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Mindfulness is a mental state, characterized by concentrated awareness of one's thoughts, actions or motivations. Mindfulness (Pali: Sati; Sanskrit: smṛti स्मृति) plays a central role in the teaching of the Buddha where it is affirmed that "correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali:sammā-sati; Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is an essential factor in the path to enlightenment and liberation. It is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path, the practice of which is held in the tradition to engender insight and wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā). The Satipatthana Sutta is one of the foremost early texts dealing with mindfulness in a meditative context.

Mindfulness techniques are increasingly being employed in Western psychology to help alleviate a variety of conditions.


[edit] Examples from contemplative and daily life

Buddhists hold that over 2500 years ago, Buddha provided guidance on establishing mindfulness. Right mindfulness (often termed Right meditation) involves bringing one's awareness into the present moment (from the past, the future, or some disconnected train of thought). By residing more frequently in the present moment, practitioners begin to see both inner and outer aspects of reality. Internally, one sees that the mind is continually chattering with commentary or judgement. By noticing that the mind is continually making commentary, one has the ability to carefully observe those thoughts, seeing them for what they are without aversion or judgment. Those practicing mindfulness realize that "thoughts are just thoughts." One is free to release a thought ("let it go") when one realizes that the thought may not be concrete reality or absolute truth. Thus, one is free to observe life without getting caught in the commentary. Many "voices" or messages may speak to one within the "vocal" (discursive) mind. It is important to be aware that the messages one hears during "thinking" may not be accurate or helpful, but rather may be translations of, or departures from truth.

As one more closely observes inner reality, one finds that happiness is not exclusively a quality brought about by a change in outer circumstances, but rather that realizing happiness often starts with loosening and releasing attachment to thoughts, predispositions, and "scripts"; thereby releasing "automatic" reactions toward pleasant and unpleasant situations or feelings.

However, mindfulness does not have to be constrained to a formal meditation session. Mindfulness is an activity that can be done at any time; it does not require sitting, or even focusing on the breath, but rather is done by bringing the mind to focus on what is happening in the present moment, while simply noticing the mind's usual "commentary". One can be mindful of the sensations in one's feet while walking, of the sound of the wind in the trees, or the feeling of soapy water while doing dishes. One can also be mindful of the mind's commentary: "I wish I didn't have to walk any further, I like the sound of the leaves rustling, I wish washing dishes weren't so boring and the soap weren't drying out my skin", etc. Once we have noticed the mind's running commentary, we have the freedom to cease identification with those judgments/perceptions: "washing dishes: boring" may become "The warm water is in unison with the detergent and is currently washing away the plate's grime, the sun is shining through the window and casting an ever greater shadow on the dish's white ceramics." In this example, one may see that washing does not have to be judged "boring"; washing dishes is only a process of coordinating dishes with soap and water. Any activity done mindfully is a form of meditation, and mindfulness is possible practically all the time.

[edit] Continuous mindfulness practice

In addition to various forms of meditation based around specific sessions, there are mindfulness training exercises that develop awareness throughout the day using designated environmental cues. The aim is to make mindfulness essentially continuous. Examples of such cues are the hourly chimes of clocks, red lights at traffic junctions and crossing the threshold of doors. The mindfulness itself can take the form of nothing more than focusing on three successive breaths [1]. This approach is particularly helpful when it is difficult to establish a regular meditation practice.

[edit] Mindfulness in the West

Although mindfulness has its origins in Buddhism, it is also advocated in the West by teachers such as Jon Kabat-Zinn, Jack Kornfield, Joseph Goldstein and Sharon Salzberg, who have jointly been attributed with playing a significant role in bringing the practice to a new audience. Mindfulness is also attracting increasing interest among western clinical psychologists and psychiatrists as a means of dealing with stress, anxiety, and depressive mood states.

[edit] Therapeutic applications of mindfulness

Recent research points to a useful therapeutic role for mindfulness in a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain [2] and stress [3]. Mindfulness is also useful in the treatment and prevention of depression and substance abuse. [4] Recent research suggests that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be used to prevent suicidal behavior from recurring in cases of severe mental illness (Journ. Clin. Psych. 62/2 2006).

Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn developed the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. MBSR is a form of complementary medicine offered in over 200 U.S. hospitals and is currently the focus of a number of research studies funded by The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Kabat-Zinn also wrote a book about mindfulness called Wherever You Go, There You Are.

Mindfulness Meditation has been clinically shown to be effective for the management of stress, anxiety and panic, chronic pain, depression, obsessive thinking, strong emotional reactivity, and a wide array of medical and mental health related conditions.(citations??)

MARC Center at UCLA [4]was created to bring to a mental health research institution the ancient art of mindful awareness. They offer regular classes and seminars as well as conduct research related to Mindfulness and its practical use as a treatment for ADHD and to enhance general well-being.

The Insight Center [5] was founded in West Los Angeles, California to provide evidence-based training to the general public, psychotherapists and nurses in basic and advanced practices of mindfulness meditation and mindfulness psychotherapy. The Center offers consultations and trainings accredited by the American Psychological Association and the California Board of Behavioral Sciences as a Continuing Education Provider.

Mindfulness is a core exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy, a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with Borderline personality disorder.

Mindfulness is also used in some other newer psychotherapeutic methods, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy.

Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s mindfulness has been an essential part of the theory and practice of Gestalt therapy, although within the frame of Gestalt therapy theory it appears as "awareness".

[edit] Zen criticism of contemporary interpretations of mindfulness

Japanese Zen master Gudo Wafu Nishijima criticizes the use of the term of mindfulness and idealistic interpretations of the practice from the standpoint of Zen Buddhism on his blog [5] on May 24th, 2008: "However recently many so-called Buddhist teachers insist the importance of 'mindfulness.' But such a kind of attitudes might be insistence that buddhism might be a kind of idealistic philosophy. Therefore actually speaking I am much afraid that Buddhism is misunderstood as if it was a kind of idealistic philosophy. However we should never forget that Buddhism is not an idealistic philosophy, and so if someone in Buddhism reveres mindfulness, we should clearly recognize that he or she can never be a Buddhist at all."

Muho Noelke, the abbot of Antaiji, explains the pitfalls of the mindfulness approach in detail in four articles titled "Stop being mindful!" [6]. Muho's point is that the conscious effort to be "mindful" makes it impossible to be one in the moment, as the conscious subject splits itself into an observer and an observed mind.

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ mindfulness in breathing
  2. ^ Research on mindfulness
  3. ^ Swiss publication on mindfulness
  4. ^ Steven M. Melemis (2008). Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life By Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships. Chapter 19: Overcome Depression and Addiction. Modern Therapies. ISBN 978-1897572177
  5. ^ "On Mindfulness," Blog of Gudo Wafu Nishijima
  6. ^ [1], "Monkey mind and horse will" [2], "Just do it - easy to say, but ..." [3] and "How to sit" Articles by Muho Noelke

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. An out-patient program in Behavioral Medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry (1982) 4:33-47.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L. and Burney, R. The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. J. Behav. Med. (1985) 8:163-190.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R. and Sellers, W. Four year follow-up of a meditation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: Treatment outcomes and compliance. Clin. J.Pain (1986) 2:159-173.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. and Chapman-Waldrop, A. Compliance with an outpatient stress reduction program: rates and predictors of completion. J.Behav. Med. (1988) 11:333-352.
  • Ockene, J., Sorensen, G., Kabat-Zinn, J., Ockene, I.S., and Donnelly, G. Benefits and costs of lifestyle change to reduce risk of chronic disease. Preventive Medicine, (1988) 17:224-234.
  • Bernhard, J., Kristeller, J. and Kabat-Zinn, J. Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as an adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) 19:572-73.
  • Boccio, Frank Jude Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind (2004), ISBN 0861713354
  • Ockene, J.K., Ockene, I.S., Kabat-Zinn, J., Greene, H.L., and Frid, D. Teaching risk-factor counseling skills to medical students, house staff, and fellows. Am. J. Prevent. Med. (1990) 6 (#2): 35-42.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A.O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L.G., Fletcher, K., Pbert, L., Linderking, W., Santorelli, S.F. Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am. J Psychiatry (1992) 149:936-943.
  • Miller, J., Fletcher, K. and Kabat-Zinn, J. Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry (1995) 17:192-200.
  • Massion, A.O., Teas, J., Hebert, J.R., Wertheimer, M.D., and Kabat-Zinn, J. Meditation, melatonin, and breast/prostate cancer: Hypothesis and preliminary data. Medical Hypotheses (1995) 44:39-46.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. Chapman, A, and Salmon, P. The relationship of cognitive and somatic components of anxiety to patient preference for alternative relaxation techniques. Mind/ Body Medicine (1997) 2:101-109.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M.S., Cropley, T. G., Hosmer, D., and Bernhard, J. Influence of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA) Psychosomat Med (1998) 60: 625-632.
  • Saxe, G., Hebert, J., Carmody, J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Rosenzweig, P., Jarzobski, D., Reed, G., and Blute, R. Can Diet, in conjunction with Stress Reduction, Affect the Rate of Increase in Prostate-specific Antigen After Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer? J. of Urology, In Press, 2001.
  • Nemcova, M; Hajek, K. (2009): Introduction to Satitherapy – Mindfulness and Abhidhamma Principles in Person-Centered Integrative Psychotherapy. Morrisville, Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1409259008

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