Sun Myung Moon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Sun Myung Moon
Korean name
Hangul 문선명
Mun Seon-myeong
Mun Sŏnmyŏng

Sun Myung Moon (born January 6, 1920) is the Korean founder and leader of the world-wide Unification Church. He is also the founder of many other organizations and projects involved in political, cultural, artistic, mass-media, educational, public service, and other activities. One of the best-known of these is the conservative, Washington Times newspaper.[1] He is also well-known for holding Blessing ceremonies, which are sometimes called "mass weddings."

Moon has said that he is the Messiah and the Second Coming of Christ and is fulfilling Jesus' unfinished mission.[2][3]

Moon has been among the most controversial modern religious leaders. He and his followers have been widely criticized, both for their religious beliefs and for their social and political activism.[4]


[edit] Early biography

[edit] Life in Korea

Moon was born in Sangsa-ri (上思里, lit. "high-thought village"), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province (now in North Korea; Korea was then under Japanese rule). His father, Kyung-yoo Moon, was a scholar, while his mother, Kyung-gye Kim, was an active woman. They had 6 sons and 7 daughters, of which Sun Myong Moon was the second son. When he was a child, Moon was heavily affected by his elder brother, Yong-Su Moon's, deep faith. The family went into bankruptcy when the elder brother of Sun Myung's grandfather, Rev. Yunguk Moon, gave most of the money belonging to the family to an independence movement from Japan. [5]

In the Moon family, there was a strange tradition in the form of a superstitous belief that held that if the second son were to receive a western-style education, he would die early. As a result of this, Sun Myung received a Confucian-style education when he was a child and did not receive his first western-style education until he was 14 years old.[6] The Moon family held traditional Confucianist beliefs, but converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church when he was around 10 years old. Moon taught Sunday school for the church.[7] On April 17, 1935, when he was 16 (in Korean age reckoning), Moon says he had a vision or revelation of Jesus while praying atop a small mountain. He says that Jesus asked him to complete the unfinished task of establishing God's kingdom on Earth and bring peace to the world. When he was 19 (in Korean age reckoning), Moon criticized Japanese rule over Korea and Japanese education at the graduation ceremony speech, which made himself focused by police.[8]

Moon's high school years were spent at a boys' boarding school in Seoul, and later in Japan, where he studied electrical engineering. During this time he studied the Bible and developed his own interpretation of it. After the end of World War II he returned to Korea and began preaching his message.[7]

Moon was arrested in 1946 by North Korean officials. The church states that the charges stemmed from the jealousy and resentment of other church pastors after parishioners stopped tithing to their old churches upon joining Moon's congregation. Police beat him and left him almost dead, but a teenage disciple, Won Pil Kim, nursed him back to health.

Moon was arrested again and was given a five-year sentence in 1948 to the Hŭngnam labor camp, where prisoners were routinely worked to death on short rations. Moon credits his survival to God's protection over his life and his habit of saving half his meager water ration for washing the toxic chemicals off his skin after long days work bagging and loading chemical fertilizer with his bare hands. After serving 34 months of his sentence, he was released in 1950 when UN troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled.

The beginnings of the Church's official teachings, the Divine Principle, first saw written form as Wolli Wonbon in 1946. (The second, expanded version, Wolli Hesol, or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was not published until 1957; for a more complete account, see Divine Principle.) Sun Myung Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea in 1946. He was released from prison, along with many other North Koreans, with the advance of American and United Nations forces during the Korean War and built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Pusan.[9]

In 1954, he registered the 'Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity' in Seoul (also known as the Unification Church). [10]The Unification Church expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 church centers throughout the nation. In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. In 1975, Moon sent out missionaries to 120 countries around the world.[9]

[edit] Marriages and children

In November 1943, Moon married Sun Kil Choi. Their son, Sung Jin Moon, was born in 1946. They divorced in 1953 soon after Moon's release from prison in North Korea. Choi and Sung Jin Moon are now both members of the Unification Church.[11] Sung Jin Moon married in 1973 and now has three children.[12]

Moon was still legally married to Choi when he began a relationship with his second (common law) wife Myung Hee Kim, who gave birth to a son named Hee Jin Moon (who was killed in a train accident). The church does not regard this as infidelity, because Sun Kil Choi had already left her husband by that time. Korean divorce law in the 1950s made legal divorce difficult and drawn out, so much so that when Myung Hee Kim became pregnant she was sent to Japan to avoid legal complications for Moon.[13]

Moon married his third wife, Hak Ja Han,[14] on April 11, 1960, soon after she turned 17 years old, in a ceremony called the "Holy Marriage." Han, called "Mother" or "True Mother" by followers, and her husband together are referred to as the "True Parents" by members of the Unification Church.

Hak Ja Han gave birth to 14 children; her second daughter died in infancy. The family is known in the church as the "True Family" and the children as the "True Children." Shortly after their marriage they presided over a Blessing Ceremony for 36 couples, the first of many such ceremonies.

Nansook Hong, ex-wife of Hyo Jin Moon, Sun Myung Moon's eldest son, said in her 1998 book In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family, that both Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han told her about Moon's extramarital affairs (which she said he called "providential affairs"), including one which resulted in the birth of a boy raised by a church leader, named by Sun Myung Moon's daughter Un Jin Moon on the news show 60 Minutes.[15]

[edit] Name and titles

Korean name
Hangul 문용명
Hanja 文龍明
Mun Yong-myeong
Mun Yongmyŏng

In 1953, Moon decided that his birth name, Mun Yong Myong, was not a suitable name for an evangelist because Yong, which means dragon, might be interpreted by Christians as referring to the serpent, devil, or the antichrist of the Book of Revelation as opposed to the benevolent creature of Korean mythology. He changed his name to Mun Son-myong (which he spelled "Moon Sun Myung").[16]

In the English-speaking world, Moon is often referred to as "Reverend Moon" by Unification Church members, as well as by the general public and the media. Unification Church members most often call Moon "Father" or "True Father." He is also sometimes called "Father Moon," mostly by some non-members involved with Unificationist projects. Similar titles are used for his wife: "Mother", "True Mother", or "Mother Moon". "Dr. Moon" has also occasionally been used because Moon received an honorary doctorate from the Shaw Divinity School of Shaw University.

[edit] Basic teachings

Moon's main teachings are contained in the book Divine Principle (retranslated in 1996 as Discourse on Divine Principle[17]). Arranged according to Systematic theology, the book is divided into "Principle of Creation", "Fall of Man" and the "History of Restoration" (this third part makes up the bulk of the book).

The basic elements of Divine Principle were first written down in the early 1950s. The Divine Principle consists of Moon's interpretation of the Bible and Judeo-Christian history and reflect elements of Confucianism, which formed the background for Moon's early education.

One of the key concepts in the Divine Principle is found in Moon's interpretation of Genesis 1:28, "Be fruitful and multiply… and have dominion over the fish of the sea…" as constituting the "Three Blessings" that represent God's command to all human beings:

  • To grow to healthy maturity in body and spirit, where the body and spirit are integrated in mutual benefit and live in relation to the creator God, and for the sake of others;
  • To establish an ideal family and expand that to instantiate true family love to all levels of social expansion, again always in relation to the creator God; and
  • To maintain responsible stewardship of the earth and all of nature, and live a joyful and abundant physical life in preparation for an even more fantastic joy and abundance in eternal spiritual life.

[edit] Principle of Creation

Other fundamental ideas include the principle that everything in the universe, as a reflection of God's nature, has equal and complementary paired attributes; male and female (biology), positive and negative (particle physics), yin and yang (philosophy) and so on. Reciprocal interaction between these paired elements is essential to life, survival and growth. Also, everything in creation has an internal "character" and an external "form" or manifestation. In people the analogy is expressed as the spiritual mind and the physical body, and in simpler forms of life and non-life, simpler levels of character and form.

[edit] Fall and Restoration

Moon teaches that the first human beings sinned through "misuse of love" before they were able to grow into a natural completion of their relationship with God. Thus they experienced separation from God and from their original and pure nature.

Thus the messiah comes as "true Adam" to restore what the first ancestors should have achieved, to restore all people to a sinless state and to build the kingdom of God on earth. Largely because of the failure of John the Baptist, Jesus accomplished only the first part of this spiritual salvation, so a new messiah must appear from Korea to finish the work.

[edit] Philosophy

A systematic philosophical presentation of Moon's ideas is contained in various books on "Unification Thought".

[edit] Political ideas

Moon's teachings have political ramifications, primarily based on his idea that spiritual principles should be put into practice in the real world. He is well known for his opposition to Communism. His stand on social issues is based on his interpretation of sin, and is similar to conservative Christian morality. He calls for the literal establishment of a Kingdom of God on earth.

[edit] 1970s

[edit] Move to the U.S.

In 1971 Moon moved to the United States, which he had first visited in 1965. He remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea and maintained a residence in South Korea.[18]

[edit] Support for Nixon

In 1974 Moon supported President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal.[19] Church members prayed and fasted in support of Nixon for three days in front of the United States Capitol, under the motto: "Forgive, Love and Unite." On February 1, 1974 Nixon publicly thanked them for their support and officially received Moon. This brought Moon and the Unification Church into widespread public and media attention in the United States. [20]

[edit] Public speeches

In the 1970s Moon, who had seldom spoken to the general public before, gave a series of public speeches to large audiences in the United States, Japan, and South Korea. The largest were a rally in 1975 against North Korean aggression in Seoul with around a million people attending and a speech in Washington D.C. with around 300,000 attending.[11]

[edit] United States congressional investigations

In 1977 and 1978, a subcommittee of the United States Congress led by Congressman Donald M. Fraser conducted an investigation of South Korea – United States relations and produced a report that included 81 pages about Moon and what the subcommittee termed "the Moon Organization."[21] Congressman Robert Boettcher in his book Gifts of Deceit: Sun Myung Moon, Tongsun Park, and the Korean Scandal (published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980) reported what he described as breathtaking financial corruption. No criminal indictments came out of these congressional investigations.

[edit] 1980s

Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han

[edit] U.S. tax case

In 1982 Moon was convicted by the U.S. government for filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy. His conviction was upheld on appeal in a split decision. He was given a prison sentence and spent 18 months in the Federal Correctional Institution in Danbury, Connecticut. Many individuals, organizations and religious figures protested the charges, saying that they were unjust and threatened freedom of religion and free speech. Based on this case, reporter Carlton Sherwood wrote the book Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon.

[edit] Support for Ronald Reagan

In 1980 Moon indirectly supported the campaign of Ronald Reagan for President. He asked the church-owned New York newspaper News World to print a headline saying "Reagan Landslide" on the day of the election, before the outcome was known.[22]

[edit] Death and "return" of second son

The second son of Hak Ja Han and Moon, Heung-Jin Moon, died on January 2, 1984 from injuries suffered in a car crash in December 1983. Moon ascribed great importance to his son's death, and Heung-Jin Moon is officially regarded to be the "king of the spirits" in heaven, and is now said to be conducting seminars in heaven for departed souls. For several years church members "channeled" his spirit, and in 1987-8 a Zimbabwean member who became known as "the Black Heung Jin Nim" was accepted by Moon and his family as Heung Jin Moon's continuous channel, and toured the world giving speeches, getting confessions, and subjecting some members to beatings. Long-time member Damian Anderson reports seeing him "knock people's heads together, hit them viciously with a baseball bat, smack them around the head, punch them, and handcuff them with golden handcuffs" and describes the "brute force applied to stop people leaving the event, or the building, and imprisoning protesters by force and with handcuffs in isolation."[23]

Nansook Hong recounts: "No one outside the True Family was immune from the beatings.... Soon the mistresses he acquired were so numerous and the beatings he administered so severe that members began to complain. He beat Bo Hi Pak - a man in his sixties - so badly that he was hospitalized for a week in Georgetown Hospital."[24] Washington Post staff writer Michael Isikoff reported that "Later, Pak underwent surgery in South Korea to repair a blood vessel in his skull, according to Times executives."[25]

[edit] Founding The Washington Times

In Washington, Moon found common ground with strongly anti-Communist leaders of the 1980s, including Reagan. Using Unification Church funds in 1982, Moon, Bo Hi Pak, and other church leaders founded The Washington Times. By 1991, Moon said he spent about $1 billion on the paper[26] (by 2002 roughly $1.7 billion),[27] which he called "the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world".[28]

[edit] Opposition to the Soviet Union

In 1976, Moon told church members that one day he would organize "a great rally for God in the Soviet Capital." In 1980 Moon founded the anti-communist organization CAUSA International. In August 1985 the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." Moon suggested the topic. In August 1987 the Unification Church student association CARP led 3,000 young demonstrators in Berlin, who asked communist leaders to bring down the Berlin Wall.[11]

[edit] 1990s

[edit] Visit to the Soviet Union

In April 1990 Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[29] Massimo Introvigne, who has studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, has said that after the disestablishment of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon has made anti-communism much less of a priority.[11]

[edit] Relationship with former United States President George H. W. Bush

In the mid-1990s, former U.S. President George H. W. Bush accepted millions of dollars from Moon's Women’s Federation for World Peace to speak on Moon's behalf around the world, a fact[9] that Moon and the Unification Church have widely publicised, particularly in efforts to improve the image of the Unification Church outside the US. While discussing one of Bush's trips (a 1995 tour of Japan), Bo Hi Pak said:

"Then George and Barbara Bush went to Fukuoka, the capital of Kyushu. The people of Kyushu were flabbergasted at Father and Mother's power to tell a U.S. president what to do and plan his schedule. Incredible. This completely changed the attitude of the Japanese government and media toward the Unification community." [30]

In June 2006 the Houston Chronicle reported that in 2004 Moon’s Washington Times Foundation gave $1 million to the Greater Houston Community Foundation, which made donations to the George Bush Presidential Library.[31]

[edit] Daughter-in-law's book questions role as "True Parent"

When the Moons' eldest son Hyo Jin Moon was 19 years old, Sun Myung Moon picked a 15-year-old wife for him, Nansook Hong, who bore him five children.[32] In 1998 Hong published a book about her experiences in the Moon family, In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family (ISBN 0-316-34816-3), which the New Yorker Magazine called Moon's "most damaging scandal".[33] The "tell-all memoir"[34] openly challenges Moon and his wife's role in church teachings as "True Parents". According to Hong, and later confirmed by his public confessions and his own statements in a court deposition on November 15, 1996,[35] Hyo Jin Moon had repeated problems with substance abuse, pornography, infidelity, violence and run-ins with the law. A few years later, Hong left the Moon estate with her children, subsequently publishing the book and appearing in several interviews, including 60 Minutes.[36] She told TIME Magazine: "Rev. Moon has been proclaiming that he has established his ideal family, and fulfilled his mission, and when I pinpointed that his family is just as dysfunctional as any other family - or more than most - then I think his theology falls apart."[37] For some Unification Church members, this book was a revealing portrait of the way Sun Myung Moon and his wife had raised their children, and caused a great deal of soul-searching.[38] (See, for example, this review of the book, written by a church member.)

[edit] Son's death

On October 27, 1999 the Moons' sixth son, Young Jin, fell to his death from the 17th floor of a Reno, Nevada hotel. Police reports and the coroner officially recorded the death as a suicide. Moon has said that he does not believe it was suicide.[39][40]

[edit] 2000s

In 2000 Moon joined Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan in sponsoring the Million Family March in Washington D.C., a follow-up event to the Million Man March held in 1995.[41]

In January 2001 Moon sponsored President George W. Bush's Inaugural Prayer Luncheon for Unity and Renewal.[42]

In 2001 Moon presided over the wedding of now-excommunicated Roman Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and Maria Sung, a Korean acupuncturist. This attracted worldwide media attention.

In February 2003, Moon and Han reaffirmed their wedding vows after 43 years of marriage in a ceremony named the "Holy Marriage Blessing Ceremony of the Parents of Heaven and Earth".

In 2003 Moon sponsored the first Peace Cup international club football tournament.[43][44][45]

[edit] Campaign to replace the Cross with a Crown

In 2003 Moon began his "tear down"[46], or "take down the cross"[47] campaign. The campaign was begun in the belief that the cross is a reminder of Jesus' pain and has been a source of division between people of different faiths. The campaign included a burial ceremony for the cross and a crown to be put in its place. The American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC), an interfaith group founded by Moon, spearheaded the effort, calling the cross a symbol of oppression and superiority. [48]

Unification Church member and theologian Andrew Wilson said, "The crucifixion was not something that God loves, but something that God hates. It hurts every time he sees people glorifying the cross, which was the instrument of execution used to kill his beloved son."[49]

Michael Schwartz, a spokesperson for the Christian advocacy organization Concerned Women for America, responded: "Just imagine if some misguided Christian were to suggest that the Jews have to take away their symbol and the Muslims would have to take away their symbol, not display it in public any longer. That would be identified instantly as a statement of intolerance. Reconciliation and peace do not grow out of intolerance." [50]

[edit] Coronation by Members of United States Congress

In 2004, at a March 23 ceremony in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, U.S. Rep. Danny K. Davis (D-Ill.) wore white gloves and carried a pillow holding an ornate crown that was placed on Moon's head.

Moon delivered a long speech in which he stated that he was "sent to Earth . . . to save the world's six billion people. . . . Emperors, kings and presidents . . . have declared to all Heaven and Earth that Reverend Sun Myung Moon is none other than humanity's Savior, Messiah, Returning Lord and True Parent."[51]

[edit] 120-city world speaking tour

On September 12, 2005, at the age of 85, Moon inaugurated the Universal Peace Federation with a 120-city world speaking tour.[52] At each city, Moon delivered his speech titled "God's Ideal Family - the Model for World Peace".

[edit] Successor

In April 2008, Moon appointed his youngest son Hyung Jin Moon to be the new leader of the Unification Church and the world-wide Unification Movement, saying, "I hope everyone helps him so that he may fulfill his duty as the successor of the True Parents." [53]

[edit] Helicopter crash

On July 19, 2008, Moon, his wife, and 14 others were slightly injured when their Sikorsky S-92 helicopter crashed during an emergency landing and burst into flames in Gapyeong. [54][55] Moon and all 15 others were treated at the nearby church-affiliated Cheongshim Hospital.[56] Experts from the United States National Transportation Safety Board, the United States Federal Aviation Administration, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, and General Electric assisted the South Korean government in its investigation of the crash.[57][58]

[edit] Criticism and controversies

[edit] Cult of personality

Sun Myung Moon's movement is widely seen as a cult, with Moon as "messiah" and the proclaimed "divinity" of his family as the focus.[59] Moon is known as the "True Father," his wife as the "True Mother," (together as the "True Parents"), and their children as the "True Children" (collectively as the "True Family").[60] In her 1998 book In the Shadow of the Moons, Nansook Hong, ex-wife of Sun Myung Moon's eldest son Hyo Jin Moon, (who lived with the Moon family for 15 years) says the leader and his family live a "lavish" lifestyle and that Sun Myung Moon is treated like a god. When greeting Moon indoors members bow "dropping to their knees and touching their foreheads to the floor,"[61] normally followed by a sermon of several hours while most members sit on the floor.

However, Peter Maass, in an article in The New Yorker, wrote:

There are, certainly, differing degrees of devotion among Moon's followers; the fact that they bow at the right moment or shout "Mansei!" in unison doesn't mean they believe everything Moon says, or do precisely what he commands. Even on important issues, like Moon's claiming to be the messiah, there are church members whom I met, including a close aide to Moon, who demur. A religious leader whom they respect and whose theology they believe, yes; the messiah, perhaps not.[61]

[edit] Abuse of money

Critics contrast Moon's "opulent" personal lifestyle with that of church members who are asked to sacrifice both in their careers and in donating most of what little they have.[62] The Moon family situation is described as one of "luxury and privilege"[63] and as "lavish".[64]

Home for the True Family was a guarded 18-acre (73,000 m2) mini-castle in Irvington, New York, a tiny suburb located along a sweep of the Hudson River. Named East Garden, after Eden, the estate included two smaller houses and a three-story brick mansion with 12 bedrooms, seven baths, a bowling alley, and a dining room equipped with a waterfall and pond. There were other castles and mansions too — in South Korea, Germany, Scotland, England — and few expenses were spared. The children had tutors from Japan, purebred horses, motorbikes, sports cars, and first-class vacations with blank-check spending. "The kids got whatever they wanted," says Donna Collins, who grew up in the church. "At one point, the Moon kids were each getting $40,000 or $50,000 a month for allowance. They had wads of cash. I remember once in London where [one of Justin’s sisters] spent like $2,000 a day; I saw a drawer filled with Rolexes and diamonds."[63]

Moon controls major business enterprises, including The Washington Times, the United Press International, and Pyeonghwa Motors.[65] A small sampling of other operations include computers and religious icons in Japan, seafood in Alaska, weapons and ginseng in Korea, huge tracts of land in South America, a recording studio and travel agency in Manhattan, a horse farm in Texas and a golf course in California.[66]

In a 1992 letter to the New York Times, author Richard Quebedeaux, who had taken part in several Unification Church projects, also criticized Moon's financial judgement by saying, "Mr. Moon may well be a good religious leader with high ideals, but he has also shown himself to be a poor businessman." [67]

[edit] Theocracy

Many critics have called Moon's statements about the Kingdom of Heaven a demand for theocracy.[68] Church critics point to Moon's own statements: Steven Hassan says "Moon's stated ambitions include the establishment of a one-world government run as an automatic theocracy by Moon and his leaders."[69] Rick Ross asserts "When Moon talks about a 'Kingdom of Heaven on Earth' imagine a one-world government run under his 'direction,' set up as a dictatorship much like the 'cult' he rules." [70]

His position on the First Amendment's Establishment Clause are unclear. He has frequently relied on First Amendment protections in various legal matters relating to himself or the Unification Church, but he also teaches that religion and politics are inseparable entities. Critics have characterized his call for unity between religion and politics contrary to the principle of separation of church and state.[71]

[edit] Church role in munitions manufacturing

Church-related businesses engaged in munitions manufacturing in South Korea during the 1960s, as reported by the Fraser Committee a United States Congressional committee which investigated the Unification Church and its relationship with the government of South Korea in 1978. According to the same report, Unification Church owned Tongil Group, South Korea's 35th largest industrial conglomerate [72], was involved in weapons manufacture and "is an important defense contractor in Korea. It is involved in the production of M-16 rifles, antiaircraft guns, and other weapons."

Moon's fourth son, Kook Jin "Justin" Moon founded Kahr Arms, a small-arms company based in Blauvelt, New York with a factory in Worcester, Massachusetts.[73][74]

According to the Washington Post, "Some former members and gun industry critics perceive a contradiction between the church's teachings and its corporate involvement in marketing weapons promoted for their concealability and lethality."[75]

[edit] Prison terms

Opponents often cite the fact that Moon has served time in prison on tax charges and was banned from traveling to some countries as proof that he is not a legitimate religious leader. Moon's supporters dismiss the prison terms and travel bans as examples of persecution, arguing in particular that Jesus himself was persecuted and ultimately executed by the Roman Empire.

In 2006 the German High Court reversed an earlier Schengen Agreement listing. Moon is now allowed entry into its implementing nations.

[edit] Comments on Homosexuality

In 1997 gay rights advocates criticized Moon based on comments he made in a speech to church members, in which he said: "What is the meaning of lesbians and homosexuals? That is the place where all different kinds of dung collect. We have to end that behavior. When this kind of dirty relationship is taking place between human beings, God cannot be happy," and referred to homosexuals as "dung-eating dogs." [76] [77] He also said in 2007 that "free sex and homosexuality both are the madness of the lowest of the human race," and that God detests such behavior, while Satan lauds it. [78]

[edit] Jews and the Holocaust

Other controversies arose over Moon's statements about the Holocaust being (in part) "indemnity" (restitution) owed by the Jews, a consequence of Jewish leaders not supporting Jesus, which contributed to his murder by the Roman government.[79][80]

[edit] Allegations of sex rituals

In 1993 Chung Hwa Pak released the book Roku Maria no Higeki (Tragedy of the Six Marys). The book contained allegations that Moon conducted sex rituals among six married female disciples ("The Six Marys") who were to have prepared the way for the virgin who would marry Moon and become the "True Mother". Chung Hwa Pak had left the movement when the book was published and later withdrew the book from print when he rejoined the Unification Church. Before his death Chung Hwa Pak published a second book, The Apostate, and recanted all allegations made in Roku Maria no Higeki. [81]

[edit] References

  1. ^ AROUND THE NATION; Sun Myung Moon Paper Appears in Washington from The New York Times
  2. ^ Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus--establishing a "true family" untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."..."Although Moon often predicts in his sermons that a breakthrough is near, Moffitt realizes that Moon may not come to be seen as the messiah in his lifetime."
  3. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church, by George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. A paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania.
  4. ^ Sun Myung Moon in Congressional Record (1976) from Wikisource
  5. ^ "The traditions and family environment of the Moon clan from Nampyeong". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29-45. (Publication in Korean): Nampyeong Mun ssi gamun-eui jeontong-gwa gajeong-hwan'gyeong. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 남평문씨 가문의 전통과 가정환경 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999. pp. 29-45.
  6. ^ "The first education and entrance to the Christian faith". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29-45. (Publication in Korean): Chogi Hakseup-gwa Shinang Ip-mun. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 초기학습과 신앙입문 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999.
  7. ^ a b Unification Church: Mass Moonie Marriage in the US, BBC News, Saturday, November 29, 1997.
  8. ^ "The first education and entrance to the Christian faith". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29-45. (Publication in Korean): Chogi Hakseup-gwa Shinang Ip-mun. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 초기학습과 신앙입문 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999.
  9. ^ a b c Introvigne, 2000
  10. ^ excerpt The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  11. ^ a b c d The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion Massimo Introvigne, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  12. ^ Sung Jin Nim's Family Kathryn Coman, 2008
  13. ^ Hee Jin Moon and Myung Hee Kim, Unification Sermons and Talks, Dan Fefferman, December 25, 1998.
  14. ^ Normally, in relaying Moon's biography to members, his second wife, (common-law wife) Myung Hee Kim, is counted as the second wife and Hak Ja Han is counted as the third wife.
  15. ^ Nansook Hong interviews on local and national news, including 60 Minutes, where Moon's illegitimate son mentioned by name (without being asked to name him) by his daughter Un Jin Moon.
  16. ^ In a speech Moon explained that the hanja for moon (문, 文), his surname, means "word" or "literature" in Korean. The character sun (선, 鮮), composed of "fish" and "lamb" (symbols of Christianity), means "fresh." The character myung (명, 明), composed of "sun" and "moon", (which was part of his given name), means "bright." Together, sun-myung means "make clear." So the full name can be taken to mean "the word made clear." Moon concluded by saying, "My name is prophetic." "Reverend Sun Myung Moon Speaks on The Necessity for the Day of Victory of Love". January 15, 1984. Retrieved on 2006-08-09. 
  17. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle, HSA-UWC, 1996,which was codified by Hyo-Won Eu, who was President of the Korean Church in the early days.
  18. ^ "Image of Moon's arrival" (JPG). Retrieved on 2006-04-29. 
  19. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church, by George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. A paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania.
  20. ^ Intovigne, 2000
  21. ^ Investigation of Korean-American Relations; Report of the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives.
  22. ^ ‘Messiah’ by Bo Hi Pak
  23. ^ Anderson was particularly upset that top church officials and their assistants prevented people by force from leaving. Black Heung Jin Nim in DC by Damian Anderson.
  24. ^ Hong, Nansook. (1998). In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family. Little, Brown. (ISBN 0-316-34816-3)
  25. ^ Theological Uproar in Unification Church; Rev. Moon Recognizes Zimbabwean as His Reincarnated Son by Michael Isikoff, Washington Post staff writer. Accessed Saturday, August 19, 2006.
  26. ^ "Literally nine hundred million to one billion dollars has been spent to activate and run the Washington Times" -Sun Myung Moon, "True Family and True Universe centering on True Love", Founder's Address, 15th Anniversary of The Washington Times, June 16, 1997, Washington, DC.
  27. ^ "As of this year, Moon and his businesses have plowed about $1.7 billion into subsidizing the Times, say current and former employees." "Moon Speech Raises Old Ghosts as the Times Turns 20", by Frank Ahrens, Washington Post, May 23, 2002.
  28. ^ Chinni, Dante (2002). "The Other Paper: The Washington Times's role". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved on 2006-04-29. 
  29. ^ EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student from The New York Times
  30. ^ Truth is My Sword, Volume II by Bo Hi Pak, Chapter 60: Give and Take of Love. New York, NY.
  31. ^ $1 million Moonie mystery
  32. ^ In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family (ISBN 0-316-34816-3).
  33. ^ Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998.
  34. ^ Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998
  35. ^ Boston Globe December 20, 1997
  36. ^ Nansook Hong interviews on local and national news, including 60 Minutes, where Moon's illegitimate son was confirmed by name by his daughter Un Jin Moon.
  37. ^ Life with the Moons: A conversation with Nansook Hong, former daughter-in-law of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, TIME Magazine, October 13, 1998.
  38. ^ In a review of the book, Marcia Rudin writes that due to Nansook Hong's position within the Moon family, her story cannot simply be dismissed by cult apologists as an atrocity tale. Rudin went on to state that: "The compelling credibility of this book demands that Nansook's story be paid attention to. Many Unification Church members are paying it attention, for, according to Nansook and others, the first-hand testimony delivered through this book has already caused many Unification Church members to leave the group." Book Review, Marcia Rudin, Cultic Studies Journal, Volume 16, Number 1, 1999.
  39. ^ LAS VEGAS RJ:NEWS: Moon's son dies in fall from hotel
  40. ^ Apologetics research resources on religious cults and sects - Religion Items in the News - November 11, 1999 (Vol. 3, Issue 132)
  41. ^ Million Family March reaches out to all
  42. ^ Why Are Pastors Flying to Moon?Christianity Today August 1, 2001
  43. ^ "Peace Cup (South Korea)". RSSSF. Retrieved on 2008-06-14. 
  44. ^ Korean influence: PSV's Hiddink hoping to win Peace CupSports Illustrated July 21, 2003
  45. ^ South Korea to host global peace cup in JulySports Illustrated May 6, 2003
  46. ^ "Tear down the Cross" Ceremony - Bronx, New York
  47. ^ Quotes from Sun Myung Moon relevant to the May 2003 Pilgrimage to Israel (Take Down the Cross)
  48. ^ Rome and Israel Pilgrim Tour - Burying of the Cross.
  49. ^ Reflections on the Breakthrough in Jerusalem, Dr. Andrew Wilson, July 20, 2003.
  50. ^ Christian Churches Should Stop Using the Cross, Group Says, by Jeff Johnson, Congressional Bureau Chief, August 22, 2003.
  51. ^ Babington, Charles; Alan Cooperman (June 23 2004). "The Rev. Moon Honored at Hill Reception - Lawmakers Say They Were Misled". Washington Post: A01. 
  52. ^ "Family Federation for World Peace and Unification of U.S.A.". Retrieved on 2006-04-29. 
  53. ^ Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 2008-04-28
  54. ^, Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon released from hospital after helicopter crash
  55. ^ Account of crash by the Moons' youngest son
  56. ^ Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon, 15 others injured in helicopter crash Herald Tribune, July 19, 2008
  57. ^, Unification Church founder released from hospital
  58. ^ NTSB Sends Team To Investigate Korean S-92A Downing Aero-News Network, July 21, 2008
  59. ^
  60. ^ "Money, Guns, and God" by Christopher S. Stewart, Conde Nast Portfolio, October 2007.
  61. ^ a b Moon at Twilight, The New Yorker September 14, 1998.
  62. ^ These criticisms have been repeated hundreds of times in media reports. One such example is "Cults, Deprogrammers, and the Necessity Defense", Michigan Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 2 (Dec., 1981), pp. 271-311
  63. ^ a b "Money, Guns, and God" by Christopher S. Stewart, Conde Nast Portfolio, October 2007
  64. ^ Hong, Nansook. (1998). In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family. Little, Brown. (ISBN 0-316-34816-3).
  65. ^ "The church, which owns Pyonghwa and such companies as the Tongil Group, the Washington Times, and UPI news service...." Cited in Moon’s Dance, by Rory O'Connor, AlterNet, April 20, 2005.
  66. ^ A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash, by Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post Staff Writers, Sunday, November 23, 1997.
  67. ^ Richard Quebedeaux Moon Church a Stranger to Academic Freedom; A Temporary Bailout?, New York Times, 1992-06-13
  68. ^ GOODMAN, WALTER, "Review/Television; Sun Myung Moon Changes Robes", New York Times, January 21, 1992, 
  69. ^ [ Moonies use Washington Times as Front Group to Gain Power and Legitimacy], by Steve Hassan
  70. ^ Rev. Moon uses media holdings to tout his latest ambition, by Rick Ross
  71. ^ The New York Times > Washington > A Crowning at the Capital Creates a Stir
  72. ^ Reverend Moon's Group Wants to Talk Investment : Seoul Nods At Church's Foray North, International Herald Tribune, 1998-05-02
  73. ^ Farragher, Thomas (March 21, 1999). "Moon arms factory: His father preaches peace, and he makes guns". Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2006-08-19. 
  74. ^ Kahr Arms: The Company (click on "Research & Development" link in sidebar), Kahr Arms, accessed 2006-08-19.
  75. ^ "I see an irony, if not hypocrisy, that someone who professes peace and says he's completing Jesus's work also manufactures for profit an implement with no purpose other than killing people," said Tom Diaz, author of "Making a Killing," a new book critical of the firearms industry. "What's the message, turn the other cheek, or lock and load?" Church's Pistol Firm Exploits a Niche, By John Mintz, Washington Post Staff Writer; Wednesday, March 10, 1999; Page A1
  76. ^ Media Watch from Windy City Times 2004-07-07
  78. ^ The Value and Significance of the Family Pledge from, 2007-06-13
  79. ^ "Stephen, for example, burned with indignation over the ignorance and disbelief of the Jewish leaders, and he condemned their actions, calling them murderers and rebels (Acts 7:51-53). Christians since then have commonly shared the same feelings as the disciples of Jesus' day. If Jesus' death had been the foreordained outcome for the fulfillment of God's Will, then it might have been natural for the disciples to grieve over his death, but they would not have been so bitterly resentful over it, nor so angry at those Jewish leaders who caused it." Exposition of the Divine Principle, HSA-UWC, 1996 (ISBN 0-910621-80-2).
  80. ^ Moon said: "By killing one man, Jesus, the Jewish people had to suffer for 2000 years. Countless numbers of people have been slaughtered. During the Second World War, 6 million people were slaughtered to cleanse all the sins of the Jewish people from the time of Jesus." MASTER SPEAKS (no official translation was done), 2/14/74
  81. ^ A speech made by Pak titled "Retraction of The Tragedy of the Six Marys" can be found at

[edit] External links

[edit] Supportive views

[edit] Critical views

[edit] Mixed views

Personal tools