CPU socket

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The Socket 370 processor socket, a ZIF type PGA socket
Socket A (also known as Socket 462)

A CPU socket or CPU slot is a connector on a motherboard that accepts a CPU and forms an electrical interface with it. As of 2007, most desktop and server computers, particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture, include socketed processors.

Most CPU-sockets interfaces are based on the pin grid array (PGA) architecture, in which short, stiff pins on the underside of the processor package mate with holes in the socket. To minimize the risk of bent pins, zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets allow the processor to be inserted without any resistance, then grip the pins firmly to ensure a reliable contact after a lever is flipped.

As of 2007, land grid array (LGA) sockets are becoming increasingly popular, with several current and upcoming socket designs using this scheme. With LGA sockets, the socket contains pins that make contact with pads or lands on the bottom of the processor package. While not popular for many years, LGAs are not new; the Intel 80286 (introduced ca. 1983) was offered in a ceramic LGA version.

In the late 1990s, many x86 processors fit into slots, rather than sockets. CPU slots are single-edged connectors similar to expansion slots, into which a PCB holding a processor is inserted. Slotted CPU packages offered two advantages: L2 cache memory could be upgraded by installing an additional chip onto the processor PCB, and processor insertion and removal was often easier.


[edit] List of sockets and slots

Many socket names containing three-digit numbers represent the number of pins on the processor or socket.

[edit] Early sockets

Prior to Intel's introduction of the proprietary Slot 1 in 1997, CPU sockets were de facto open standards and were often used by multiple manufacturers.[1]

[edit] AMD

[edit] Desktop

  • Super Socket 7 - AMD K6-2, AMD K6-III; Rise mP6.
  • Slot A - AMD Athlon
  • Socket A (also known as "Socket 462", 462-contact PGA) - AMD socket supporting Athlon, Duron, Athlon XP, Athlon XP-M, Athlon MP, Sempron, and Geode processors.
  • Socket 754 (754-contact PGA) - AMD single-processor socket featuring single-channel DDR-SDRAM. Supports AMD Athlon 64, Sempron, Turion 64 processors.
  • Socket 939 (939-contact PGA) - AMD single-processor socket featuring dual-channel DDR-SDRAM. Supports Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX to 1 GHz[4], Athlon 64 X2 to 4800+, Opteron 100-series processors . Superseded by Socket AM2 about 2 years after launch.
  • Socket 940 (940-contact PGA) - AMD single and multi-processor socket featuring registered (ECC) DDR-SDRAM. Intended for Opteron servers, but also used for "SledgeHammer" series Athlon 64 FX processors .
  • Socket AM2 (940-contact PGA) - AMD single-processor socket featuring DDR2-SDRAM. Replaces Socket 754 and Socket 939[4] (some confused Socket AM2 with "Socket 940" for server processors). Supports Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron, Sempron and Phenom processors.
  • Socket AM2+ (940-contact PGA) - AMD socket for single processor systems. Features support for DDR2 and HyperTransport 3 with separated power lanes. (Replaces Socket AM2 , electrically compatible with Socket AM2). Supports Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron, and Phenom processors.
  • Socket AM3 (938-contact PGA) - AMD socket for single processor systems. Features support for DDR3 and HyperTransport 3 with separated power lanes. Replaces Socket AM2+ with support for DDR3-SDRAM.

[edit] Mobile

  • Socket 563 - AMD low-power mobile Athlon XP-M (563-contact µ-PGA, mostly mobile parts).
  • Socket 754
  • Socket S1 - AMD socket for mobile platforms featuring DDR2-SDRAM. Replaces Socket 754 for mobile processors (638-contact PGA).
  • Socket FS1 - future Fusion processors for notebook market with CPU and GPU functionality (codenamed Swift), supporting DDR3 SDRAM, to be released in 2009.

[edit] Server

  • Socket 940 - AMD single and multi-processor socket featuring DDR-SDRAM. Supports AMD Opteron[4] (2xx and 8xx Series), Athlon 64 FX processors (940-contact PGA).
  • Socket A
  • Socket F (also known as "Socket 1207") - AMD multi-processor socket featuring DDR2-SDRAM. Supports AMD Opteron[4](2xxx and 8xxx Series) and Athlon 64 FX processors. Replaces Socket 940 (LGA 1207-contact), and partially compatible with Socket F+.
  • Socket F+ - Future AMD multi-processor socket featuring higher speed HyperTransport interconnect of up to 2.6 GHz. Replacing Socket F but socket F processors remained supported for backward compatibility.
  • Future processor which is in development under the Fusion project codename, will employ Socket FS1 and two other sockets.
  • Socket G34 - successor to socket F+, originally planned as Socket G3 paired with Socket G3 Memory Extender for servers to expand memory.

[edit] Intel

[edit] Desktop

[edit] Mobile

[edit] Server

[edit] Others

[edit] Notes and References

  1. ^ Plotkin, Hal (1998-12-07). "The socket wars: how Intel is giving R&D a bad name". SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/1998/12/07/socket.DTL. Retrieved on 14 January 2009. 
  2. ^ "Intel 80186 12 MHz processor". http://www.ciao.se/Intel_80186_12_MHz_processor__5790.  (Swedish)
  3. ^ "Przegla;d rozwia;zan' sprze;towych platformy X86". http://www.mwiacek.com/pc.pl/x86/x86.htm#4.2.80286/80287%20Socket%20%2880286/80287%29%7Coutline.  (Polish)
  4. ^ a b c d These sockets are for CPUs with integrated memory controllers. The 754-pin models have a single memory channel routed through the CPU pins. The 939-pin models have two memory channels, hence the higher pin count. The 940-pin CPUs also have two memory channels but they require registered memory, and most have support for SMP. Sockets F and AM2 are redesigned to support DDR2. The Socket F contains 1207 pins (Added pins speculated to be for more scalability and better power distribution). Socket AM2 has 940 pin-holes but does not support current AMD Opteron processors.
  5. ^ a b c The 478 pin socket was introduced because it uses a micro-PGA layout which is physically smaller than the socket 423. Socket 775 was introduced with support for PCI express, DDR2 memory and Intel 64 (Intel's implementation of x86-64), but also moved to the new Land Grid Array physical layout, where the pins are in the socket rather than on the CPU package, for better electrical performance.
  6. ^ Fudzilla report, retrieved October 23, 2007
  7. ^ http://download.intel.com/design/mobile/applnots/24528401.pdf

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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