Scottish clan

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Clan map of Scotland

Scottish clans (from Scottish Gaelic clann, "children"), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the heraldry and Coat of Arms. Each clan has its own tartan patterns, usually dating to the 19th century, and members of the clan may wear kilts, skirts, sashes, ties, scarves, or other items of clothing made of the appropriate tartan as a badge of membership and as a uniform where appropriate.

Clans identify with geographical areas originally controlled by the Chiefs, usually with an ancestral castle and clan gatherings form a regular part of the social scene.


[edit] Origins of the clans

The word clann in Scottish Gaelic means "children". Each clan was a large group of related people, theoretically an extended family, supposedly descended from one progenitor and all owing allegiance to the patriarchal clan chief. It also included a large group of loosely-related septs – related families - all of whom looked to the clan chief as their head and their protector.

The Senchus fer n-Alban lists three main kin groups in Dál Riata in Scotland, with a fourth being added later:[1]

The Senchus does not list any kindreds in Ireland. Among the Cenél Loairn it lists the Airgíalla, although whether this should be understood as being Irish settlers or simply another tribe to whom the label was applied is unclear.[4] The meaning of Airgíalla 'hostage givers' adds to the uncertainty, although it must be observed that only one grouping in Ireland was apparenly given this name and it is therefore very rare, perhaps supporting the Ui Macc Uais hypothesis[clarification needed]. There is no reason to suppose that this is a complete or accurate list.[5]

Some clans such as Clan Campbell and Clan Donald claim ancient Celtic mythological progenitors mentioned in the Fenian cycle, with a group including Clan MacSween, Clan Lamont, Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan Maclachlan, and MacNeil tracing their ancestry back to the 5th century High King of Ireland. Others such as Clan MacAulay, Clan Mackinnon and Clan Gregor claim descent from the Scots King Kenneth Mac Alpin who made himself King of the Picts in 843, founding the Kingdom called after the name of the land Alba (modern-day Scotland). The MacDonalds and MacDougalls claim descent from Somerled, the half-Gael/Norse-Manx Lord of the Isles in the mid-11th century.

Though the clans had always been a feature of pre-Christian Scotland and Ireland, they first emerged into English consciousness from the turmoil of the 12th and 13th centuries when the Scottish crown pacified northern rebellions and re-conquered areas taken by the Norse, and after the fall of Macbeth when the crown became increasingly Anglo-Norman. This turmoil created opportunities for Norse, Scottish and English warlords and their kin to dominate areas, and the instability of the Wars of Scottish Independence brought in warlords with Norman, and Flemish ancestry, founding clans such as the Chisholms and Menzies.

[edit] The Highland clan system

[edit] Inheritance and authority

The Scottish Highland clan system incorporated the Celtic/Norse traditions of heritage as well as Norman Feudal society. Chieftains and petty kings under the suzerainty of a High King (ard rí) ruled Gaelic Alba, with all such offices being filled through election by an assembly. Usually the candidate was nominated by the current office holder on the approach of death, and his heir-elect was known as the tanist, from the Gaelic tànaiste, or second, with the system being known as tanistry. This system combined a hereditary element with the consent of those ruled, and while the succession in clans later followed the feudal rule of primogeniture, the concept of authority coming from the clan continued.

Thus the collective heritage of the clan, the dùthchas, gave the right to settle the land to which the chiefs and leading gentry provided protection and authority as trustees for the people. This was combined with the complementary concept of òighreachd where the chieftain's authority came from charters granted by the feudal Scottish crown, where individual heritage was warranted. While dùthchas held precedence in the medieval period, the balance shifted as the mainly lowland Scots law became increasingly important in shaping the structure of clanship.

[edit] Legal process

To settle criminal and civil disputes within clans both sides put their case to an arbitration panel drawn from the leading gentry of the clan and presided over by the chief. Similarly, in disputes between clans the chiefs served as procurators (legal agents) for the disputants in their clan and put the case to an arbitration panel of equal numbers of gentry from each clan presided over by a neighbouring chief or landlord. There was no appeal from the decision which awarded reparations, called assythment, to the wronged party and which was recorded in a convenient Royal or Burgh court. This compensation took account of the age, responsibilities and status of the victim as well as the nature of the crime, and once paid precluded any further action for redress against the perpetrator. To speed this process clans made standing provisions for arbitration and regularly contracted bands of friendship between the clans which had the force of law and were recorded in a convenient court.

[edit] Social ties

Fosterage and manrent were the most important forms of social bonding in the clans. In fosterage, the chief's children were brought up by favoured members of the leading clan gentry (traditionally the mother's brother or similar, i.e. in another clan), whose children in turn were brought up by other favoured members of the clan (again the mother's brother or the like - i.e. in another clan). This brought about intense ties and reinforced inter-clan cohesion. Manrent was a bond contracted by the heads of families looking to the chief for territorial protection, though not living on the estates of the clan elite. These bonds were reinforced by calps, death duties paid to the chief as a mark of personal allegiance by the family when their head died, usually in the form of their best cow or horse. Although calps were banned by Parliament in 1617, manrent continued covertly to pay for protection.

Less durably, marriage alliances reinforced kinship between clans. These were contracts involving the exchange of livestock, money and rent, tocher for the bride and dowry for the groom.

[edit] Clan management

Payments of rents and calps from those living on clan estates and calps alone from families living elsewhere were channelled through tacksmen[citation needed]. These lesser gentry acted as estate managers, allocating the run-rig strips of land, lending seed-corn and tools and arranging droving of cattle to the Lowlands for sale, taking a minor share of the payments made to the clan nobility, the fine[citation needed]. They had the important military role of mobilising the Clan Host, both when required for warfare and more commonly as a large turn out of followers for weddings and funerals, and traditionally in August for hunts which included sports for the followers, the predecessors of the modern Highland games[citation needed].

From the late 16th century the Scottish Privy Council, recognising the need for co-operation, required clan leaders to provide bonds of surety for the conduct of anyone on their territory and to regularly attend at Edinburgh, encouraging a tendency to become absentee landlords. With an increase in droving, tacksmen acquired the wealth to finance the gentry's debts secured against their estates, hence acquiring the land. By the 1680s this led to the land in ownership largely coinciding with the collective 'dutchas' for the first time. The tacksmen became responsible for the bonds of surety leading to a decline in banditry and feuding.

[edit] Disputes and disorder

Where the oighreachd, land owned by the clan elite or fine, did not match the common heritage of the duthchas this led to territorial disputes and warfare. The fine resented their clansmen paying rent to other landlords, while acquisitive clans used disputes to expand their territories, and many clan histories record ferocious long lasting feuding such as the Clan Gordon and the Clan Forbes, which lasted for centuries and caused many deaths in both clans. On the western seaboard clans became involved with the wars of the Irish Gaels against the Tudor English, and a military caste called the buannachan developed, seasonally fighting in Ireland as mercenaries and living off their clans as minor gentry, but this was brought to an end with the Irish Plantations of James VI of Scotland and I of England. During that century law increasingly settled disputes, and the last feud leading to a battle was at Mulroy in Lochaber on August 4 1688.

Reiving had been a rite of passage, the creach where young men took livestock from neighbouring clans. By the 17th century this had declined and most reiving was the spreidh where up to 10 men raided the adjoining Lowlands, the livestock taken usually being recoverable on payment of tascal (information money) and guarantee of no prosecution. Some clans offered the Lowlanders protection against such raids, on terms not dissimilar to blackmail.

Although by the late 17th century disorder declined, reiving persisted with the growth of cateran bands of up to 50 bandits, usually led by a renegade of the gentry, who had thrown off the constraints of the clan system. As well as preying off the clans, caterans acted as mercenaries for Lowland lairds pursuing disputes amongst themselves.

[edit] Civil wars and Jacobitism

As the civil wars of the Three Kingdoms broke out in the early 17th century the Covenanters were supported by the territorially ambitious Argyll Campbells and House of Sutherland as well as some clans of the central Highlands opposed to the Royalist House of Huntly. While some clans remained neutral, others led by Montrose supported the Royalist cause, projecting their feudal obligations to clan chiefs onto the Royal House of Stuart, resisting the demands of the Covenanters for commitment and reacting to the ambitions of the larger clans. In the Wars of 1644-47, the most prominent Royalist clan were Clan Donald led by Alasdair MacColla.

With the Restoration of Charles II, Episcopalianism became widespread among clans as it suited the hierarchical clan structure and encouraged obedience to Royal authority, while some other clans were converted by Catholic missions. In 1682 James Duke of York, Charles' brother, instituted the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands which worked in co-operation with the clan chiefs in maintaining order as well as redressing Campbell acquisitiveness, and when he became King James VII he retained popularity with many Highlanders. All these factors contributed to continuing support for the Stuarts when James was deposed by William of Orange in the "Glorious Revolution".

The support among many clans, their remoteness from authority and the ready mobilisation of the clan hosts made the Highlands the starting point for the Jacobite Risings. In Scottish Jacobite ideology the Highlander symbolised patriotic purity as against the corruption of the Union, and as early as 1689 some Lowlanders wore "Highland habit" in the Jacobite army.

[edit] Decline of the Clan system

Successive Scottish governments had portrayed the clans as bandits needing occasional military expeditions to keep them in check and extract taxes. As Highlanders became associated with Jacobitism and rebellion the government made repeated efforts to curb the clans, culminating with brutal repression after the battle of Culloden. This followed in 1746 with the Act of Proscription, further measures making restrictions on their ability to bear arms, traditional dress, culture, and even music. The Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed the feudal authority the Clan Chieftains had once enjoyed.

With the failure of Jacobitism the clan chiefs and gentry increasingly became landlords, losing the traditional obligations of clanship. They were incorporated into the British aristocracy, looking to the clan lands mainly to provide them with a suitable income. From around 1725 clansmen had been emigrating to America; both clan gentry looking to re-establish their lifestyle, or as victims of raids on the Hebrides looking for cheap labour. Increasing demand in Britain for cattle and sheep led to higher rents with surplus clan population leaving in the mass migration later known as the Highland Clearances, finally undermining the traditional clan system.

[edit] Romantic "revival" of interest

David Wilkie's flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV, with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event.

The Ossian poems of James Macpherson in the 1760s suited the Romantic enthusiasm for the "sublime" "primitive" and achieved international success with a disguised elegy for the Jacobite clans, set in the remote past. They were presented as translations of ancient ballads, a fraud caustically dismissed by Dr. Samuel Johnson. This damaged the reputation of the poems, but their artistic merit had widespread influence.

Shortly before or after the Dress Act restricting kilt wearing was repealed in 1782, Highland aristocrats set up Highland Societies in Edinburgh and other centres including London and Aberdeen, landowners' clubs with aims including "Improvements" (which others would later call the Highland Clearances). Clubs like the Celtic Society of Edinburgh included Highland chieftains and Lowlanders taking an interest in the clans. The success of the historical novels of Sir Walter Scott as well as the pomp surrounding the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 spurred 19th century interest in the clans and a reawakening of Scottish culture and pride.

[edit] The Lowland Families

It is quite acceptable to refer to the great Lowland families as clans also, since the Scots themselves appear to have used both terms interchangeably until the 19th century. In an Act of the Scottish Parliament of 1597 we have the description of the "Chiftanis and chieffis of all clannis...duelland in the hielands or bordouris" - thus using the word clan and chief to describe both Highland and Lowland families. The act goes on to list the various Lowland clans including the Maxwells, Jardines, Turnbulls and other famous Border Reivers names. Further, Sir George MacKenzie of Rosehaugh, the Lord Advocate (Attorney General) writing in 1680 said "By the term 'chief' we call the representative of the family from the word chef or head and in the Irish (Gaelic) with us the chief of the family is called the head of the clan". So it can be seen that all along the words chief or head and clan or family are interchangeable. It is therefore quite correct to talk of the MacDonald family or the Stirling clan. The idea that Highlanders should be listed as clans while the Lowlanders should be termed as families is a 19th century convention. [6]

The important point to remember is that until the 19th century, the Lowland or Border clans did not identify themselves by specific tartans, nor did they wear the kilt or play the Great Highland Pipes (although they would be familiar with the widely used Lowland or Border Pipes) but afterwards they adopted these characteristics of Highland culture as a form of clan identification, which they are happy to use to the present day.

The cultural development of the Lowlands

The Lowlands south of the river Forth had been Brythonic Celtic, with the southeast becoming Angles, and Galloway and the western seaboard becoming Norse-Gaelic, then by 1034 the Kingdom of Alba had expanded to bring all but the last area under Gaelic Celtic rule. From the accession of King David I (1124), the traditional social patterns of much of eastern Scotland began to be altered, particularly with the growth of burghs and the settlement of French feudal families on royal demesne lands. This process was, of course, very slow, but its cumulative effect over many centuries was to undermine the integrity of Gaelic in the areas affected, areas which later became known collectively as the Lowlands, though to a large extent Galloway and Carrick, where Galwegian Gaelic survived into the 17th century, were not affected as much as elsewhere until very late.

However, many aristocratic Gaelic clans did in fact survive in form, especially in Galloway (e.g. MacDowall, MacLellan, MacCann ), Carrick (e.g. Kennedy) and Fife (e.g. MacDuff). The term clan was still being used of Lowland families at the end of the 16th century and, while aristocrats may have been increasingly likely to use the word family, the terms remained interchangeable until the 19th century.

By the late 18th century the Lowlands were integrated into the British system, with an uneasy relationship to the Highlanders. The total population of Lowlanders diminished drastically in some parts of the south as a direct result of the Agricultural Revolution which resulted in the Lowland Clearances, and the subsequent emigration of large numbers of Lowland Scots.

However, with the revival of interest in Gaeldom and the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822, there was a new enthusiasm amongst Lowlanders for re-identification with their Gaelic culture. As a result many Lowland families and aristocrats now appear on clan lists with their own tartans, in some cases with a claim to ancestry from the Highland area – encouraged, no doubt, by companies who market supposed coats-of-arms and heraldic devices, manufacturers of tartan cloth, and by the immense growth of Internet genealogical research, beginning in the last few years of the twentieth century. As a result, many Lowland/Border clans now have their own clan societies, websites and annual reunions.

[edit] Clan membership

A clan is community which is distinguished by heraldry and recognised by the Sovereign. A clan is considered a "noble incorporation" because a clan chief is a title of honour(?)in Scotland and the chief confers his or her noble status onto the clan. Clans with recognised chiefs are therefore recognised under Scottish law. A group without a chief recognised by the Sovereign, through the Lord Lyon, has no position under Scottish law. All claimants to the title of chief must be recognised by the Lord Lyon who determines if the claimant is entitled to the undifferenced arms of the community of which the claimant wishes to be chief. A chief of a clan is the only person who is entitled to bear the undifferenced arms of that community. The clan as a "noble corporation" is the chief's heritable property and the chief's Seal of Arms is the seal of the corporation. Under law the chief owns the clan and is responsible for it.[7][8]

Historically a clan was made up of everyone who lived on the chief's territory, or on territory of those who owed allegiance to the said chief. Through time, with the constant changes of "clan boundaries", migration or regime changes, clans would be made up of large numbers of members who were unrelated and who bore different surnames. Often those living on a chief's lands would over time adopt the clan surname. A chief could add to his clan by adopting other families, and also had the legal right to outlaw anyone from his clan, including members of his own family. Today, anyone who has the chief's surname is automatically considered to be a member of the chief's clan. Also, anyone who offers allegiance to a chief is considered a member of the chief's clan, unless the chief decides not to accept that person's allegiance.[9] The only rule is that it is up to the chief whom he may decide to accept as a member of his clan.

Clan membership goes through the surname.[10] It does not pass through a married woman who has taken her husband's surname, and then on to her children. Children who take their father's surname are part of their father's clan and not their mothers. However, today it is common for people to claim clan membership through their mother's side of the family, anyone who offers allegiance to a particular clan chief is part of his or her clan (unless refused by the chief).[10] Today many clans have lists of septs. Septs are surnames, families or clans which historically, currently or for whatever reason the chief chooses, are associated with that clan. There is no official list of clan septs, and the decision of what septs a clan has is left up to the clan itself.[9] Confusingly many sept names are shared by many clans, and it may up to the individual to use his or her family history or genealogy to find the correct clan they are associated with.

[edit] Clan symbols

MacArthur tartan as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum

There are no official rules on who can or can not wear a particular tartan. Up until now there has been no official registry for tartans but this changed on the 9th October 2008, when it was announced that the Scottish Parliament had passed a bill establishing an official register of tartans for the first time. The National Archives of Scotland will create and maintain the register. [11]

Even though the Lord Lyon does not have jurisdiction over tartans, the Lord Lyon may record a specific tartan which a clan chief or commander wishes to use as an "official" tartan for their clan.[12]

Originally there appears to have been no association of tartans with specific clans; instead, highland tartans were produced to various designs by local weavers and any identification was purely regional, but the idea of a clan-specific tartan gained currency in the late 18th century and in 1815 the Highland Society of London began the naming of clan-specific tartans. In fact, many of today's clan tartans are the work of a 19th-century forgery known as the Vestiarium Scoticum, published in 1842. The Vestiarium was composed by the "Sobieski Stuarts" who passed it off as a reproduction of an ancient manuscript of clan tartans, the Sobieski Stuarts claimed to be grandsons of Bonnie Prince Charlie. The Vestiarium has since been proven a forgery, but despite this, the designs are still highly regarded and they continue to serve their purpose to identify the clan in question.

Crest badge
Common heath, clan badge of many clans associated with Clan Donald.

A sign of allegiance to a certain clan chief is the wearing of a crest badge. The crest badge suitable for a clansman or clanswoman consists of the chief's heraldic crest encircled with a strap and buckle and which contains the chief's heraldic motto or slogan. Although it is common to speak of "clan crests" there is no such thing.[13] In Scotland (and indeed all of UK) only individuals, not clans, possess a heraldic Coat of Arms.[14] Even though any clansmen and clanswomen may purchase crest badges and wear them to show their allegiance to his or her clan the heraldic crest and motto always belong to the chief alone.[15] In principle these badges should only be used with the permission of the clan chief and the Lyon Court has intervened in cases where permission has been withheld.[16] Scottish crest badges, much like clan-specific tartans, do not have a long history, and owe much to Victorian era romanticism, having only been worn on the bonnet since the 19th century.[17] The concept of a clan badge or form of identification may have some validity, as it is commonly stated that the original markers were merely specific plants worn in bonnets or hung from a pole or spear.[18]

Clan badge

Clan badges, are another means of showing one's allegiance to a Scottish clan. These badges, sometimes called plant badges, consist of a sprig of a particular plant. They are usually worn in a bonnet behind the Scottish crest badge, they can also be attached at the shoulder of a lady's tartan sash, or be tied to a pole and used as a standard. Many clans which are connected historically or that occupied lands in the same general area, share the same clan badge. According to popular lore clan badges were used by Scottish clans as a form of identification in battle. However, many of the badges attributed to clans today are completely unsuitable for even modern clan gatherings. Clan badges are commonly referred to as the original clan symbol, however Thomas Innes of Learney claimed the heraldic flags of clan chief's would have been the earliest means of identifying Scottish clans in battle or at large gatherings.[19]

[edit] Clan lists and maps

The revival of interest, and demand for clan ancestry, has led to the production of lists and maps covering the whole of Scotland giving clan names and showing territories, sometimes with the appropriate tartans. While some lists and clan maps confine their area to the Highlands, others also show Lowland clans or families. Territorial areas and allegiances changed over time, and there are also differing decisions on which (smaller) clans and families should be omitted. Some alternative online sources are listed in the External links section below.

This list of Clans contains clans registered with the Lord Lyon Court. The Lord Lyon Court defines a clan or family as a legally recognised group, but does not differentiate between Families and Clans as it recognises both terms as being interchangeable. Clans or families thought to have had a Chief in the past but not currently recognised by the Lord Lyon are listed at Armigerous clans.

Clan Chief Motto Background
Agnew Sir Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw, 11th Bt. Consilio non impetu Lowland
Anstruther Tobias Anstruther of that Ilk.[20] Periissem ni periissem Lowland
Arbuthnott John Campbell Arbuthnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott Laus Deo Lowland
Arthur John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk. Fide et opera Highland
Bannerman David Gordon Bannerman of Elsick, 15th Baronet Pro Patria Lowland
Barclay Peter Barclay of Towie Barclay and of that Ilk Aut agere aut mori Lowland
Borthwick John Hugh Borthwick of that Ilk, 24th Lord Borthwick Qui conducit Lowland
Boyd Alastair Boyd 7th Baron Kilmarnock (deceased).[Note 1] Confido Lowland
Boyle Patrick Robin Archibald Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow Dominus providebit Lowland
Brodie Alexander Brodie of Brodie Unite Lowland Brothaigh
Broun Sir Wayne Broun of Coultson, Bt. Floreat majestas Lowland
Bruce Andrew Douglas Alexander Thomas Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin Fuimus Lowland Brus
Buchan David Buchan of Auchmacoy Non inferiora secutus Lowland Canonach from both-chanain
Burnett James Burnett of the Leys Virescit vulnere virtus Lowland
Cameron Donald Angus Cameron of Lochiel Aonaibh ri cheile Highland Camshrón
Campbell Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll Ne obliviscaris Highland Caimbéul
Carmichael Richard Carmichael of Carmichael Tout jour prest Lowland
Carnegie James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife Dred God Lowland
Cathcart Charles Alan Andrew Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart I hope to speed Lowland
Charteris David Charteris, 12th Earl of Wemyss and 8th Earl of March This is our charter Lowland
Chattan Malcolm K. MacKintosh of Clan Chattan Touch not the catt but [without] a glove Highland
Chisholm Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm Feros ferio Lowland & Highland Siosal
Cochrane Iain Alexander Douglas Blair Cochrane, 15th Earl of Dundonald Virtute et labore Lowland
Colquhoun Sir Malcolm Rory Colquhoun of Luss, 9th Baronet Si je puis Highland
Colville John Mark Alexander Colville, 4th Viscount Colville of Culross Oublier ne puis Lowland
Cranstoun David Cranston of that Ilk and Corehouse Thou shalt want ere I want Lowland
Crichton David Maitland Makgill Crichton of that Ilk God send grace Lowland
Cumming/Comyn Sir Alexander Gordon Cumming of Altyre, 7th Bt. Courage Lowland Cuimean
Darroch Duncan Darroch of Gourock Be watchfull Lowland
Davidson Alister Davidson of Davidston Sapienter si sincere Highland
Dewar Michael Kenneth Dewar of that Ilk and Vogrie Quid non pro patria Lowland
Drummond John Eric Drummond, 18th Earl of Perth Virtutem coronat honos Highland Drummann
Dunbar Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum, 14th Bt. In promptu Lowland
Dundas David Dundas of Dundas[Note 2] Essayez Lowland
Durie Andrew Durie of Durie. Confido Lowland
Elliot Margaret Eliott of Redheugh Fortiter et recte, Soyez sage Lowland
Elphinstone The Rt. Hon. Lord Elphinstone Cause causit Lowland
Erskine James Thorne Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar and 16th Earl of Kellie Je pense plus Lowland
Farquharson Alwyne Farquharson of Invercauld Fide et fortitudine Highland Mac Fhearchair
Fergusson Sir Charles Fergusson of Kilkerran, 9th Bt. Dulcius ex asperis Lowland Mac Fhearghuis
Forbes Nigel Ivan Forbes, 23rd Lord Forbes Grace me guide or Gràs mo stiùir Lowland Foirbeis
Forsyth Alister Forsyth of that Ilk Instaurator ruinae Lowland
Fraser Simon Fraser, 16th Lord Lovat All my hope is in God Lowland & Midland Frisea
Fraser of Lovat Simon Fraser, 18th Lord Lovat Je suis prest Highland & Midland Friseal
Gayre Reinold Gayre of Gayre and Nigg Super astra spero Highland
Gordon Granville Charles Gomer Gordon, 13th Marquess of Huntly Bydand Midland & Highland Gordanach, Na Gordanaich (Collective)
Graham James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose Ne oublie Midland & Highland Greumach
Grant James Patrick Trevor Grant of Grant, 6th Baron Strathspey Stand fast Highland Grannd
Gregor Sir Malcolm Gregor MacGregor of MacGregor, 7th Bart., 24th Chief of Clan Gregor 'S rioghal mo dhream Highland Mac Grioghair
Grierson Sir Michael Grierson of Lag, 12th Baronet of Lag & Rockhall (deceased) Hoc securior Lowland
Guthrie Alexander Guthrie of Guthrie Sto pro veritate Lowland
Haig George Alexander Eugene Douglas Haig, 2nd Earl Haig Tyde what may Lowland
Haldane Martin Haldane of Gleneagles Suffer Lowland
Hamilton Angus Douglas Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton Through Lowland & Highland Hamultun
Hannay David Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk. Per ardua ad alta Lowland
Hay Merlin Sereld Victor Gilbert Moncreiffe, 24th Earl of Erroll Serva jugum Lowland Mac Garaidh
Henderson Alistair Donald Henderson of Fordell Sola virtus nobilitat Lowland & Highland
Home David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home Nulli Secundus Lowland
Hope Sir John Hope of Craighall, Bt. At spes infracta Lowland
Hunter Pauline Hunter of Hunterston Cursum perficio Lowland & Highland
Irvine David Charles Irvine of Drum. Sub sole sub umbra virens Lowland
Jardine Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegarth, 12th Baronet. Cave adsum Lowland
Johnstone Patrick Andrew Wentworth Johnstone of Annandale and of that Ilk, 11th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell Nunquam non paratus Lowland
Keith James William Falconer Keith, 14th Earl of Kintore Veritas vincit Highland & Lowland Ceiteach
Kennedy Archibald Angus Charles Kennedy, 8th Marquess of Ailsa Avise la fin Lowland Mac Ualraig, Ceannaideach
Kerr Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian Sero sed serio Lowland
Kincaid Arabella Kincaid of Kincaid This I'll defend Highland
Lamont The Rev. Father Peter Lamont of that Ilk Ne parcas nec spernas Highland Mac Laomainn
Leask Jonathan Leask of of that Ilk. Virtute cresco Lowland
Lennox Edward Lennox of that Ilk I'll defend Lowland
Leslie James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes Grip fast Lowland
Lindsay Robert Alexander Lindsay, 29th Earl of Crawford and 12th Earl of Balcarres Endure fort Lowland Mac Ghille Fhionntaig
Lockhart Angus Lockhart of The Lee Corda serrata pando Lowland
Lumsden Gillem Lumsden of that Ilk Amor patitur moras Lowland
Lyon Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne In Te Domine Speravi Lowland
MacAlister William MacAlester of Loup and Kennox Fortiter Highland Mac Alasdair
MacBain James McBain of McBain Touch not a catt bot a targe; Highland
MacDonald Godfrey James Macdonald of Macdonald, 8th Baron Macdonald of Slate Per mare per terras Highland Mac Dhomhnuill
MacDonald of Clan Ranald Ranald Alexander MacDonald, Captain of Clanranald My hope is constant in thee Highland
MacDonald of Keppoch Ranald Macdonald of Keppoch Air muir 's tir Highland
MacDonald of Sleat Sir Ian MacDonald of Sleat, Bt. Per mare per terras Highland
MacDonell of Glengarry Ranald MacDonnell of Glengarry Creag an Fhitich Highland
MacDougall Madame Morag MacDougall of MacDougall Buaidh no bas Highland Mac Dhughaill
MacDowall Fergus D. H. McDowall of Garthland Vincere vel mori Lowland
MacIntyre Donald R. MacIntyre of Glenoe Per ardua Highland Mac an t-Saoir
MacKay Hugh William Mackay, 14th Lord Reay Manu forti Highland Mac Aoidh (Clan Morgan)
MacKenzie John Ruaridh Grant MacKenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie Luceo non uro Highland Mac Coinnich
Mackinnon Madam Anne Mackinnon of Mackinnon.[21] Audentes fortuna juvat.[22] Highland Mac Fhionghuin
MacKintosh John Lachaln Mackintosh of Mackintosh Touch not the cat bot a glove Highland Mac an Toisich
Maclachlan Euan Maclachlan of Maclachlan.[23] Fortis et fidus.[24] Highland Mac Lachlainn
MacLaine of Lochbuie Lorne MacLaine of Lochbuie Vincere vel mori Highland
MacLaren Donald MacLaren of MacLaren and Achleskine Creag an Tuirc Highland Mac Labhruinn
MacLea or Livingstone Niall Livingstone of Bachuil, Baron of the Bachuil Cnoc Aingeil Highland Mac an Léigh
MacLean Major The Hon Sir Lachlan MacLean of Duart and Morvern, Bt. Virtue mine honour Highland Mac Ghille Eoin
MacLennan Ruairidh MacLennan of MacLennan Dum spiro spero Highland
MacLeod Hugh Magnus MacLeod of Macleod, 30th Chief of Clan MacLeod Hold fast Highland Mac Leòid
MacLeod of Lewis Torquil MacLeod of the Lewes I birn quil I se Highland Mac Leòid
MacMillan George MacMillan of Macmillan and Knap Miseris succurrere disco Highland Mac Ghille Mhaolain
MacNab James Macnab of Macnab Timor omnis abesto (Let fear be far from all) Highland Mac an Aba (Clann-an-Aba)
Macnaghten Sir Patrick Macnaghten of Macnaghten, Bt. I hope in God Highland Mac Neachdainn
MacNeacail John MacNeacail of MacNeacail and Scorrybreac[25] Scorrybreac.[25] Highland
MacNeil of Barra Ian R. MacNeil of Barra Vincere vel mori Highland
Macpherson The Hon. Sir William Macpherson of Cluny-MacPherson, QC Touch not a cat bot a glove Highland Mac a'Phearsoin, Mac Mhuirich
MacTavish Steven MacTavish of Dunardry Non oblitus Highland
MacThomas Andrew MacThomas of Finegand Deo juvante invidiam superabo Highland
Maitland Ian Maitland, 18th Earl of Lauderdale Consilio et animis Lowland
Makgill Ian Arthur Alexander Makgill, 14th Viscount of Oxfuird Sine fine Lowland
Malcolm (MacCallum) Robin Malcolm of Poltalloch In ardua Tendit Highland
Mar Margaret of Mar, 30th Countess of Mar Pans Plus Lowland
Marjoribanks Andrew George Marjoribanks of that Ilk Et custos et pugnax Lowland
Matheson Fergus John Matheson of Matheson, 7th Barronet. Fac et spera Highland
Menzies David R.S. Menzies of Menzies Vill God I Zall Highland Meinn, Meinnearach
Moffat Jean Moffat of that Ilk Spero meliora Lowland
Moncreiffe The Hon. Peregrine Moncrieffe of that Ilk Sur esperance Highland
Montgomery Archibald George Montgomerie, 18th Earl of Eglinton and 6th Earl of Winton Gardez bien Lowland
Morrison Dr. Iain Morrison of Ruchdi Teaghlach Phabbay Highland Mac Ghille Mhoire
Munro Hector W. Munro of Foulis Dread God Highland Mac an Rothaich
Murray John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl Firth, Fortune, and Fill the Fetters Highland
Napier The Rt. Hon. Lord Napier and Ettrick Sans tache Lowland
Nesbitt Mark Nesbitt of that Ilk I byd it Lowland
Nicolson Vacant[26] Generositate Lowland
Ogilvy David George Patrick Coke Ogilvy, 8th Earl of Airlie A fin Highland Mac Ghille Bhuidhe
Oliphant Richard Oliphant of that Ilk A tout pouvoir Highland
Primrose Neil Primrose, 7th Earl of Rosebery Fide et fiducia Lowland
Ramsay James Hubert Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie Ora et labora Lowland Ramsaidh
Rattray Vacant[27] Super sidera votum Highland
Riddell Sir John Riddell of that Ilk, Bt. I hope to share Lowland
Robertson Gilbert Robertson of Struan Virtutis gloria merces Highland Robasdan, MacDhonnchaidh, Mac Raibeirt, Clann 'IcDhonnchaidh, Clann Donnchaidh, Na Robasdanaich
Rollo David Eric Howard Rollo, 14th Lord Rollo La fortune passe partout Lowland
Rose Anna Elizabeth Guillemard Rose of Kilravock Constant and true Highland Rois
Ross David Campbell Ross of Ross and Balnagowan Spem successus alit Highland Mac Gillie Aindrias (Clann Andrias)
Ruthven Alexander Patrick Greysteil Ruthven, 2nd Earl of Gowrie Deid schaw Lowland
Sandilands The Rt. Hon. the Lord Torphichen Spero Meliora Lowland
Scott Richard Walter John Montagu-Douglas-Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch 12th Duke of Queensberry Amo Lowland Scot, Scotach
Scrymgeour Alexander Henry Scrymgeour of Dundee, 12th Earl of Dundee Dissipate Highland
Sempill James William Stuart Whitmore Sempill, 21st Lord Sempill Keep tryst Lowland
Shaw John Shaw of Tordarroch Fide et fortitudine Highland Mac Ghille Sheathanaich
Sinclair Malcolm Ian Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness Revela Domino opera tua Highland Mac na Ceardadh
Skene Danus Skene of Skene Virtutis regia merces Lowland
Spens Patrick Spens, 4th Baron Spens.[Note 3] Si deus quis contra Lowland
Stirling Francis John Stirling of Cader Gang forward Lowland
Strange Timothy Strange of Balcaskie Dulce quod utile Lowland
Stuart of Bute The Most Hon. the Marquess of Bute Virescit vulnere virtus Highland Stiubhard
Sutherland Elizabeth Millicent, Countess of Sutherland, 24th in line Sans peur Highland Suithearlarach & Na Suithearlaraichean (Collective)
Swinton John Walter Swinton of that Ilk J'espere Lowland
Trotter Alexander Trotter of Mortonhall In promptu Lowland
Urquhart Kenneth Trist Urquhart of Urquhart Meane weil speak weil and doe weil Highland Urchurdan from Airchartdan
Wallace Ian Francis Wallace of that Ilk Pro libertate Lowland Uallas
Wedderburn Henry David Wedderburn of that Ilk, Lord Scrymgeour, Master of Dundee Non degener Lowland
Wemyss David Wemyss of that Ilk Je pense Lowland Mac Dhibh (MacDuff)

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Alastair Boyd, 7th Baron Kilmarnock died 19 March, see telegraph obituaries, but references continue to list him as chief: see Burks, Standing council, and Boyd clan web site.
  2. ^ David Dundas of Dundas has not been heard from in over 30 years. It remains uncertain if he is still alive. (source:The Highlander, the Magazine of Scottish heritage; Aprill 2009; 2009 Directory; Published by Angus J. Ray Associates, Inc.; ISSN 0161-5378, USPS 579200)
  3. ^ the Spens heir has not yet contacted the Lord Lyon or the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs (source:The Highlander, the Magazine of Scottish heritage; Aprill 2009; 2009 Directory; Published by Angus J. Ray Associates, Inc.; ISSN 0161-5378, USPS 579200)

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Senchus is translated in Bannerman, Studies, pp. 47–49; previously published in Celtica, vols. 7 (1966) – 9 (1971); earlier translations in Anderson, ESSH, vol. 1, pp. cl–cliii and Skene, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots.
  2. ^ Broun, ""Dál Riata", notes that the Senchus treats the Cenél Loairn differently. In fact, it lists the three (actually four) thirds of the Cenél Loairn as the Cenél Shalaig (or Cenél Fergusa Shalaig), Cenél Cathbath, Cenél nEchdach and Cenél Muiredaig. Even the compiler of the Senchus doubts whether their eponymous founders Fergus Shalaig, Cathbad, Eochaid and Muiredach were all sons of Loarn mac Eirc.
  3. ^ Bannerman, Studies, p. 110, dates the separation of the Cenél Comgaill from the Cenél nGabráin to around 700.
  4. ^ Bannerman, Studies, pp. 115–118, proposes a tie to the Uí Macc Uais. See also Bannerman, Studies, pp. 120 & 122, noting that the Tripartite Life of Saint Patrick appears to refer to a "Cenél nÓengusa" in Anterim.
  5. ^ The Annals of Ulster, s.a. 670, refer to the return of the genus Gartnaith, i.e. the Cenél Gartnait, from Ireland to Skye. This Gartnait is presumed to be a son of Áedán mac Gabraín: see Broun, "Dál Riata". Bannerman, Studies, pp. 92–94, identifies this Gartnait as a son of Áedán, whom he sees as the same person as Gartnait, king of the Picts. No such son is named by Adomnán, in the annals, or by the Senchus. See also Adomnán, Life, II, 22, and note 258, where a certain Ioan mac Conaill mac Domnaill is said to have belonged to "the royal lineage of Cenél nGabráin". See also the discussion of the Cenél Loairn above.
  6. ^ Clans, Families and Septs
  7. ^ Agnew of Lochnaw, Crispin. "Clans, Families and Septs" Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  8. ^ What is a clan? Lyon Court. Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  9. ^ a b Who is a member of a clan? Lyon Court. Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  10. ^ a b Information Leaflet No. 2 Retrieved on 2008-01-29
  11. ^ 'MSPs approve tartan register bill':
  12. ^ Tartans Lyon Court. Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  13. ^ Crests Lyon Court. Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  14. ^ The History of Arms Lyon Court. Retrieved on 2008-02-26
  15. ^ Information Leaflet No. 2, The Court of the Lord Lyon, Scottish Crest Badges, see 5.(d) and 6. 1.[1]
  16. ^ Adam; Innes of Learney (1970)
  17. ^ Campbell of Airds (2000), pp. 289–290.
  18. ^ Moncreiffe of that Ilk (1967), p. 20.
  19. ^ Adam; Innes of Learney (1970), pp. 541–543.
  20. ^
  21. ^ MACKINNON OF MACKINNON, CHIEF OF MACKINNON Retrieved on 2007-10-23
  22. ^ Clan History Retrieved on 2007-10-23
  24. ^ Clan MacLachlan Association of North America, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-12-14
  25. ^ a b The Clan MacNicol Retrieved on 2007-02-06
  26. ^ The Highlander, the Magazine of Scottish heritage; Aprill 2009; 2009 Directory; Published by Angus J. Ray Associates, Inc.; ISSN 0161-5378, USPS 579200
  27. ^ The Highlander, the Magazine of Scottish heritage; Aprill 2009; 2009 Directory; Published by Angus J. Ray Associates, Inc.; ISSN 0161-5378, USPS 579200

[edit] Bibliography

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