite a number of extremely irregular verbs that cannot be classified.

The following table illustrates the stem forms of the above conjugation groups, with the root indicated with dots. For example, to find the hypothetical form of the group 1 verb 書く (kaku), look in the second row to find its root, kak, then in the hypothetical row to get the ending -e, giving the stem form kake. When there are multiple possibilities, they are listed in the order of increasing rarity.

1 2a 2b sa ka
使・ (tsuka(w).) 書・ (kak.) 見・ (mi.) 食べ・ (tabe.)
Imperfective form
(未然形 mizenkei)
使わ (tsukaw.a
使お (tsuka.o
書か (kak.a)
書こ (kak.o)
見 (mi.) 食べ (tabe.) さ (sa)
し (shi)
せ (se)
来 (ko)
Continuative form
(連用形 ren'yōkei)
使い (tsuka.i) 書き (kak.i) 見 (mi.) 食べ (tabe.) し (shi) 来 (ki)
Terminal form
(終止形 shūshikei)
使う (tsuka.u) 書く (kak.u) 見る (mi.ru) 食べる (tabe.ru) する (suru) 来る (kuru)
Attributive form
(連体形 rentaikei)
same as terminal form
Hypothetical form
(仮定形 kateikei)
使え (tsuka.e) 書け (kak.e) 見れ (mi.re) 食べれ (tabe.re) すれ (sure) 来れ (kure)
Imperative form
(命令形 meireikei)
使え (tsuka.e) 書け (kak.e) 見ろ (mi.ro)
見よ (mi.yo)
食べろ (tabe.ro)
食べよ (tabe.yo)
しろ (shiro)
せよ (seyo)
せい (sei)
来い (koi)
  1. The unexpected ending is due to the verb's root being tsukaw- but [w] only being pronounced before [a] in modern Japanese.

The above are only the stem forms of the verbs; to these one must add various verb endings in order to get the fully conjugated verb. The following table lists the most common conjugations. See Japanese verb conjugations for a full list. In cases where the form is different based on the conjugation group of the verb, arrows point to the correct formation rule.

  formation rule group 1 group 2a group 2b sa-group ka-group
cont. + ます (masu) 書く (kaku)
見る (miru)
食べる (taberu)
する (suru)
来る (kuru)
cont. + た (ta) 書い・た
imperf. + ない (nai) 書か・ない
+ なかった (nakatta)
-te form (gerundive) cont. + て (-te) 書いて
conditional1 hyp. + ば (ba) 書け・ば
provisional1 cont. + たら (tara) 書いたら
volitional imperf. + う(u) 書こ・う
imperf. + よう (-yō) 見・よう
passive imperf. + れる (reru) 書か・れる
imperf. + られる (-rareru) 見・られる
causative imperf. + せる (seru) 書か・せる
imperf. + させる (-saseru) 見・させる
potential hyp. + る (ru) 書け・る
imperf. + られる (-rareru) 見・られる
  1. Note that this is an entirely different verb; する (suru) has no potential form.

The polite ending -masu conjugates as a group 1 verb. The passive and potential endings -reru and -rareru, and the causative endings -seru and -saseru all conjugate as group 2b verbs. Multiple verbal endings can therefore agglutinate. For example, a common formation is the causative-passive ending, -sase-rareru.

boku wa ane ni nattō o tabesaserareta.
I was made to eat natto by my (elder) sister.

As should be expected, the vast majority of lexically legal combinations of conjugative endings are not semantically meaningful.

[edit] Transitive and intransitive verbs

Japanese has a large variety of related pairs of transitive verbs (that take a direct object) and intransitive verbs (that do not take a direct object), such as hajimaru, (an activity) begins and hajimeru, (an actor) begins (an activity). [7] [8] [9] For example,

Jugyō ga hajimaru.
The class starts.
Sensei ga jugyō o hajimeru.
The teacher starts the class.

[edit] Adjectives

Semantically speaking, words that denote attributes or properties are distributed between two morphological classes:

  • adjectives (conventionally called i -adjectives") (形容詞 keiyōshi) – these are very similar to verbs, having roots and conjugating stem forms, and are semantically and morphologically similar to stative verbs.
  • nominal adjectives (conventionally called "na-adjectives") (形容動詞 keiyōdōshi, lit. "adjectival verb") – these are nouns that combine with the copula.

Unlike adjectives in languages like English, i -adjectives in Japanese inflect for aspect and mood, like verbs. Japanese adjectives do not have comparative or superlative inflections, which have to be marked periphrastically using adverbs like motto 'more' and ichiban 'most'. Nearly every Japanese adjective can be used in a predicative position; this differs from English where there are many common adjectives such as "major", as in "a major question", that cannot be used to in the predicate position (that is, *"The question is major" is not grammatical English). The handful of Japanese adjectives that cannot predicate — 大きな (ookina, big), 小さな (chīsana, small), おかしな (okashina, strange) — are all stylistic na-type variants of normal i-type adjectives. Every adjective in Japanese can be used in an attributive position.

All i -adjectives except for いい (ii, good) have regular conjugations, and ii is irregular only in the fact that it is a changed form of the regular adjective 良い (yoi) permissible in the terminal and attributive forms. For all other forms it reverts to yoi.

stem forms for adjectives
i -adjectives na-adjectives
安・い (yasu.) 静か- (shizuka-)
Imperfective form
(未然形 mizenkei)
安かろ (.karo) 静かだろ (-daro)
Continuative form
(連用形 ren'yōkei)
安く (.ku) 静かで (-de)
Terminal form¹
(終止形 shūshikei)
安い (.i) 静かだ (-da)
Attributive form¹
(連体形 rentaikei)
安い (.i) 静かな (-na)
Hypothetical form
(仮定形 kateikei)
安けれ (.kere) 静かなら (-nara)
Imperative form²
(命令形 meireikei)
安かれ (.kare) 静かなれ (-nare)
  1. The attributive and terminal forms were formerly 安き (.ki) and 安し (.shi), respectively; in modern Japanese these are used productively for stylistic reasons only, although many set phrases such as 名無し (nanashi, anonymous) and よし (yoshi, sometimes written yosh', general positive interjection) derive from them.
  2. The imperative form is extremely rare in modern Japanese, restricted to set patterns like 遅かれ早かれ (osokare hayakare, sooner or later), where they are treated as adverbial phrases! It is impossible for an imperative form to be in a predicate position.

Like verbs, we can enumerate some common conjugations of adjectives. Also, ii isn't special-cased, because all conjugations are identical to yoi.

  i -adjectives
安い (yasui, "cheap")
静か (shizuka, "quiet")
root + -i
(Used alone, without the copula)
"is cheap"
root + copula da 静かだ shizuka da
"is quiet"
root + -i + copula です (desu) 安いです
yasui desu
"is cheap"
root + copula です (desu) 静かです
shizuka desu
"is quiet"
cont. + あった (atta)
(u + a collapse)
"was cheap"
cont. + あった (atta)
(e + a collapse)
shizuka d.atta
"was quiet"
cont. + (は)ない ((wa) nai 安く(は)ない
"isn't cheap"
cont. + (は)ない ((wa) nai) 静かで(は)ない
shizuka de (wa) nai
"isn't quiet"
cont. + (は)なかった ((wa) nakatta 安く(は)なかった
"wasn't cheap"
cont. + (は)なかった ((wa) nakatta) 静かで(は)なかった
shizuka de (wa) nakatta
"wasn't quiet"
non past
inf. neg. non-past + ありません(arimasen 安くありません
yasuku arimasen
inf. cont + (は)ありません ((wa) arimasen) 静かではありません
shizuka de wa arimasen
inf. neg. non-past + naiない + copula です (desu 安くないです
yasukunai desu
inf. cont + (は)ないです ((wa) nai desu) 静かではないです
shizuka de wa nai desu
inf. neg. past + ありませんでした (arimasen deshita) 安くありませんでした
yasuku arimasen deshita
inf. cont + (は)ありませんでした ((wa) arimasen deshita) 静かではありませんでした
shizuka de wa arimasen deshita
inf. neg. past + copula です (desu 安くなかったです
yasukunakatta desu
inf. neg. past + なかったです (nakatta desu) ¹ 静かではなかったです
shizuka de wa nakatta desu
-te form cont. + て (te) 安くて
cont. 静かで
shizuka de
conditional hyp. + ば (ba) 安ければ
hyp. (+ ば (ba)) 静かなら(ば)
shizuka nara(ba)
provisional inf. past + ら (ra) 安かったら
inf. past + ら (ra) 静かだったら
shizuka datta.ra
volitional² imperf. + う (u) 安かろう (yasukarō) imperf. + う (u)
= root + だろう (darō)
静かだろう (shizuka darō)
adverbial cont. 安く
root + に (ni) 静かに
shizuka ni
degree (-ness) root + さ (sa) 安さ
root + sa 静かさ
  1. note that these are just forms of the i-type adjective ない (nai)
  2. since most adjectives describe non-volitional conditions, the volitional form is interpreted as "it is possible", if sensible. In some rare cases it is semi-volitional: 良かろう (yokarō, OK, lit: let it be good) in response to a report or request.

Adjectives too are governed by euphonic rules in certain cases, as noted in the section on it below. For the polite negatives of na-type adjectives, see also the section below on the copula だ (da).

[edit] The copula (だ da)

The copula da behaves very much like a verb or an adjective in terms of conjugation.

stem forms of the copula
Imperfective form
(未然形 mizenkei)
では (de wa)
Continuative form
(連用形 ren'youkei)
で (de)
Terminal form
(終止形 shūshikei)
だ (da, informal)
です (desu, polite)
でございます (de gozaimasu, respectful)
Attributive form
(連体形 rentaikei)
である (de aru)
Hypothetical form
(仮定形 kateikei)
なら (nara)
Imperative form
(命令形 meireikei)

Note that there are no potential, causative, or passive forms of the copula, just as with adjectives. The following are some examples.

JON wa gakusei da
John is a student.
ashita mo hare nara, PIKUNIKKU shiyō
If tomorrow is clear too, let's have a picnic.

In continuative conjugations, では (de wa) is often contracted in speech to じゃ (ja); for some kinds of informal speech ja is preferable to de wa, or is the only possibility.

conjugations of the copula
nonpast informal だ (da)
polite です (desu)
respectful でございます (de gozaimasu)
past informal cont. + あった (atta)
だった (datta)
polite でした (deshita)
respectful でございました (de gozaimashita)
informal cont. + はない (wa nai)
polite cont. + はありません (wa arimasen)
respectful cont. + はございません (wa gozaimasen)
informal cont. + はなかった (wa nakatta)
polite cont. + はありませんでした (wa arimasen deshita)
respectful cont. + はございませんでした (wa gozaimasen deshita)
conditional informal hyp. + ば (ba)
polite cont. + あれば (areba)
provisional informal なら (nara)
polite same as conditional
volitional informal だろう (darō)
polite でしょう (deshō)
respectful でございましょう (de gozaimashō)
adverbial and
-te forms
informal cont.
polite cont. + ありまして (arimashite)
respectful cont. + ございまして (gozaimashite)

Euphonic changes (音便 onbin)

spelling changes
archaic modern
あ+う (a + u)
あ+ふ (a + fu)
おう (ō)
い+う (i + u)
い+ふ (i + fu)
ゆう ()(*)
う+ふ (u + fu) うう (ū)
え+う (e + u)
え+ふ (e + fu)
よう ()
お+ふ (o + fu) おう (ō)
お+ほ (o + ho)
お+を (o + wo)
おお (ō)
auxiliary verb む (mu) ん (n)
medial or final は (ha) わ (wa)
medial or final ひ (hi), へ (he), ほ (ho) い (i), え (e), お (o)
(via wi, we, wo, see below)
any ゐ (wi), ゑ (we), を (wo) い (i), え (e), お (o)(*)

(*) usu. not reflected in spelling

Modern pronunciation is a result of a long history of phonemic drift that can be traced back to written records of the thirteenth century, and possibly earlier. However, it was only in 1946 that the Japanese ministry of education modified existing kana usage to conform to the standard dialect (共通語 kyōtsūgo). All earlier texts used the archaic orthography, now referred to as historical kana usage. The adjoining table is a nearly exhaustive list of these spelling changes. Unlike the tradition found in English-speaking countries, where people learn that Middle English (e.g., Chaucer) was pronounced differently from the modern language, it is not generally understood that the historical kana spellings were, at one point, reflective of pronunciation. For example, えふ (lit. efu) for "leaf" (葉, modern ha) was pronounced something like [epu] by the Japanese at the time it was borrowed. However, a modern reader of a classical text would still read this as [yoo], the modern pronunciation.

As mentioned above, conjugations of some verbs and adjectives differ from the prescribed formation rules because of euphonic changes. Nearly all of these euphonic changes are themselves regular. For verbs the exceptions are all in the ending of the continuative form of group when the following auxiliary has a ta-sound, i.e., た (ta), て (te), たり (tari), etc.

continuative ending changes to example
hi, ち chi or り ri っ (double consonant) *買ひて *kahite → 買って katte
*打ちて *uchite → 打って utte
*知りて *shirite → 知って shitte
bi, みmi or に ni ん (syllabic n), with the following タ t sound voiced *遊びて *asobite → 遊んで asonde
*住みて *sumite → 住んで sunde
*死にて *shinite → 死んで shinde
ki i *書きて *kakite → 書いて kaite
gi i, with the following タ t sound voiced *泳ぎて *oyogite → 泳いで oyoide

There is one other irregular change: 行く iku (to go), for which there is an exceptional continuative form: 行き iki + て te → 行って itte, 行き iki + た ta → 行った itta, etc.

The continuative form of proper adjectives, when followed by polite forms such as ございます (gozaimasu, to be) or 存じます (zonjimasu, to know), undergo a transformation.

continuative ending description examples
[not し] + く う, possibly also combining with the previous syllable according to the spelling reform chart *寒くございます *samuku gozaimasu → 寒うございます samū gozaimasu
*おはやくございます ohayaku gozaimasu → おはようございます ohayō gozaimasu
しく しゅう *涼しくございます *suzushiku gozaimasu → 涼しゅうございます suzushū gozaimasu

Respectful verbs such as くださる (kudasaru, to get), なさる (nasaru, to do), ござる (gozaru, to be), いらっしゃる (irassharu, to be/come/go), おっしゃる (ossharu, to say), etc. behave like group 1 verbs, except in the continuative and imperative forms.

change examples
continuative ーり changed to ーい *ござります *gozarimasu → ございます gozaimasu
*いらっしゃりませ *irassharimase → いらっしゃいませ irasshaimase
imperative ーれ changed to ーい *くだされ *kudasare → ください kudasai
*なされ *nasare → なさい nasai

In speech, common combinations of conjugation and auxiliary verbs are contracted in a fairly regular manner.

Colloquial contractions
full form colloquial example
-te shimau
group 1
負けてしまう (makete shimau, lose) → 負けちゃう/負けちまう (makechau/makechimau)
-de shimau
group 1
死んでしまう (shinde shimau, die) → 死んじゃう (shinjau) or 死んじまう (shinjimau)
-te wa
食べてはいけない (tabete wa ikenai, must not eat) → 食べちゃいけない (tabecha ikenai)
-de wa
飲んではいけない (nonde wa ikenai, must not drink) → 飲んじゃいけない (nonja ikenai)
-te iru
group 2b
寝ている (nete iru, is sleeping) → 寝てる (neteru)
-te oku
group 1
しておく (shite oku, will do it so) → しとく (shitoku)
-te iku
group 1
出て行け (dete ike, get out!) → 出てけ (deteke)
-ru no
何しているの (nani shite iru no, what are you doing?) → 何してんの (nani shitenno)
やりなさい (yarinasai, do it!) → やんなさい (yannasai)
やるな (yaruna, don't do it!) → やんな (yanna)

[edit] Other independent words

[edit] Adverbs

Adverbs in Japanese are not as tightly integrated into the morphology as in many other languages. Indeed, adverbs are not an independent class of words, but rather a role played by other words. For example, every adjective in the continuative form can be used as an adverb; thus, 弱い (yowai, weak, adj) → 弱く (yowaku, weakly, adv). The primary distinguishing characteristic of adverbs is that they cannot occur in a predicate position, just as it is in English. The following classification of adverbs is not intended to be authoritative or exhaustive.

Verbal adverbs
are verbs in the continuative form with the particle ni. Eg. 見る (miru, to see) → 見に (mi ni, for the purpose of seeing), used for instance as: 見に行く mi ni iku, go to see (something).
Adjectival adverbs
are adjectives in the continuative form, as mentioned above.
Nominal adverbs
are grammatical nouns that function as adverbs. Example: 一番 (ichiban, most highly).
Sound symbolism
are words that mimic sounds or concepts. Examples: きらきら (kirakira, sparklingly), ぽっくり (pokkuri, suddenly), するする surusuru, smoothly (sliding), etc.

Often, especially for sound symbolism, the particle to ("as if") is used. See the article on Japanese sound symbolism.

[edit] Conjunctions and interjections

These parts of speech are much as in English.

Examples of conjunctions: そして (soshite, and then), また (mata, and then/again), etc.

Examples of interjections: はい (hai, yes/OK/uh), へえ (, wow!), いいえ (īe, no/no way), おい (oi, hey!), etc.

[edit] Ancillary words

[edit] Particles

Particles in Japanese are postpositional, as they immediately follow the modified component. A full listing of particles is beyond the scope of this article, so only a few prominent particles are listed here. Keep in mind that the pronunciation and spelling differ for the particles wa (は), e (へ) and o (を): This article follows the Hepburn-style of romanizing them according to the pronunciation rather than spelling.

[edit] Topic, theme, and subject: は (wa) and が (ga)

The complex distinction between the so-called topic (は wa) and subject (が ga) particles has been the theme of many doctoral dissertations and scholarly disputes. Two major scholarly surveys of Japanese linguistics in English, (Shibatani 1990) and (Kuno 1973), clarify the distinction. To simplify matters, the referents of wa and ga in this section are called the topic and subject respectively, with the understanding that if either is absent, the grammatical topic and subject may coincide.

As an abstract and rough approximation, the difference between wa and ga is a matter of focus: wa gives focus to the action of the sentence, i.e., to the verb or adjective, whereas ga gives focus to the subject of the action. However, a more useful description must proceed by enumerating uses of these particles.

However, when first being introduced to the subject and topic markers wa and ga most are told that the difference between the two is simpler. The topic marker, wa, is used to declare or to make a statement. The subject marker, ga, is used for new information, or asking for new information.

See Topic marker: Japanese: は.

[edit] Thematic wa

The use of wa to introduce a new theme of discourse is directly linked to the notion of grammatical theme. Opinions differ on the structure of discourse theme, though it seems fairly uncontroversial to imagine a first-in-first-out hierarchy of themes that is threaded through the discourse. Of course, human limitations restrict the scope and depth of themes, and later themes may cause earlier themes to expire. In these sorts of sentences, the steadfast translation into English uses constructs like "speaking of X" or "on the topic of X", though such translations tend to be bulky as they fail to use the thematic mechanisms of English. For lack of a best strategy, many teachers of Japanese emphasize the "speaking of X" pattern without sufficient warning.

JON wa gakusei de aru
(On the topic of John), John is a student.

A common linguistic joke shows the insufficiency of rote translation with the sentence 僕は鰻だ (boku wa unagi da), which per the pattern would translate as "(Speaking of me), I am an eel." Yet, in a restaurant this sentence can reasonably be used to say "I'd like an order of eel", with no intended humor. This is because the sentence should be literally read, "As for me, it is an eel," with "it" referring to the speaker's order. The topic of the sentence is clearly not its subject. This is an example of deferred reference, a linguistic feature much more pervasive in Japanese than in English.

[edit] Contrastive wa

Related to the role of wa in introducing themes is its use in contrasting the current topic and its aspects from other possible topics and their aspects. The suggestive pattern is "X, but..." or "as for X, ...".

ame wa futte imasu ga...
It is raining, but...

Because of its contrastive nature, the topic cannot be undefined.

*dareka wa hon o yonde iru
*Someone is reading the book.

In this situation ga is forced.

In practice, the distinction between thematic and contrastive wa is not that useful. Suffice it to say that there can be at most one thematic wa in a sentence, and it has to be the first wa if one exists, and the remaining was are contrastive. For completeness, the following sentence (due to Kuno) illustrates the difference.

boku ga shitte iru hito wa daremo konakatta
(1) Of all the people I know, none came.
(2) (People came but), there weren't any of the people I know.

The first interpretation is the thematic wa, treating "the people I know" (boku ga shitte iru hito) as the theme of the predicate "none came" (dare mo konakatta). That is, if I know A, B, ..., Z, then none of the people who came were A, B, ..., Z. The second interpretation is the contrastive wa. If the likely attendees were A, B, ..., Z, and of them I know P, Q and R, then the sentence says that P, Q and R did not come. The sentence says nothing about A', B', ..., Z', all of whom I know, but none of whom were likely to come. The sentence is ambiguous up to this difference. (In practice the first interpretation is the likely one.)

[edit] Exhaustive ga

Unlike wa, the subject particle ga nominates its referent as the sole satisfier of the predicate. This distinction is famously illustrated by the following pair of sentences.

JON wa gakusei desu
John is a student. (There may be other students among the people we're talking about.)
JON ga gakusei desu
(Of all the people we are talking about) it is John who is the student.

It may be useful to think of the distinction in terms of the question each statement could answer, e.g.:

JON no shigoto wa nan desu ka
What is John's occupation?

for the first statement, versus

Dochira no kata ga gakusei desu ka
Which one (of them) is the student?

for the second.

Similarly, in a restaurant, if the waitress asks who has ordered the eel, the customer who ordered it can specify himself with

boku ga unagi da
The eel is for me (not these other people).

[edit] Objective ga

For stative transitive verbs, ga instead of o is typically used to mark the object.

JON wa FURANSU-go ga dekiru
John knows French.

[edit] Objects, locatives, instrumentals: を (o), に (ni), で (de), へ (e)

The direct object of non-stative transitive verbs is indicated by the object particle を (o).

JON wa aoi SĒTĀ o kite iru
John is wearing a blue sweater.

This particle can also mean "through" or "along" or "out of" when used with motion verbs.

MEARI ga hosoi michi o aruite ita
Mary was walking along a narrow road.
kokkyō no nagai TONNERU o nukeru to yukiguni de atta
The train came out of the long tunnel into the snow country.

The general instrumental particle is で (de), which can be translated as "using" or "by":

niku wa NAIFU de kiru koto
Meat must be cut with a knife.
densha de ikimashō
Let's go by train.

This particle also has other uses: "at" (temporary location):

machikado de sensei ni atta
(I) met my teacher at the street corner.


umi de oyogu no wa muzukashii
Swimming in the sea is hard.

"With" or "in (the span of)":

geki wa shujinkō no shi de owaru
The play ends with the protagonist's death.
ore wa nibyō de katsu
I'll win in two seconds.

The general locative particle is に (ni).

Tōkyō ni ikimashō
Let's go to Tokyo

In this function it is interchangeable with へ (e). However, ni has additional uses: "at (prolonged)":

watashi wa GUROSUTĀ dōri 99 ban ni sunde imasu
I live at 99 Gloucester road


kōri wa mizu ni uku
Ice floats on water.

"In (some year)", "at (some point in time)":

haru no yūgure ni...
On a spring eve...

[edit] Quantity and extents: と (to), も (mo), か (ka), や (ya), から (kara), まで (made)

To conjoin nouns, と (to) is used.

Kaban ni wa kyōkasho san-satsu to mangabon go-satsu o irete imasu
I have three textbooks and five comic books in the bag.

The additive particle も (mo) can be used to conjoin larger nominals and clauses.

Johan is a German. Brigette is a German too.
kare wa eiga SUTĀ de ari, seijika de mo aru
He is a movie star and also a politician.

For an incomplete list of conjuncts, や (ya) is used.

BORISU ya AIBAN o yobe
Call Boris, Ivan, etc.

When only one of the conjuncts is necessary, the disjunctive particle か (ka) is used.

SUSHI ka SASHIMI ka, nanika o chūmon shite ne
Order sushi or sashimi or something.

Quantities are listed between から (kara, from) and まで (made, to).

92 do kara 96 do made no netsu wa shinpai suru mono de wa nai
A temperature between 92 F and 96 F is not worrisome.

This pair can also be used to indicate time or space.

asa hachi-ji kara jūichi-ji made jugyō ga aru n da
You see, I have classes between 8 a.m. and 11 a.m.

Because kara indicates starting point or origin, it has a related use as "because", analogously to English "since" (in the sense of both "from" and "because"):

SUMISU-san wa gōin na hito desu kara, itsumo tanomarete iru kamoshirenai
Mr. Smith, I think it's because you're so assertive that you're always asked to do everything.

The particle kara and a related particle yori are used to indicate lowest extents: prices, business hours, etc.

wareware wa shichi-ji yori eigyō shite orimasu
We are open for business from 7 onwards.

Yori is also used in the sense of "than".

omae wa nē-chan yori urusai n da
You are louder/more talkative than my sister!

[edit] Coordinating: と (to), に (ni), よ (yo)

The particle と (to) is used to set off quotations.

"koroshite... koroshite" to ano ko wa itte'ta no
The girl was saying, "Kill... kill."
neko wa NYĀ NYĀ to naku
The cat says: meaow, meaow.

It is also used to indicate a manner of similarity, "as if" or "like".

kare wa "aishite'ru yo" to itte, pokkuri to shinda
He said "I love you," and dropped dead.

In a related conditional use, it functions like "after", or "upon".

ame ga agaru to, kodomo-tachi wa mou gakushū o wasurete, taiyō ni omote wo mukeru mizu-tamari no yūwaku ni shitagau
Rain stops and then: children, forgetting their lessons, give in to the temptation of sun-faced puddles.

Finally it is used with verbs like to meet (with) (会う au) or to speak (with) (話す hanasu).

JON ga MEARI to hajimete atta no wa, 1942 nen no haru no yūgure datta
John met Mary for the first time on a dusky spring afternoon in 1942.

This last use is also a function of the particle に (ni), but to indicates reciprocation which ni does not.

JON ga MEARI to ren'ai shite iru
John and Mary are in love.
JON ga MEARI ni ren'ai shite iru
John loves Mary (but Mary might not love John back).

Finally, the particle よ (yo) is used in a hortative or vocative sense.

kawaii musume yo, kao o shikamete watashi wo miruna
O my beloved daughter, don't frown at me so!

[edit] Final: か (ka), ね (ne), よ (yo) and related

The sentence-final particle か (ka) turns a declarative sentence into a question.

sochira wa amerika-jin deshō ka?
Are you perchance an American?

Other sentence-final particles add emotional or emphatic impact to the sentence. The particle ね (ne) softens a declarative sentence, similar to English "you know?", "eh?" or "I tell you!"

kare ni denwa shinakatta no ne
You didn't call him up, did you?
chikajika rondon ni hikkosareru sou desu ne.
I hear you're moving to London soon. Is that true?

A final よ (yo) is used for emphasis or a stronger way to say "you know".

uso tsuite nai yo!
I'm not lying!

There are many such emphatic particles; some examples: ぜ (ze) and ぞ (zo) usually used by males; な (na) a less formal form of ne; わ (wa) used by females (and males in the Kansai region) like yo, etc. They are essentially limited to speech or transcribed dialogue.

[edit] Compound particles

Compound particles are formed with at least one particle together with other words, including other particles. The commonly seen forms are:

  • particle + verb (term. or cont. or -te form)
  • particle + noun + particle
  • noun + particle

Other structures are rarer, though of course possible. A few examples:

sono ken ni kan-shite shitte-iru kagiri no koto wo oshiete moraitai
Kindly tell me everything you know concerning that case. (particle + verb in cont.)
gaikokugo wo gakushū suru ue de taisetsu na koto wa mainichi no doryoku ga mono wo iu to iu koto de aru
In studying a foreign language, daily effort gives the most rewards. (noun + particle)
ani wa ryōshin no shinpai wo yoso ni, daigaku wo yamete shimatta
Ignoring my parents' worries, my brother dropped out of college. (particle + noun + particle)

[edit] Auxiliary verbs

All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, but they differ from normal verbs in having no independent meaning. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs:

Pure auxiliaries (助動詞 jodōshi
are usually just called verb endings or conjugated forms. These auxiliaries cannot possibly function as an independent verb.
Helper auxiliaries (補助動詞 hojodōshi
are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.

In classical Japanese, which was more purely agglutinating than modern Japanese, the category of auxiliary verb included every possible verb ending after the stem form, and most of these endings were themselves active participants in composition. In modern Japanese, however, some auxiliaries have stopped being productive. The most classic example is the classical auxiliary たり (-tari) whose forms た (-ta), て (-te), etc. are now no longer viewed as verbal endings, i.e., they can take no further affixes.

some pure auxiliary verbs
auxiliary group attaches to meaning modification example
ます (masu) irregular1 continuative makes the sentence polite 書く (kaku, to write) → 書きます (kakimasu)
られる (rareru 2b imperf. of grp. 2 makes V passive/honorific/potential 見る (miru, to see) → 見られる (mirareru, to be able to see)
食べる(taberu, to eat) → 食べられる (taberareru, to be able to eat)
れる (reru) imperf. of grp. 1 makes V passive/honorific 飲む (nomu, to drink/swallow) → 飲まれる (nomareru, to be drunk)
る (ru hyp. of grp. 1 makes V potential 飲む (nomu, to drink/swallow) → 飲める (nomeru, to be able to drink)
させる (saseru)4 2b imperf. of grp. 2 makes V causative 考える (kangaeru, to think) → 考えさせる (kangaesaseru, to cause to think)
せる (seru) imperf. of grp. 1 思い知る (omoishiru, to realize) → 思い知らせる (omoishiraseru, to cause to realize/to teach a lesson)
1 ます (masu) has stem forms: imperfective ませ and ましょ, continuative まし, terminal ます, attributive ます, hypothetical ますれ, imperative ませ.
² られる (rareru) in potential usage is sometimes shortened to れる (reru, grp. 2); thus 食べれる (tabereru, to be able to eat) instead of 食べられる (taberareru). But it is considered non-standard.
³ Technically, such an auxiliary verb る, ru, denoting the potential form, does not exist, as for example 飲める (nomeru) is thought to actually come from the contraction of 飲み得る, nomieru (see below). However, textbooks tend to teach it this way. (飲める in old texts would have been the attributive past tense form of 飲む instead of the potential meaning.)
4 させる (saseru) is sometimes shortened to さす (sasu, grp. 1), but this usage is somewhat literary.

Much of the agglutinative flavour of Japanese stems from helper auxiliaries, however. The following table contains a small selection of an abundant store of such auxiliary verbs.

some helper auxiliary verbs
auxiliary group attaches to meaning modification example
ある (aru, to be (inanimate)) 1 -te form
only for trans.
indicates state modification 開く (hiraku, to open) → 開いてある (hiraite-aru, opened and is still open)
いる (iru, to be (animate)) 2a -te form
for trans.
progressive aspect 寝る (neru, to sleep) → 寝ている (nete-iru, is sleeping)
2a -te form
for intrans.
indicates state modification 閉まる (shimaru, (intransitive) to close) → 閉まっている (shimatte-iru, is closed)
行く (iku, to go) 1 -te form "goes on V-ing" 歩く (aruku, to walk) → 歩いて行く (aruite-iku, keep walking)
くる (kuru, to come) ka -te form inception, "start to V" 降る (furu, fall) → 降ってくる (futte-kuru, start to fall)
perfection, "have V-ed" (only past-tense) 死ぬ (shinu, die) → 死んできた (shinde-kita, have died)
conclusion, "come to V" 異なる (kotonaru, change) → 異なってくる (kotonatte-kuru, come to change)
始める (hajimeru, to begin) 2b continuative
"V begins", "begin to V" 書く (kaku, to write) → 書き始める (kaki-hajimeru, start to write)
punctual & subj. must be plural
着く (tsuku, to arrive) → 着き始める (tsuki-hajimeru, have all started to arrive)
出す (dasu, to emit) 1 continuative "start to V" 輝く (kagayaku, to shine) → 輝き出す (kagayaki-dasu, to start shining)
みる (miru, to see) 1 -te form "try to V" する (suru, do) → してみる (shite-miru, try to do)
なおす (naosu, to correct/heal) 1 continuative "do V again, correcting mistakes" 書く (kaku, to write) → 書きなおす (kaki-naosu, rewrite)
あがる (agaru, to rise) 1 continuative "do V thoroughly" / "V happens upwards" 立つ (tatsu, to stand) → 立ち上がる (tachi-agaru, stand up)

出来る (dekiru, to come out) → 出来上がる (deki-agaru, be completed)

得る (eru/uru, to be able) (see note at bottom) continuative indicates potential ある (aru, to be) → あり得る (ariuru, is possible)
かかる/かける (kakaru/kakeru, to hang/catch/obtain) 1 continuative
only for intrans., non-volit.
"about to V", "almost V",
"to start to V"
溺れる (oboreru, drown) → 溺れかける (obore-kakeru, about to drown)
きる (kiru, to cut) 1 continuative "do V completely" 食べる (taberu, to eat) → 食べきる (tabe-kiru, to eat it all)
消す (kesu, to erase) 1 continuative "cancel by V"
"deny with V"
揉む (momu, to rub) → 揉み消す (momi-kesu, to rub out, to extinguish)
込む (komu, to enter deeply/plunge) 1 continuative "V deep in", "V into" 話す (hanasu, to speak) → 話し込む (hanashi-komu, to be deep in conversation)
下げる (sageru, to lower) 2b continuative "V down" 引く (hiku, to pull) → 引き下げる (hiki-sageru, to pull down)
過ぎる (sugiru, to exceed) 2a continuative "overdo V" 言う (iu, to say) → 言いすぎる (ii-sugiru, to say too much, to overstate)
付ける (tsukeru, to attach) 2b continuative "become accustomed to V" 行く (iku, to go) → 行き付ける (iki-tsukeru, be used to (going))
続ける (tsuzukeru, to continue) 2b continuative "keep on V" 降る (furu, to fall (eg. rain)) → 降り続ける (furi-tsuzukeru, to keep falling)
通す (tōsu, to show/thread/lead) 1 continuative "finish V-ing" 読む (yomu, to read) → 読み通す (yomi-tōsu, to finish reading)
抜ける (nukeru, to shed/spill/desert) 2b continuative
only for intrans.
"V through" 走る (hashiru, to run) → 走り抜ける (hashiri-nukeru, to run through (swh))
残す (nokosu, to leave behind) 1 continuative by doing V, leave something behind 思う (omou, to think) → 思い残す (omoi-nokosu, to regret (lit: to have something left to think about))
残る (nokoru, to be left behind) 1 continuative
for intrans. only
be left behind, doing V 生きる (ikiru, live) → 生き残る (iki-nokoru, to survive (lit: to be left alive))
分ける (wakeru, to divide/split/classify) 2b continuative the proper way to V 使う (tsukau, use) → 使い分ける (tsukai-wakeru, to indicate the proper way to use)
忘れる (wasureru, to forget) 2b continuative to forget to V 聞く (kiku, to ask) → 聞き忘れる (kiki-wasureru, to forget to ask)
  • Note: 得る eru/uru is the only modern verb of shimo nidan type (and it is different from the shimo nidan type of classical Japanese), with conjugations: imperfective え, continuative え, terminal える or うる, attributive うる, hypothetical うれ, imperative えろ or えよ.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ In contrast, Romance languages such as Spanish are strongly right-branching, and Germanic languages such as English are weakly right-branching
  2. ^ Uehara 1998:69
  3. ^ Uehara 1998
  4. ^ Uehara 1998, chapter 2, especially §
  5. ^ sci.lang.japan FAQ: I and you words
  6. ^ Discussion of pronoun reference constraints by Bart Mathias on sci.lang.japan.
  7. ^ http://www.sljfaq.org/w/Transitive_and_intransitive_verbs Transitive and intransitive verbs – Sljfaq
  8. ^ http://www.guidetojapanese.org/transtype.html Transitive and Intransitive Verbs – Tae Kim's Japanese grammar guide
  9. ^ http://kimallen.sheepdogdesign.net/Japanese/verbs2.html Japanese verbs, part 2

[edit] Bibliography

  • Bloch, Bernard. (1946). Studies in colloquial Japanese I: Inflection. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 66, 97–109.
  • Bloch, Bernard. (1946). Studies in colloquial Japanese II: Syntax. Language, 22, 200–248.
  • Chafe, William L. (1976). Giveness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics, and point of view. In C. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 25–56). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-447350-4.
  • Kuno, Susumu. (1973). The structure of the Japanese language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11049-0.
  • Kuno, Susumu. (1976). Subject, theme, and the speaker's empathy: A re-examination of relativization phenomena. In Charles N. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 417–444). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-447350-4.
  • Makino, Seiichi & Tsutsui, Michio. (1986). A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar. Japan Times. ISBN 4-7890-0454-6
  • Makino, Seiichi & Tsutsui, Michio. (1995). A dictionary of intermediate Japanese grammar. Japan Times. ISBN 4-7890-0775-8
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1975). A reference grammar of Japanese. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01813-4.
  • McClain, Yoko Matsuoka. (1981). Handbook of modern Japanese grammar: 口語日本文法便覧 [Kōgo Nihon bunpō benran]. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. ISBN 4-590-00570-0; ISBN 0-89346-149-0.
  • Mizutani, Osamu; & Mizutani, Nobuko. (1987). How to be polite in Japanese: 日本語の敬語 [Nihongo no keigo]. Tokyo: Japan Times. ISBN 4-7890-0338-8.
  • Shibatani, Masayoshi. (1990). Japanese. In B. Comrie (Ed.), The major languages of east and south-east Asia. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04739-0.
  • Shibatani, Masayoshi. (1990). The languages of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36070-6 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-36918-5 (pbk).
  • Shibamoto, Janet S. (1985). Japanese women's language. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-640030-X. Graduate Level
  • Tsujimura, Natsuko. (1996). An introduction to Japanese linguistics. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-19855-5 (hbk); ISBN 0-631-19856-3 (pbk). Upper Level Textbooks
  • Tsujimura, Natsuko. (Ed.) (1999). The handbook of Japanese linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20504-7. Readings/Anthologies
  • Uehara, Satoshi. 1998. Syntactic categories in Japanese: a cognitive and typological introduction. Kurosio. Series: Studies in Japanese linguistics; 9.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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