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Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity, that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit.[1] The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, a Greek term describing the Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the Book of Acts, Chapter 2,[2] and Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of spiritual power, worship styles and teachings that were found in the early church. For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term Apostolic and/or Full Gospel to describe their movement.

Pentecostalism is an umbrella term that includes a wide range of different theological and organizational perspectives. As a result, there is no single central organization or church that directs the movement. Most Pentecostals consider themselves to be part of broader Christian groups; for example, most Pentecostals identify as Protestants. Many embrace the term Evangelical, while others prefer Restorationist. Pentecostalism is theologically and historically close to the Charismatic Movement, as it significantly influenced that movement; some Pentecostals use the two terms interchangeably.

Within classical Pentecostalism there are three major groups: Wesleyan Holiness, Higher Life, and Oneness.[3] Examples of Wesleyan-Holiness denominations include the Church of God in Christ (COGIC) and the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (IPHC). The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel is of the Higher Life branch. The Assemblies of God (AG) were influenced by both groups.[3][4] Some Oneness churches include the United Pentecostal Church International (UPCI) and Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (PAW). Many Pentecostal sects are affiliated with the Pentecostal World Conference. Pentecostalism claims more than 250 million adherents worldwide.[5] When Charismatics are added with Pentecostals the number increases to nearly a quarter of the world's 2 billion Christians.[1]


[edit] Beliefs

[edit] Overview

Theologically, most Pentecostal denominations are aligned with Evangelicalism, in that they emphasize the reliability of the Bible and the need for the transformation of an individual's life through faith in Jesus. Pentecostals generally adhere to the doctrine of biblical inerrancy, believing that the Bible has definitive authority in matters of faith, and adopt a literalist approach to its interpretation. This belief is expressed in the doctrinal statements of various Pentecostal organizations, such as the Assemblies of God Statement of Fundamental Truths, the Affirmation of Faith of the Church of God in Christ, and the Declaration of Faith of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.

Pentecostal theology was shaped by the movements it grew out of: Wesleyan Holiness and Higher Life. Participants in these movements believed that after one's conversion experience (the "first blessing") there was a “crisis experience of sanctification” or the "second blessing".[6] Wesleyan Holiness preachers taught that this experience would immediately eliminate sin in a Christian's life, resulting in “sinless perfection.” Higher Life Christians shared this belief in a second blessing, but understood it differently. They saw it not as the total elimination of sin, but as "'full consecration’ that empowered them for evangelism." Early Pentecostals, therefore, understood baptism in the Holy Spirit as this "second blessing" and speaking in tongues as its physical evidence.[6] From these two camps eventually arose the Oneness movement, which differs from the rest of Pentecostalism in several significant ways.

[edit] Oneness Pentecostalism

Oneness Pentecostalism retains the earlier Wesleyan Holiness and Higher Life understanding of salvation, though--unlike some other Pentecostals--they insist that baptism is necessary for salvation.[7] Oneness Pentecostals also differ from other Pentecostals by rejecting the traditional Christian Trinity. Oneness adherents do not describe God as three persons but rather as three manifestations: they believe that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are manifestations or titles of the one, indivisible God. Oneness believers have been accused of embracing a theology and terminology that shares qualities in common with both Arianism and various Monisitc or Modalistic derivations, but they vehemently deny any connection with the former.[8]

Whereas Arius taught that the Son was a created being, utterly separate from the Father, Oneness Pentecostals teach that the Son is the Father united to human flesh. According to Oneness teaching, the Son was begotten not eternally, as Trinitarians assert, but at a specific moment in time, as they interpret Hebrews 1:5. Arius, on the other hand, completely separated the Son from the Father, which Oneness believers do not do. For them, the Son is the Father incarnate, which is something Arius did not believe. On the other hand, Dr. David Bernard indicates that Modalistic Monarchianism and Oneness are essentially one and the same, so long as one does not understand Modalism to be the same as Patripassianism, i.e. that the Father suffered and died in the person of Jesus Christ.[9]

[edit] Salvation

Reflecting its Methodist influences, Pentecostal soteriology is generally Arminian rather than Calvinist.[10] Pentecostals believe that in order to receive salvation and enter Heaven, one must accept the teachings of Jesus Christ as described in the Bible. This includes being born again or being regenerated, and is the fundamental requirement of Pentecostalism. Most Pentecostals also believe that salvation is a gift received by grace through faith in Jesus Christ, and cannot be earned through good deeds alone such as penance. However, there are notable differences among them as to exactly how one is born again, especially between Oneness believers and other Pentecostals.

Oneness Pentecostals insist that salvation comes by grace through faith in Christ, coupled with obedience to his command to be "born of water and of the Spirit" in John 3:5; hence, no good works or obedience to laws or rules can save anyone.[11] However, since Jesus himself enjoined baptism, and Peter commanded it in Acts 2:38 (according to their interpretation), baptism is required for salvation in Oneness theology. For them, baptism is not seen as a "work," but rather the indispensable means that Jesus himself provided to come into his kingdom, as opposed to a "sinner's prayer" or mere belief alone--which is the belief held by most Evangelicals and even most other Pentecostals. This has resulted in Oneness believers being accused by some (including other Pentecostals) of a "works-salvation" soteriology,[12] a charge they vehemently deny.[13]

[edit] Ordinances and practices

Like other Christian churches, Pentecostals believe that certain rituals or ceremonies were instituted as a pattern and command by Jesus in the New Testament. Pentecostals commonly call these ceremonies ordinances. Many Christians call these sacraments, however, this term is not used by Pentecostals as they do not see ordinances as imparting grace.[5] Instead the term sacerdotal ordinance is used to denote the distinctive belief that grace is received directly from God by the congregant with the officiant serving only to facilitate rather than acting as a conduit or vicar. This is a direct legacy of the Arminian antecedents to the Pentecostal Movement.

The ordinance of baptism is the outward symbol of an inner conversion that has already taken place. Infant baptism is not practiced, as Pentecostals believe that the one being baptized must be able to make the decision to follow Jesus. It is common, however, for parents to have children dedicated to God, though this is not seen as an ordinance. Pentecostal views on baptism are divided into two major camps: mainstream and Jesus Only. "Mainstream" teaching on baptism is that the exact phrasing of the baptismal formula is largely irrelevant, as it is the authority of God and the obedience of the recipient that form the critical factors. "Jesus Only" doctrine states that the baptizer must use a formula which says, "In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ", rather than the traditional Triune formula common to practically all other Christian churches. This viewpoint arose from the "New Issue" or "New Revelation" which Frank Ewart, an Australian Baptist preacher, claimed to have received as a divine prophecy in 1913,[14] and is largely held today by the Oneness Pentecostals.

Another point of divergence between Pentecostals is the question of whether Baptism is necessary for salvation; while all Pentecostals hold that the ordinance is commanded by Jesus Christ and incumbent upon all believers, they disagree sharply as to whether it is an indispensable requirement. Oneness Pentecostals tend to say that it is, while the Assemblies of God and other Pentecostal groups tend to disagree, putting the emphasis upon one's personal faith and inward conversion, rather than the external ordinance.

The ordinance of Communion is seen as a direct command given by Jesus at the Last Supper, to be done in remembrance of him. Pentecostals generally use unfermented grape juice instead of wine, though there have been debates on this subject in some churches. Usage of unfermented juice arises from an understanding of the Last Supper as a Seder service. Since "no product of fermentation" could have been allowed in a Jewish house during Passover, as normalized in Exodus 12:19, accurate reenactment of the Last Supper requires a "wine" which is not a product of fermentation (i.e. without leaven). An AG official statement on the consumption of alcohol states: "In the Old Testament instruction to the Levites, the spiritual leaders of Israel, priests were commanded to abstain from wine or intoxicating drink when they went into the presence of the Lord to minister.(Leviticus 10:8-11)"[15] Based on the idea that every born-again believer is a priest (or priestess), consumption of alcohol in a religious context violates the previously-stated injunction. Another reason for the rejection of fermented wine is the influence of the Holiness and Higher Life movements, which have traditionally held that alcohol, tobacco and mind altering drugs generally lead to ceremonial uncleanness.[15] [16]

Foot washing is also held as an ordinance by some Pentecostals, particularly the UPCI and the COGIC.[17][18] It is considered an "ordinance of humility", because Jesus showed humility when washing his disciples' feet in John 13:14-17.[5] Other denominations, such as the Assemblies of God and the Foursquare Church, do not hold this to be an ordinance but leave it to individual conscience.[19][20]

Though not an ordinance, some Pentecostals may believe in the use of prayer cloths which are believed to transfer healing.[5]

[edit] Spiritual gifts

Beliefs concerning spiritual gifts among Pentecostals are as varied and diverse as the number of denominations they have split into. However, all Pentecostals share a belief that all spiritual gifts described in the Bible are at work in the church today.

Members of the Pentecostal Church of God in Lejunior, Kentucky pray for a girl in 1946.

While speaking in tongues frequently receives strong emphasis among Pentecostals, most also acknowledge other supernatural gifts that may be received from the Holy Spirit. Most Pentecostals acknowledge that not all Christians necessarily receive all of these gifts. One frequently cited list includes words of wisdom (the ability to provide supernatural guidance in decisions), words of knowledge (impartation of factual information from the Spirit), faith, healing, miracle-working, prophecy (the pronouncement of a message from God, not necessarily involving knowledge of the future), discerning of spirits (the ability to tell if evil spirits are at work), tongues, and interpretation of tongues (1 Corinthians 12:8-11).

[edit] Speaking in tongues

Pentecostals are characterized by their practice of speaking in other tongues; this is what they are perhaps best known for in the world at large. A Pentecostal believer in an ecstatic religious experience may vocalize fluent, unintelligible utterances (glossolalia), or articulate an alleged natural language previously unknown to them (xenoglossy).

Pentecostals vary widely in their beliefs about speaking in tongues. First, many see it as the initial evidence of the Baptism in the Holy Spirit, when a believer speaks in tongues for the first time. Some Pentecostal denominations consider this to be the sign of that believer being "filled with the Holy Spirit".[21] Secondly, Pentecostals often refer to a "gift of tongues". This is when a person is moved by God to speak in tongues "as the Spirit gives him utterance" (Act 2:4). This gift of tongues may be exercised anywhere, but many denominations insist that it must only be exercised when a person who has the gift of "interpretation of tongues" is present--whether that be another person, or the same one who gives the tongue. The interpreter must translate the tongue into the language of the gathered Christians, so that all can understand the message (1 Corinthians 14:13, 14:27-28).

Many Pentecostals, particularly after the growth and influence of the Charismatic Movement, believe that the gift of tongues is different than tongues as a prayer language or speaking in tongues (the unknown tongue). According to this view, speaking in tongues is an ecstatic utterance granted by God for prayer, and the gift of tongues is a rare miracle in which God enables a Christian to speak in a foreign language he has not previously studied in order to proclaim the Gospel. Other Pentecostals believe they are one and the same, in which the gift of tongues combines words from different languages (including that of angels) into a "prayer language" expressing the mysteries of God. Certain groups of Pentecostals emphasize the idea of speaking in tongues only when the Holy Spirit comes upon an individual, and have a problem with the idea of speaking in tongues "at will."

Early in the 20th century, the majority of Pentecostal missionaries, along with prominent Pentecostal leaders, maintained that speaking in tongues was a form of xenoglossia in which the Holy Spirit enabled them to speak in other languages. As continued investigations repeatedly concluded that speaking in tongues was a form of ecstatic utterance that lacked all syntactical structure, and almost always consisted of syllables taken from the speaker's native language, Pentecostal theologians redefined their beliefs.[22] Most now preach that speaking in tongues is a personal prayer language, or glossolalia; and is, with the above exceptions, not xenoglossia.

[edit] Denominations and adherents

Estimated to number around 115 million followers worldwide in 2000, Pentecostalism is sometimes referred to as the "third force of Christianity."[23] Pentecostal and Charismatic church growth is rapid in many parts of the world.[24][25] The great majority of Pentecostals are to be found in developing countries although much of their international leadership is still in North America. The movement is enjoying its greatest surge today in the global South, which includes Africa, Latin America, and most of Asia.[26][27] One reason is for this growth is Pentecostalism's appeal to the poor.[28] According to a United Nations report, the movement has "been the most successful at recruiting its members from the poorest of the poor."[29]

In 1998, there were about 11,000 different Pentecostal or Charismatic denominations worldwide.[citation needed] The largest Pentecostal denomination in the world, the Assemblies of God, claims approximately 57 million adherents worldwide.[30] The Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) has a membership of over 6 million,[31] the Church of God in Christ has a membership of 5.5 million,[2] the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel has 5 million members, the United Pentecostal Church International has a membership of over 4 million,[32] and the International Pentecostal Holiness Church has over 3 million members.[33]

The largest single Pentecostal church in the world is the Yoido Full Gospel Church in South Korea. Founded and led by David Yonggi Cho since 1958, it had 780,000 members in 2003.[34] Australia's largest church, Hillsong, has a membership exceeding 19,000 and its songs are sung in churches around the world.[citation needed]

[edit] History to 1900

Pentecostals believe that their movement is faithful to the teachings and experience of the early church, specifically the day of Pentecost. They also believe that throughout the history of the church, outbreaks of Pentecostal-type experiences have occurred.

[edit] Europe

One such revival began with a Prussian Guards officer, Gustav von Below, in 1817.[citation needed] He and his brothers started holding charismatic meetings on his estate in Pomerania. A Lutheran commission sent to investigate was at first suspicious, but ultimately determined the phenomenon to be "of God."[citation needed] This led to a growth in charismatic meetings across Germany, which quickly crossed the Atlantic during the great German migrations of the 19th century.[citation needed] The Pentecostal revival originated within the Holiness movement, which was the first to begin making numerous references to the term Pentecostal. One example was in 1867, when the Holiness movement established The National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Christian Holiness with a notice that said: "[We are summoning,] irrespective of denominational tie...those who feel themselves comparatively isolated in their profession of holiness…that all would realize together a Pentecostal baptism of the Holy Ghost..."[citation needed]

In the 1830s, a Presbyterian congregation in Scotland under the leadership of Edward Irving began to experience manifestations of tongues and prophecy.[citation needed] Certain men were appointed as apostles, until their number reached twelve. After Irving's death, the movement developed into what would be called the Catholic Apostolic Church, a name adopted from the Nicene Creed. Henry Drummond was perhaps the most influential man in this movement at its beginning. He was sympathetic to the writings of the early Church Fathers, and the movement took on a highly liturgical flair, including influences from Eastern Orthodox liturgy. The movement grew to several hundred thousand in England, Germany, and some other parts of Europe.[citation needed] This sect ultimately disappeared, though a splinter group in Germany did appoint new apostles and continue on. The last apostle from Drummond's Group, Francis Woodhouse of the Catholic Apostolic Church, died in 1901--just a few months after Agnes Ozman spoke in tongues in the United States.

[edit] North America

During the 1870s, there were Christians known as "Gift People" or "Gift Adventists" numbering in the thousands, who were known for spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues.[35] One preacher from the Gift People influenced A.J. Tomlinson, who would later lead the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee).[citation needed] Though some[who?] have considered the 1896 Shearer Schoolhouse Revival in Cherokee County, North Carolina as the beginning of the modern Pentecostal Movement, the remoteness of the region very likely kept it as a localized event, thereby limiting any possibility it may have had to impact the movement that grew out of Azusa Street (see below).[citation needed]

[edit] History from 1900

Today's Pentecostal movement traces its community's growth to a prayer meeting at Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas on January 1, 1901.[36] Here, many came to the conclusion that speaking in tongues was the biblical sign of the Holy Spirit's baptism. Charles Parham, the founder of this school, would later move to Houston, Texas. In spite of segregation in Houston, William J. Seymour, a (literally) one-eyed African-American preacher, was allowed to attend Parham's Bible classes there. Seymour traveled to Los Angeles, where his preaching sparked the Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Despite the work of various Wesleyan groups such as Parham's and D. L. Moody's revivals, the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is generally considered to have begun with Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.[37]

The Azuza revival was the first Pentecostal revival to receive significant attention, and many people from around the world became drawn to it.[citation needed] The Los Angeles Press gave close attention to Seymour's revival, which helped fuel its growth.[38] A number of new, smaller, groups started up, inspired by the events of this revival. International visitors and Pentecostal missionaries would eventually bring these teachings to other nations, so that practically all classic Pentecostal denominations today trace their historical roots to the Azusa Street Revival.

William Seymour, leader of the Azusa Street Revival

Early Pentecostals were fueled by their understanding that all of God’s people would prophesy in the last days before Christ’s second coming. They looked to the biblical passages concerning Pentecost in the second chapter of Acts, in which Peter cited the prophecy contained in Joel 2, "In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams."(NIV) Thus, as the experience of speaking in tongues spread among the men and women of Azusa Street, a sense of immediacy took hold, as they began to look toward the Second Coming of Christ. Early Pentecostals saw themselves as outsiders from mainstream society, dedicated solely to preparing the way for Christ’s return.[39][40]

Pentecostalism, like any major movement, has given birth to a large number of organizations with political, social and theological differences. The early movement was countercultural: African-Americans and women were important leaders in the Azusa Revival, and helped spread the Pentecostal message far beyond Los Angeles.[citation needed] As the Azusa Revival began to wane, however, doctrinal differences began to surface as pressure from social, cultural and political developments from the time began to affect the church. As a result, major divisions, isolationism, sectarianism and even the increase of extremism were apparent.[citation needed]

[edit] Influences

Some Christian leaders who were not a part of the early Pentecostal movement remained highly respected by Pentecostal leaders. Albert Benjamin Simpson became closely involved with the growing Pentecostal revival. It was common for Pentecostal pastors and missionaries to receive their training at the Missionary Training Institute that Simpson founded.[citation needed] Because of this, Simpson and the Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA), which Simpson also founded, had a great influence on Pentecostalism--in particular the Assemblies of God and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.[citation needed] This influence included evangelistic emphasis, C&MA doctrine, Simpson's hymns and books, and the use of the term "Gospel Tabernacle", which evolved into Pentecostal churches being known as "Full Gospel Tabernacles". Charles Price Jones, an African-American Holiness leader and founder of the Church of Christ, is another example.[citation needed] His hymns are widely sung at National Conventions of the Church of God in Christ and many other Pentecostal churches.

[edit] African-Americans

African-Americans played an important role in the early Pentecostal movement. The first decade of Pentecostalism was marked by interracial assemblies, "...Whites and blacks mix in a religious frenzy," noted a local newspaper account, at a time when government facilities were racially separate and Jim Crow laws were about to be codified.[citation needed] While the interracial assemblies that characterized Azusa Street would continue for a number of years even in the segregated South, the enthusiasm and support for such assemblies eventually waned.[citation needed] After a while, interracial assemblies were nearly non-existent in most Pentecostal churches. However, this trend is starting to be reversed in many Pentecostal churches today.

[edit] Women

[edit] Early roles

Women were the catalyst of the early Pentecostal movement.[41] Since Pentecostals believed in the presence and interaction of the Holy Spirit in their assemblies, and since these gifts came to both men and women, the use of spiritual gifts were encouraged in everyone. The unconventionally intense and emotional environment generated in Pentecostal meetings dually promoted, and was itself created by, other forms of participation such as personal testimony and spontaneous prayer and singing. Women did not shy away from engaging in this forum, and in the early movement the majority of converts and church-goers were female.[42] Since the movement relied on the efforts and participation of lay members, both within the church and outside, women gained great cultural influence in Pentecostalism and helped to shape it. Women wrote religious songs, edited Pentecostal papers, and taught and ran Bible schools.[43] The preponderance of its female adherents may stem from the availability of such opportunities to women from the start of the movement. In addition, evidence from three of the oldest Pentecostal groups—Assemblies of God, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel—shows a number of women serving as clergy and missionaries. Shortly after the Assemblies of God formed in 1914, clergy rolls show that one-third of its ministers were women. By 1925, though the number of female ministers had dropped significantly, two-thirds of its overseas missionaries were still women. When the Church of God was formed in 1906, one-third of its founders were women. When Aimee Semple McPherson started the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in 1927, single women were serving one-third of the church branches as pastors and married couples served as co-pastors to another sixteen congregations.[44]

Other aspects of Pentecostalism also promoted the participation of women. Pointing to Peter’s proclamation of the biblical prophecy of Joel 2:28, Pentecostals focused their attention upon the end times, during which Christ would return. Given that the baptism of the Holy Spirit led to speaking in tongues, whoever was blessed with this gift would have the responsibility to use it towards the preparation for Christ’s second coming.[45][46] Due to this responsibility, any restrictions that culture or other denominations placed on women were often disregarded during the early part of the movement. Joel 2:28 also specifically included females, saying that both sons and daughters and male and female servants would receive the Holy Spirit, and prophecy in the end times. Thus, the focus on spiritual gifts, the nature of the worship environment, and dispensationalist thinking all encouraged women to participate in all areas of worship.

Even before Azusa Street, women led their own revivals as a result of Agnes Ozman speaking in tongues at Parham’s Bible college. A Mrs. Waldron and a Mrs. Hall, for example, brought the Pentecostal message from Kansas to Zion, Illinois, where they ministered and later invited Parham to speak.[47] Agnes Ozman herself evangelized throughout the Midwest after leaving Kansas.[48] When Parham moved his ministry to Houston, Texas, eight of his fifteen workers were women.[49]

Other women who attended Bethel Bible College either invited or were sent by Parham to missions or churches, to help strengthen local revivals.[50] Furthermore, of the twelve elders whom Parham initially appointed to go to Azusa Street, six were women.[51] While William J. Seymour is typically regarded as the leader of the Azusa Street revival, a number of women also contributed significantly to his efforts; depending on which firsthand accounts are considered, women’s leadership in the revival is either neglected or emphasized. More historical accounts have been available from men, and these authors tend to pose William J. Seymour as the principal leader, with other men like Charles Fox Parham and Edward Lee in important supporting roles. However, women like Julia Hutchins, Lucy Farrow and Neely Terry, who were important in their own rights, were often deemphasized. On the other hand, the account of Mother Emma Cotton, pastor of a large Los Angeles Church of God in Christ congregation, reversed the relative importance of men with women. Regardless of who had the greatest share in leading the revival, it seems generally safe to conclude that the overall leadership at Azusa Street Revival was shared between women and men.[52] One must also keep in mind that the idea of human leadership in the Pentecostal belief system is somewhat misplaced; participants considered the Holy Spirit to be the true leader, and themselves as merely the vessels through which he works.[53]

Women, of course, also came out of the Azusa Street Revival. Florence Crawford was a prominent convert of Azusa Street. While at the Azusa Mission, she was active in The Apostolic Faith newspaper and became one the first from Azusa to evangelize, primarily through the Midwestern United States. Later, she moved to Portland where she established the Apostolic Faith Mission and ministered. Clara Lum was also a significant figure of Azusa Street. Here, she co-edited The Apostolic Faith with Seymour. Ophelia Wiley also worked for The Apostolic Faith writing articles. She preached at Azusa and then evangelized throughout the Northwestern United States. Jennie Moore was an active leader of the Azusa Street revival who married Seymour and helped lead the congregation. Abundio and Rosa Lopez were active at Azusa and later led worship in the streets of the Hispanic sections of Los Angeles.[54][55][56]

Other evangelists and missionaries from Azusa Street include Ivey Campbell who preached throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania; Louisa Condit went to Oakland, California, and then Jerusalem; Lucy Leatherman evangelized in Israel, Egypt, Chile and Argentina; Julia Hutchins evangelized in Liberia; and G.W. and Daisy Batman were missionaries in Liberia. Overall, about half of the traveling evangelists and overseas missionaries were women.[57][58][59]

[edit] Changes in women's roles

Despite the leadership of women in the early movement, many were uncertain about the roles women held in this time, and thus wavered in their struggle to gauge the proper role and position of women within their Pentecostal churches. In Women in Pentecostalism, Edith Blumhofer says of women’s participation: "the pastorate, not the pulpit, has historically been the obstacle for Pentecostal women seeking full ministry recognition."[60]

The freedom that women had in the early Pentecostal movement to hold more authoritative or official leadership positions declined for a number of reasons. During the early movement, the restorationist ideology--the impulse Pentecostals had to restore Christianity to a New Testament setting---uggested both liberated and restricted roles for women.[61] While restorationism emphasized the role of the Holy Spirit and Joel’s egalitarian prophecy, it also had to consider the Apostle Paul’s writings in the New Testament. In doing this, restorationism also highlighted the seemingly contradictory nature of the theology regarding women’s roles. On the one hand, Paul’s instructions on propriety of worship in 1 Corinthians 11 seemed to concede the existence of women prophesying and praying in the church. However, in other passages, namely 1 Timothy 2:12, he warned that "I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent."(NIV) [62][63]

Thus, while the immediacy and the fervor of the initial revival atmosphere were subsiding, questions of authority and the organization of churches arose. Institutionalism took root. While it was clear that both men and women spoke in tongues, many started to see this gift as a non-intellectual one,[64] holding that more intellectual acts, such as preaching, should be undertaken by women only in conditions controlled by male leaders. The subsiding of the early Pentecostal movement allowed a more socially-conservative approach to women to settle in, and as a result female participation was channeled into more supportive and traditionally-accepted roles. Institutionalism brought gender segregation, and the Assemblies of God along with other Pentecostal groups created auxiliary women’s organizations. At this time, women became much more likely to be evangelists and missionaries than pastors; when they were pastors, they often co-pastored with their husbands. It also became the norm for men to hold all official positions: board members, college presidents, and national administrators. While the early movement eschewed denominationalism because of the dead spirituality they saw in other Protestant sects, later Pentecostal churches began to mirror the more-traditional Evangelical community. Thus, the more democratic way of addressing others, whether male or female, lay person or leader, as either "brother" or "sister", gave way to more regular titles like "reverend".[65][66] Today, however, some groups continue to ordain women.

Culture also contributed to the restriction of women’s roles in Pentecostal churches. The social vision of women as the moral keepers of society began to fade as flappers in the 1920’s came on to the scene, provoking suspicions about women’s morality. Since Pentecostals wanted to distance themselves as much as possible from modernity, the "new woman" was a fearful image. Thus, Pentecostals instead clung to more traditional views of women in the home and in society.[67][68]

[edit] Charismatic Movement

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Christians from mainline churches in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world began to accept the Pentecostal idea that the baptism of the Holy Spirit is available for Christians today, even if they did not accept other tenets of formal Pentecostalism. Charismatic movements began to grow in mainline denominations. Charismatic Episcopalians, Lutherans, Catholics, and Methodists emerged, and during that time period, Charismatic was used to refer to similar movements that existed within mainline denominations. Pentecostal, on the other hand, was used to refer to those who were a part of the churches and denominations that grew out of the earlier Azusa Street revival. Unlike classic Pentecostals, who formed strictly Pentecostal congregations or denominations, Charismatics adopted as their motto, "Bloom where God planted you."[citation needed]

In recent decades many independent Charismatic churches and ministries have formed, or have developed their own denominations and church associations, such as the Vineyard Movement. In the 1960s and still today, many Pentecostal churches were still strict with dress codes and forbidding certain forms of entertainment, creating a cultural distinction between Charismatics and Pentecostals.[citation needed] There is a great deal of overlap now between the Charismatic and Pentecostal movements, though some Pentecostals still retain a strict understanding of "holiness living" principles.

[edit] People

[edit] Forerunners

[edit] Leaders

  • A. A. Allen (1911–70) Healing Tent Evangelist of the 1950s and 1960s
  • Joseph Ayo Babalola (1904–59) Oke - Ooye, Ilesa revivalist in 1930. Also, spiritual founder of Christ Apostolic Church
  • William M. Branham (1909–65) Healing Evangelists of the mid 20th century
  • Jack Coe (1918–56) Healing Tent Evangelist of the 1950s
  • Rex Humbard (1919–2007) The first successful TV evangelist of the mid 1950s, 1960s, and the 1970s and at one time had the largest television audience of any televangelist in the United States
  • George Jeffreys (1889–1972) Founder of the Elim Foursquare Gospel Alliance and the Bible-Pattern Church Fellowship in the UK
  • Bishop R.A.R. Johnson (1876–1940) Founder of the House of God, Holy Church of the Living God, The Pillar and the Ground of the Truth, The House of Prayer for All People. A Commandment (Sabbath) keeping Pentecostal organization.
  • Kathryn Kuhlman (1907–76) American female evangelist who brought Pentecostalism into the mainstream denominations
  • Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) The Founder of the Church of God In Christ
  • Aimee Semple McPherson (1890–1944) American Female Evangelist, pastor, and organizer of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
  • Charles Fox Parham (1873–1929) Father of Modern Pentecostalism
  • David du Plessis (1905–87) South-African Pentecostal church leader, one of the founders of the Charismatic movement
  • Oral Roberts (b.1918) Healing Tent Evangelist who made the transition to televangelism
  • William J. Seymour (1870–1922) Azusa Street Mission Founder (Azusa Street Revival)
  • Mary Magdalena Lewis Tate (1871–1930)[69] - Mother of Holiness. Founder of the Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, Inc. and its dominion churches.[70]
  • Smith Wigglesworth (1859–1947)
  • Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844–1924)

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. "Pentecostalism". Retrieved on 2008-09-24. 
  2. ^ a b "Pentecostalism". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved on 2008-12-19. 
  3. ^ a b Patterson, Eric; Rybarczyk, Edmund (2007). The Future of Pentecostalism in the United States. New York: Lexington Books. pp. 4. ISBN 978-0-7391-2102-3. 
  4. ^ Blumhofer, Edith (1989). The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of America Pentecostalism Volume 1- -To 1941. Springfield,MO 65802-1894: Gospel Publishing House. pp. 198,199. ISBN 0-88243-457-8. 
  5. ^ a b c d BBC - Religion & Ethics (2007-06-20). "Pentecostalism". Retrieved on 2009-02-10. 
  6. ^ a b McGee, Gary B. (September 1999). ""Latter Rain" Falling in the East: Early-Twentieth-Century Pentecostalism in India and the Debate over Speaking in Tongues". Church History (Cambridge University Press) 68 (3): 648–65. 
  7. ^ See David Bernard, The New Birth, Chapter 6. Retrieved on 3/30/09. Bernard insists that the UPCI and other Oneness Pentecostals do not teach "baptismal regeneration," as the water itself does not save, but rather the obedience to Christ's command coupled with the grace He dispenses through this ordinance. But he does indicate the Oneness belief that the Scriptures require water baptism for salvation, as this--not any "sinner's prayer" or mere belief alone--is what Christ instituted.
  8. ^ See under heading "The Council of Nicea", in David Bernard, The Oneness of God, Chapter 11. Retrieved on 3/29/09.
  9. ^ David Bernard, The Oneness of God, Chapter 10. The research paper "Modalistic Monarchianism: Oneness in Early Church History" found at the end of this chapter also explains the relationship of Modalistic Monarchianism to the modern Oneness teaching. Retrieved on 3/29/09.
  10. ^ Stanley M. Horton Systematic Theology: A Pentecostal Perspective, 1994
  11. ^ See Essential Doctrines of the Bible, "New Testament Salvation", subheading "Salvation by grace through faith", Word Aflame Press, 1979.
  12. ^ See, for instance, Thomas A. Fudge: Chrisitianity Without the Cross: A History of Salvation in Oneness Pentecotalism. Universal Publishers, 2003.
  13. ^ See chapter 2: "Grace and Faith" in David Bernard, The New Birth. Retrieved on 30 March 2009.
  14. ^ Blumhofer. The Assemblies of God. Vol 1. pp.217-239
  15. ^ a b Abstinence: A Biblical Perspective on Abstinence. Springfield,MO 65802-1894: General Council of the Assemblies of God. 1985. p. 2. 
  16. ^ Blumhofer. The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of America Pentecostalism Volume 1- -To 1941. pp.156-158
  17. ^ See under "The Church," in Essential Doctrines of the Bible, copyright 1990, by Word Aflame Press.
  18. ^ The Doctrine of the Church of God in Christ
  19. ^ Statement of Fundamental Truths
  20. ^ The Foursquare Declaration of Faith
  21. ^ Livingstone, E.A. (2000). "Pentecostalism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Retrieved on 2008-12-21. 
  22. ^ Glossolalia as Foreign Language an Investigation of twentieth-Century Pentecostal Claim, available online at
  23. ^ Christianity's Third Force -- Pentecostals Return to "Scandalous" Roots. By Dan Ramirez. May 13, 1997
  24. ^ David Stoll, "Is Latin America Turning Protestant?" published Berkeley: University of California Press. 1990
  25. ^ Jeff Hadden (1997). "Pentecostalism". Retrieved on 2008-09-24. 
  26. ^ Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2006-04-24). "Moved by the Spirit: Pentecostal Power and Politics after 100 Years". Retrieved on 2008-09-24. 
  27. ^ "Pentecostalism". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved on 2008-12-21. 
  28. ^ "The CT Review: Pie-in-the-Sky Now". Christianity Today. 2000. Retrieved on 2008-01-30. 
  29. ^ Ed Gitre, Christianity Today Magazine (2000-11-13). "The CT Review: Pie-in-the-Sky Now". 
  30. ^ World Christian Database, Asia Pacific Mission Office
  31. ^ "A Brief History of the Church of God". Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 
  32. ^ United Pentecostal Church International. "About Us". Retrieved on 2009-03-30. 
  33. ^ International Pentecostal Holiness Church (2007). "24th General Conference Highlights". Retrieved on 2009-03-01. 
  34. ^
  35. ^ Hunter, Harold D. (January 1997). "Beniah at the Apostolic Crossroads:Little Noticed Crosscurrents of B.H. Irwin, Charles Fox Parham, Frank Sandford, A.J. Tomlinson". Cyberjournal for Pentecostal-Charismatic Research. Pentecostal-Charismatic Theological Inquiry International. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. 
  36. ^ History of the Assemblies of God
  37. ^ Blumhofer. The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of America Pentecostalism, Volume 1--To 1941. pp.97-112
  38. ^ "Wierd Babble of Tongues", Los Angeles Daily Times: April 18, 1906.
  39. ^ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, pentecostalism, and American culture. The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. 1993. 3–5.
  40. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460.
  41. ^ Wacker, Grant. Heaven Below: Earlier Pentecostals and American Culture. Harvard University Press. 2001. 160–161.
  42. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 395–96.
  43. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 401.
  44. ^ Wacker. Heaven Below. 160.
  45. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460.
  46. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 394.
  47. ^ Burgess. Dictionary. 893.
  48. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460.
  49. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460.
  50. ^ Burgess. Dictionary. 893.
  51. ^ Burgess. Dictionary. 895.
  52. ^ Wacker. Heaven Below. 158–59.
  53. ^ Wacker. Heaven Below. 141–42.~~~~
  54. ^ Burgess. Dictionary. 895.
  55. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460–61.
  56. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 395–96.
  57. ^ Burgess. Dictionary. 895.
  58. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460–61.
  59. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 395–96.
  60. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 406.
  61. ^ Blumhofer. Restoring the Faith. 172.
  62. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 394–95.
  63. ^ Blumhofer. Restoring the Faith. 175–76.
  64. ^ Blumhofer. Restoring the Faith. 173.
  65. ^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 397–405.
  66. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460–63.
  67. ^ Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. 460.
  68. ^ Blumhofer. Restoring the Faith. 174–75.
  69. ^ Lewis, Meharry H. (2005). Mary Lena Lewis Tate VISION!. The New and Living Way Publishing Company. ISBN 0910003084. Retrieved on 2008-01-29. 
  70. ^ "The Church of the Living God". WikiChristian. 2008. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 

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