Library of Congress Classification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Library of Congress reading room

The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries. It is not to be confused with the Library of Congress Subject Headings or Library of Congress Control Number. Most public libraries and small academic libraries continue to use the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC).

The classification was originally developed by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by Cutter Expansive Classification, and the DDC, and was specially designed for the special purposes of the Library of Congress. The new system replaced a fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time of Putnam's departure from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed. It has been criticized as lacking a sound theoretical basis; many of the classification decisions were driven by the particular practical needs of that library, rather than epistemological considerations.

Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. It provides a guide to the books actually in the library, not a classification of the world.

The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the classification scheme's unused letters W and QSQZ. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R (Medicine). Others prefer to use the LCC scheme's QP-QR schedules and include Medicine R.


[edit] The system

Java programming books in the QA subclass.
Letter Subject area
A General Works
B Philosophy, Psychology, and Religion
C Auxiliary Sciences of History
D General and Old World History
E History of America
F History of the United States and British, Dutch, French, and Latin America
G Geography, Anthropology, and Recreation
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
K Law
L Education
M Music
N Fine Arts
P Language and Literature
Q Science
R Medicine
S Agriculture
T Technology
U Military Science
V Naval Science
Z Bibliography, Library Science, and General Information Resources

[edit] Class A - General Works

  • Subclass AC Collections. Series. Collected works
  • Subclass AE Encyclopedias
  • Subclass AG Dictionaries and other general reference works
  • Subclass AI Indexes
  • Subclass AM Museums. Collectors and collecting
  • Subclass AN Newspapers
  • Subclass AP Periodicals
  • Subclass AS Academies and learned societies
  • Subclass AY Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories
  • Subclass AZ History of scholarship and learning. The humanities

[edit] Class B - Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

  • Subclass B Philosophy (General)
  • Subclass BC Logic
  • Subclass BD Speculative philosophy
  • Subclass BF Psychology
  • Subclass BH Aesthetics
  • Subclass BJ Ethics
  • Subclass BL Religions. Mythology. Rationalism
  • Subclass BM Judaism
  • Subclass BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc.
  • Subclass BQ Buddhism
  • Subclass BR Christianity
  • Subclass BS The Bible
  • Subclass BT Doctrinal Theology
  • Subclass BV Practical Theology
  • Subclass BX Christian Denominations

[edit] Class C - Auxiliary Sciences of History (General)

  • Subclass CB History of Civilization
  • Subclass CC Archaeology
  • Subclass CD Diplomatics. Archives. Seals
  • Subclass CE Technical Chronology. Calendar
  • Subclass CJ Numismatics
  • Subclass CN Inscriptions. Epigraphy
  • Subclass CR Heraldry
  • Subclass CS Genealogy
  • Subclass CT Biography

[edit] Class D - World History (except American History)

  • Subclass D History (General)
  • Subclass DA Great Britain
  • Subclass DAW Central Europe
  • Subclass DB Austria - Liechtenstein - Hungary - Czechoslovakia
  • Subclass DC France - Andorra - Monaco
  • Subclass DD Germany
  • Subclass DE Greco-Roman World
  • Subclass DF Greece
  • Subclass DG Italy - Malta
  • Subclass DH Low Countries - Benelux Countries
  • Subclass DJ Netherlands (Holland)
  • Subclass DJK Eastern Europe (General)
  • Subclass DK Russia. Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics - Poland
  • Subclass DL Northern Europe. Scandinavia
  • Subclass DP Spain - Portugal
  • Subclass DQ Switzerland
  • Subclass DR Balkan Peninsula
  • Subclass DS Asia
  • Subclass DT Africa
  • Subclass DU Oceania (South Seas)
  • Subclass DX Gypsies

[edit] Class E and F - American History

[edit] Class G - Geography, Anthropology, Recreation

  • Subclass G Geography (General). Atlases. Maps
  • Subclass GA Mathematical geography. Cartography
  • Subclass GB Physical geography
  • Subclass GC Oceanography
  • Subclass GE Environmental Sciences
  • Subclass GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
  • Subclass GN Anthropology
  • Subclass GR Folklore
  • Subclass GT Manners and customs (General)
  • Subclass GV Recreation. Leisure

[edit] Class H - Social Sciences

  • Subclass H Social sciences (General)
  • Subclass HA Statistics
  • Subclass HB Economic theory. Demography
  • Subclass HC Economic history and conditions
  • Subclass HD Industries. Land use. Labor
  • Subclass HE Transportation and communications
  • Subclass HF Commerce
  • Subclass HG Finance
  • Subclass HJ Public finance
  • Subclass HM Sociology (General)
  • Subclass HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
  • Subclass HQ The family. Marriage. Women
  • Subclass HS Societies: secret, benevolent, etc.
  • Subclass HT Communities. Classes. Races
  • Subclass HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
  • Subclass HX Socialism. Communism. Anarchism

[edit] Class J - Political Science

  • Subclass J General legislative and executive papers
  • Subclass JA Political science (General)
  • Subclass JC Political theory
  • Subclass JF Political institutions and public administration
  • Subclass JJ Political institutions and public administration (North America)
  • Subclass JK Political institutions and public administration (United States)
  • Subclass JL Political institutions and public administration (Canada, Latin America, etc.)
  • Subclass JN Political institutions and public administration (Europe)
  • Subclass JQ Political institutions and public administration (Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Area, etc.)
  • Subclass JS Local government. Municipal government
  • Subclass JV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
  • Subclass JX International law, see JZ and KZ (obsolete)
  • Subclass JZ International relations

[edit] Class K - Law

  • Subclass K Law in general. Comparative and uniform law. Jurisprudence
  • Subclass KB Religious law in general. Comparative religious law. Jurisprudence
  • Subclass KBM Jewish law
  • Subclass KBP Islamic law
  • Subclass KBR History of canon law
  • Subclass KBU Law of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See
  • Subclasses KD-KDK United Kingdom and Ireland
  • Subclass KDZ America. North America
  • Subclass KE Canada
  • Subclass KF United States
  • Subclass KG Latin America - Mexico and Central America - West Indies. Caribbean area
  • Subclass KH South America
  • Subclasses KJ-KKZ Europe
  • Subclasses KL-KWX Asia and Eurasia, Africa, Pacific Area, and Antarctica
  • Subclass KZ Law of nations

[edit] Class L - Education

  • Subclass L Education (General)
  • Subclass LA History of education
  • Subclass LB Theory and practice of education
  • Subclass LC Special aspects of education
  • Subclass LD Individual institutions - United States
  • Subclass LE Individual institutions - America (except United States)
  • Subclass LF Individual institutions - Europe
  • Subclass LG Individual institutions - Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific islands
  • Subclass LH College and school magazines and papers
  • Subclass LJ Student fraternities and societies, United States
  • Subclass LT Textbooks

[edit] Class M - Music

  • Subclass M Music
  • Subclass ML Literature on music
  • Subclass MT Instruction and study

[edit] Class N - Fine arts

  • Subclass N Visual arts
  • Subclass NA Architecture
  • Subclass NB Sculpture
  • Subclass NC Drawing. Design. Illustration
  • Subclass ND Painting
  • Subclass NE Print media
  • Subclass NK Decorative arts
  • Subclass NX Arts in general

[edit] Class P - Language and Literature

  • Subclass P Philology. Linguistics
  • Subclass PA Greek language and literature. Latin language and literature
  • Subclass PB Modern languages. Celtic languages
  • Subclass PC Romanic languages
  • Subclass PD Germanic languages. Scandinavian languages
  • Subclass PE English language
  • Subclass PF West Germanic languages
  • Subclass PG Slavic languages. Baltic languages. Albanian language
  • Subclass PH Uralic languages. Basque language
  • Subclass PJ Oriental languages and literatures
  • Subclass PK Indo-Iranian languages and literatures
  • Subclass PL Languages and literatures of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania
  • Subclass PM Hyperborean, Indian, and artificial languages
  • Subclass PN Literature (General)
  • Subclass PQ French literature - Italian literature - Spanish literature - Portuguese literature
  • Subclass PR English literature
  • Subclass PS American literature
  • Subclass PT German literature - Dutch literature - Flemish literature since 1830 -Afrikaans literature - Scandinavian literature - Old Norse literature: Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian - Modern Icelandic literature - Faroese literature - Danish literature - Norwegian literature - Swedish literature
  • Subclass PZ Fiction and juvenile belles lettres

[edit] Class Q - Science

  • Subclass Q Science (General)
  • Subclass QA Mathematics
  • Subclass QB Astronomy
  • Subclass QC Physics
  • Subclass QD Chemistry
  • Subclass QE Geology
  • Subclass QH Natural history - Biology
  • Subclass QK Botany
  • Subclass QL Zoology
  • Subclass QM Human anatomy
  • Subclass QP Physiology
  • Subclass QR Microbiology

[edit] Class R - Medicine

  • Subclass R Medicine (General)
  • Subclass RA Public aspects of medicine
  • Subclass RB Pathology
  • Subclass RC Internal medicine
  • Subclass RD Surgery
  • Subclass RE Ophthalmology
  • Subclass RF Otorhinolaryngology
  • Subclass RG Gynecology and obstetrics
  • Subclass RJ Pediatrics
  • Subclass RK Dentistry
  • Subclass RL Dermatology
  • Subclass RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
  • Subclass RS Pharmacy and materia medica
  • Subclass RT Nursing
  • Subclass RV Botanic, Thomsonian, and eclectic medicine
  • Subclass RX Homeopathy
  • Subclass RZ Other systems of medicine

[edit] Class S - Agriculture

  • Subclass S Agriculture (General)
  • Subclass SB Plant culture
  • Subclass SD Forestry
  • Subclass SF Animal culture
  • Subclass SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
  • Subclass SK Hunting sports

[edit] Class T - Technology

  • Subclass T Technology (General)
  • Subclass TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering
  • Subclass TC Hydraulic engineering. Ocean engineering
  • Subclass TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
  • Subclass TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements
  • Subclass TF Railroad engineering and operation
  • Subclass TG Bridge engineering
  • Subclass TH Building construction
  • Subclass TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
  • Subclass TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
  • Subclass TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
  • Subclass TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
  • Subclass TP Chemical technology
  • Subclass TR Photography
  • Subclass TS Manufactures
  • Subclass TT Handicrafts. Arts and crafts
  • Subclass TX Home economics

[edit] Class U - Military Science

  • Subclass U Military science (General)
  • Subclass UA Armies: Organization, distribution, military situation
  • Subclass UB Military administration
  • Subclass UC Maintenance and transportation
  • Subclass UD Infantry
  • Subclass UE Cavalry. Armor
  • Subclass UF Artillery
  • Subclass UG Military engineering. Air forces
  • Subclass UH Other services

[edit] Class V - Naval Science

  • Subclass V Naval science (General)
  • Subclass VA Navies: Organization, distribution, naval situation
  • Subclass VB Naval administration
  • Subclass VC Naval maintenance
  • Subclass VD Naval seamen
  • Subclass VE Marines
  • Subclass VF Naval ordnance
  • Subclass VG Minor services of navies
  • Subclass VK Navigation. Merchant marine
  • Subclass VM Naval architecture. Shipbuilding. Marine engineering

[edit] Class Z - Bibliography, Library Science

  • Subclass Z Books (General). Writing. Paleography. Book industries and trade. Libraries. Bibliography
  • Subclass ZA Information resources (General)

[edit] See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Personal tools