Music therapy

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"Music and song embrace and sustain us throughout our journey in life, present in our celebrations, marking passages and milestones, strengthening us with courage when we are fearful and despairing. Music helps to answer questions of who we are, what we stand for and value, comforting us individually and bringing us together collectively. Music helps us to wordlessly understand ourselves and others, to console when there are no words and to create ways to communicate when through disability or other barriers, language alone is not possible. And although you may be “at a loss for words”, not know what to say or when “words just can’t express” your true feelings, music is always there to communicate the inexpressible and to free the mind from the boundaries of speech and ordinary thought to expand to an alternate place of emotion, rhythm and imagery. Words may desert us, but music is always present – like a heartbeat, linking us to our world and providing a pathway back “home” ."Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients to improve or maintain their health. In some instances, the client's needs are addressed directly through music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical handicaps, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities, substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging. It is also used to: improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of other health-related activities.

Music therapists are found in nearly every area of the helping professions. Some commonly found practices include developmental work (communication, motor skills, etc.) with individuals with special needs, songwriting and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderly, processing and relaxation work, and rhythmic entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims.

The Turco-Persian psychologist and music theorist al-Farabi (872–950), known as "Alpharabius" in Europe, dealt with music therapy in his treatise Meanings of the Intellect, where he discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul.[1] Robert Burton wrote in the 17th century in his classic work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia.[2] [3] [4]

It is considered one of the expressive therapies.


[edit] Music therapy in the United States

Music therapy has existed in its common current form in the United States since around 1944, when the first undergraduate degree program in the world was founded at Michigan State University and the first graduate degree program at the University of Kansas. The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) was founded in 1998 as a merger between the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT, founded in 1950) and the American Association for Music Therapy (AAMT, founded in 1971). Numerous other national organizations exist, such as the Institute for Music and Neurologic Function, Nordoff-Robbins Center For Music Therapy and The Bonny Foundation. In the United States, a music therapist is most commonly designated by MT-BC (Music Therapist-Board Certified). A music therapist may use ideas or concepts from different disciplines such as social work, speech/language, physical therapy, medicine, nursing, education, and so forth. A music therapist may have different credentials or professional licenses and may also have a master's degree in music therapy or in another clinical field (social work, mental health counseling, or the like). New York State requires that people holding the title music therapist be licensed as a creative arts therapist by holding a master's degree or higher in the field. Other masters degree holders may also take a test administered by the state of New York. Some practicing music therapists have held Ph.D.s in non-music-therapy (but related) areas, but more recently Temple University and Lesley University have founded a true music therapy Ph.D. program. A music therapist will typically practice in a manner that incorporates music therapy techniques with broader clinical practices such as assessment, diagnosis, psychotherapy, rehabilitation, and other practices depending on population. Music therapy services rendered within the context of a social service, educational, or health care agency are reimbursable by insurance and sources of funding for individuals with certain needs, under the title of Activity Therapy. Music therapy services have been identified as reimbursable under Medicaid, Medicare, Private insurance plans and other services such as state departments and government programs.

A U.S. music therapist may also hold the designation of CMT, ACMT, or RMT--initials which were previously conferred by the now-defunct AAMT and NAMT. More current music therapists hold the designation, MT-BC, music therapist-board certified, given by the Certification Board of Music Therapists.

A degree in music therapy requires proficiency in guitar, piano, voice, music theory, music history, reading music, improvisation, as well as varying levels of skill in assessment, documentation, and other counseling and health care skills depending on the focus of the particular university's program.

To become board-certified in the United States, a music therapist must complete course work at an accredited ATMA program at a college or university, successfully complete a 1040 hour Music Therapy internship, and pass the Certifying Board examination.

Board Certified Music Therapists are required to maintain their education through continuing education courses, called Continuing Music Therapy Education courses, or CMTEs. These classes fall under the purview of the Certification Board for Music Therapists to assure quality and applicability. They are offered at the state, regional, and national level.

[edit] Music therapy in the United Kingdom

Live music was used in hospitals after both of the World Wars, as part of the regime for some recovering soldiers. Clinical Music therapy in Britain as it is understood today was pioneered in the 60s and 70s by French cellist Juliette Alvin, whose influence on the current generation of British music therapy lecturers remains strong. Mary Priestley, one of Juliette Alvin's students came to discover/create Analytical Music Therapy. Analytical Music Therapy is a form of Music Therapy which together with the Nordoff-Robbins school of Music Therapy, form the two central forms of Music Therapy used today. Mary Priestley's books: Music Therapy in Action, first published by Constable and company 1975 (ISBN 0 09 459900 9) and Essays on Analytical Music Therapy, Barcelona Publishers ©1994.(ISBN 0-9624080-2-6) Form part of the core course work for students of Analytical Music Therapy all over the world.

The Nordoff-Robbins approach to music therapy developed from the work of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins in the 1950/60s. It is grounded in the belief that everyone can respond to music, no matter how ill or disabled. The unique qualities of music as therapy can enhance communication, support change, and enable people to live more resourcefully and creatively. Nordoff-Robbins now run music therapy sessions throughout the UK, US, South Africa, Australia and Germany. Its head quarters are in London where it also provides training and further education programmes, including the only PHD course in music therapy available in the UK. Music therapists, many of whom work with an improvisatory model (see clinical improvisation), are active particularly in the fields of child and adult learning disability, but also in psychiatry and forensic psychiatry, geriatrics, palliative care and other areas. Practitioners are registered with the Health Professions Council [3] and from 2007 new regisrants must normally hold a masters degree in music therapy. There are masters level programmes in music therapy in Bristol, Cambridge, Cardiff, Edinburgh and London, and there are therapists throughout the United Kingdom. The professional body in the UK is the Association of Professional Music Therapists [4] while the British Society for Music Therapy [5] is a charity providing information about music therapy. roya a stink

In 2002, the World Congress of Music Therapy was held in Oxford, on the theme of Dialogue and Debate. [5]

In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford [6] and his colleagues again found that music therapy helped the outcomes of Schizophrenic patients. [7][8] In 2009, he and his team were researching the usefulness of improvisational music in helping patients with agitation and also those with Dementia.

[edit] Music Therapy as Stroke Therapy

Music has been shown to affect portions of the brain. Part of this therapy is the ability of music to affect emotions and social interactions. Research by Nayak et al showed that music therapy is associated with a decrease in depression, improved mood, and a reduction in state anxiety[9]. Both descriptive and experimental studies have documented effects of music on quality of life, involvement with the environment, expression of feelings, awareness and responsiveness, positive associations, and socialization [10]. Additionally, Nayak et al. found that music therapy had a positive effect on social and behavioral outcomes and showed some encouraging trends with respect to mood.[9]

More recent research suggests that music can increase patient’s motivation and positive emotions. [11][9][12] Current research also suggests that when music therapy is used in conjunction with traditional therapy it improves success rates significantly.[13][14][15] Therefore, it is hypothesized that music therapy helps stroke victims recover faster and with more success by increasing the patient’s positive emotions and motivation, allowing them to be more successful and driven to participate in traditional therapies.

Research has shown the ability of music therapy to increase positive social interactions, positive emotions, and motivation in stroke patients. Wheeler et al. found that group music therapy sessions increased the ease at which stroke patients responded to social interaction and increased positive attitude reports from patient families, while individual sessions helped to motivate patients for treatment[12]. Another study examined the effect of music therapy on mood of stroke patients and found similar results that showed decreased anxiety, fatigue, and hostile mood states [11]. Additionally, Nayak et al. found improved social interaction (more actively involved and cooperative) when music therapy was used in stroke recovery programs[9].

Recent studies have examined the effect of music therapy on stroke patients, when combined with traditional therapy. One study found the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises gave patients more positive emotional effects than exercise alone.[13] In another study, Nayak et al. discovered found that rehabilitation staff rated participants in the music therapy group as more actively involved and cooperative in therapy than those in the control group.[9] Their findings gave preliminary support to the efficacy of music therapy as a complementary therapy for social functioning and participation in rehabilitation with a trend toward improvement in mood during acute rehabilitation.

Although positive changes have been associated with music therapy, some considerations must be taken into account. While scientists have determined that a variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when listening to music, broad conclusions cannot yet be made concerning the relationship and the direction of the relationship between music and emotion.[16] Additionally, there may be mediating factors which affect the success of music therapy. For example, Nayak et al. found the more impaired an individual’s social behavior was at the outset of treatment, the more likely he or she was to benefit from music therapy.[9] Additionally, they noted the effectiveness of music therapy may be moderated by the time frame of the treatment. It is possible that music therapy has a more pronounced effect on mood the closer to injury it is applied.

Current research shows that when music therapy is used in conjunction with traditional therapy, it improves rates of recovery, and emotional and social deficits resulting from stroke. [17][14][15][18][13][9] A study by Jeong & Kim examined the impact of music therapy when combined with traditional stroke therapy in a community-based rehabilitation program. [17]Thirty-three stroke survivors were randomized into one of two groups: the experimental group, which combined rhythmic music and specialized rehabilitation movement for eight weeks; and a control group, that received referral information for traditional therapy (and were assumed to have sought traditional therapy). The results of this study showed that participants in the experimental group gained more flexibility, wider range of motion, more positive moods, and increased frequency and quality of social interactions.[17]

Music has also been used in recovery of motor skills. Rhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context in combination with traditional gait therapy improved the ability of stroke patients to walk.[14] The study consisted of two treatment conditions, one which received traditional gait therapy and another which received the gait therapy in combination with the rhythmical auditory stimulation. During the rhythmical auditory stimulation, stimulation was played back measure by measure, and was initiated by the patient’s heal-strikes. Each condition received fifteen sessions of therapy. The results revealed that the rhythmical auditory stimulation group showed more improvement in stride length, symmetry deviation, walking speed and rollover path length (all indicators for improved walking gait) than the group that received traditional therapy alone.[14]

Schneider et al. also studied the effects of combining music therapy with standard motor rehabilitation methods[15]. In this experiment, researchers recruited stroke patients without prior musical experience and trained half of them in an intensive step by step training program that occurred fifteen times over three weeks, in addition to traditional treatment. These participants were trained to use fine both fine and gross motor movements by learning how to use the piano and drums. The other half of the patients received only traditional treatment over the course of the three weeks. Three-dimensional movement analysis and clinical motor tests showed participants who received the additional music therapy had significantly better speed, precision, and smoothness of movements as compared to the control subjects. Participants who received music therapy also showed a significant improvement in every-day motor activities as compared to the control group [15]. Wilson, Parsons, & Reutens looked at the effect of melodic intonation therapy (MIT) on speech production in a male singer with severe Broca’s aphasia[18]. In this study, thirty novel phrases were taught in three conditions: unrehearsed, rehearsed verbal production (repetition), or rehearsed verbal production with melody (MIT). Results showed that phrases taught in the MIT condition had superior production, and that compared to rehearsal, effects of MIT lasted longer.

Another study examined the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises on pain perception in stroke victims [13]. Over the course of eight weeks, stroke victims participated in upper extremity exercises (of the hand, wrist, and shoulder joints) in conjunction with one of the three conditions: song, karaoke accompaniment, and no music. Patients participated in each condition once, according to a randomized order, and rated their perceived pain immediately after the session. Results showed that although there was no significant difference in pain rating across the conditions, video observations revealed more positive affect and verbal responses while performing upper extremity exercises with both music and karaoke accompaniment [13]. Nayak et al. [9] examined the combination of music therapy with traditional stroke rehabilitation and also found the addition of music therapy improved mood and social interaction. Participants who had suffered traumatic brain injury or stroke were placed in one of two conditions: standard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation along with music therapy. Participants received three treatments per week for up to ten treatments. Therapists found that participants who received music therapy in conjunction with traditional methods had improved social interaction and mood.

[edit] Important music therapists and writers on music therapy

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [363].
  2. ^ cf. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, subsection 3, on and after line 3480, "Music a Remedy":

    But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise [3481] of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against [3482] despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in [3483] Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout." Ismenias the Theban, [3484] Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now they do those, saith [3485] Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. [1]

  3. ^ "Humanities are the Hormones: A Tarantella Comes to Newfoundland. What should we do about it?" by Dr. John Crellin, MUNMED, newsletter of the Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1996.
  4. ^ Aung, Steven K.H., Lee, Mathew H.M., "Music, Sounds, Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to the Healing Arts", Alternative & Complementary Therapies, Oct 2004, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266-270. [2]
  5. ^ "Proceedings from the WFMT World Conference in Oxford, UK, 23-28 July 2002"
  6. ^ Dr. Michael J. Crawford page at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological Medicine.
  7. ^ Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul, et al. (November 2006). "Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189: 405–409. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.015073. PMID 17077429. 
  8. ^ "Music therapy may improve schizophrenia symptoms", Faculty of Medicine News, Imperial College, London.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h >Nayak, S. et al. (2000). Effect of music therapy on mood and social interaction among individuals with acute traumatic brain injury and stroke. Rehabilitation Psychology 45(3) 274-283.
  10. ^ Hanser SB, Thompson LW (November 1994). "Effects of a music therapy strategy on depressed older adults". J Gerontol 49 (6): P265–9. PMID 7963281. 
  11. ^ a b Magee, W.L. & Davidson, J.W. (2002). The effect of music therapy on mood states in neurological patients: A pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy 39(1) 20-29.
  12. ^ a b Wheeler, B.L. et al. (2003). Effects of Number of Sessions and Group or Individual Music Therapy on the Mood and Behavior of People Who Have Had Strokes or Traumatic Brain Injuries. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. 12(2) 139-151.
  13. ^ a b c d e Kim, S. J. (2005). The Effects of Music on Pain Perception of Stroke Patients During Upper Extremity Joint Exercises. Journal of Music Therapy. 42(1) 81-92.
  14. ^ a b c d Schauer M, Mauritz KH (November 2003). "Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: randomized trials of gait improvement". Clin Rehabil 17 (7): 713–22. doi:10.1191/0269215503cr668oa. PMID 14606736. 
  15. ^ a b c d Schneider S, Schönle PW, Altenmüller E, Münte TF (October 2007). "Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke". J. Neurol. 254 (10): 1339–46. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-0523-2. PMID 17260171. 
  16. ^ Vink, A. (2001). Music and emotion: Living apart together: A relationship between music psychology and music therapy. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. 10(2) 144-158.
  17. ^ a b c Jeong S, Kim MT (August 2007). "Effects of a theory-driven music and movement program for stroke survivors in a community setting". Appl Nurs Res 20 (3): 125–31. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2007.04.005. PMID 17693215. 
  18. ^ a b Wilson, S.; Parsons, K.; & Reutens, D. (2006). Preserved Singing in Aphasia: A Case Study of the Efficacy of Melodic Intonation Therapy. Music Perception. 42(1) 23-36.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

[edit] Journals

[edit] Associations

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[edit] General

[edit] Sampling of university programs in Music Therapy

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