Ralph Waldo Emerson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Western Philosophy
19th century philosophy

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Full name Ralph Waldo Emerson
Born May 25, 1803(1803-05-25)
Boston, Massachusetts
Died April 27, 1882 (aged 78)
Concord, Massachusetts
School/tradition Transcendentalism

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, philosopher and poet, best remembered for leading the transcendentalist movement of the early 19th century. His teachings directly influenced the growing New Thought movement of the mid 1800s.

Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his 1836 essay, Nature. As a result of this ground breaking work he gave a speech entitled The American Scholar in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. considered to be America's "Intellectual Declaration of Independence".[1]

Considered one of the great orators of the time, Emerson's enthusiasm and respect for his audience enraptured crowds. His support for abolitionism late in life created controversy, and at times he was subject to abuse from crowds while speaking on the topic, however this was not always the case. When asked to sum up his work, he said his central doctrine was "the infinitude of the private man."[2]


[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life, family, and education

Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts on May 25, 1803,[3] son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. William Emerson, a Unitarian minister who descended from a well-known line of ministers.[4] Their son was named after the mother's brother Ralph and the father's great-grandmother Rebecca Waldo.[5] Ralph Waldo was the second of five sons who survived into adulthood; the others were William, Edward, Robert Bulkeley, and Charles.[6] Three other children—Phebe, John Clarke, and Mary Caroline—all died in childhood.[6]

The young Ralph Waldo Emerson's father died from stomach cancer on May 12, 1811, less than two weeks short of Emerson's eighth birthday.[7] Emerson was raised by his mother as well as other intellectual and spiritual women in his family, including his aunt Mary Moody Emerson, who had a profound impact on the young Emerson.[8] She lived with the family off and on and maintained a constant correspondence with Emerson until her death in 1863.[9]

Emerson's formal schooling began at the Boston Latin School in 1812 when he was nine.[10] In October 1817, at 14, Emerson went to Harvard College and was appointed freshman messenger for the president, requiring Emerson to fetch delinquent students and send messages to faculty.[11] Midway through his junior year, Emerson began keeping a list of books he had read and started a journal in a series of notebooks that would be called "Wide World".[12] He took outside jobs to cover his school expenses, including as a waiter for the Junior Commons and as an occasional teacher working with his uncle Samuel in Waltham, Massachusetts.[13] By his senior year, Emerson decided to go by his middle name, Waldo.[14] Emerson served as Class Poet and, as was custom, presented an original poem on Harvard's Class Day, a month before his official graduation on August 29, 1821, when he was 18.[15] He did not stand out as a student and graduated in the exact middle of his class of 59 people.[16]

[edit] Early career

After Harvard, Emerson assisted his brother in a school for young ladies[17] established in their mother's house, after he had established his own school in Chelmsford, Massachusetts; when his brother went to Göttingen to study divinity, Emerson took charge of the school. Over the next several years, Emerson made his living as a schoolmaster, then went to Harvard Divinity School. In May 1828, Emerson's younger brother William, who had been working with lawyer Daniel Webster, had to be sent to McLean Asylum.[18]

Boston's Second Church invited Emerson to serve as its junior pastor and he was ordained on March 11, 1829.[19] Emerson met his first wife, Ellen Louisa Tucker, in Concord, New Hampshire and married her when she was 18.[20] The couple moved to Boston, with Emerson's mother Ruth moving with them to help take care of Ellen, who was already sick with tuberculosis.[21] Less than two years later, Ellen died at the age of 20 on February 8, 1831, after uttering her last words: "I have not forgot the peace and joy".[22] Emerson was heavily affected by her death and often visited her grave.[23] In a journal entry dated March 29, 1831, Emerson wrote, "I visited Ellen's tomb and opened the coffin".[24] After his wife's death, he began to disagree with the church's methods, writing in his journal in June 1832: "I have sometimes thought that, in order to be a good minister, it was necessary to leave the ministry. The profession is antiquated. In an altered age, we worship in the dead forms of our forefathers".[25] His disagreements with church officials over the administration of the Communion service and misgivings about public prayer eventually led to his resignation in 1832. As he wrote, "This mode of commemorating Christ is not suitable to me. That is reason enough why I should abandon it".[26]

Emerson toured Europe in 1832 and later wrote of his travels in English Traits (1856).[27] He left aboard the brig Jasper on Christmas Day, sailing first to Malta.[28] During his European trip, he met William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Carlyle. Carlyle in particular was a strong influence on Emerson; Emerson would later serve as an unofficial literary agent in the United States for Carlyle. The two would maintain correspondence until Carlyle's death in 1881.[29]

Emerson returned to the United States on October 9, 1833, and lived with his mother in Newton, Massachusetts until November 1834, when he moved to Concord, Massachusetts to live with his step-grandfather Dr. Ezra Ripley at what was later named The Old Manse.[30] In 1835, he bought a house on the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike in Concord, Massachusetts, now open to the public as the Ralph Waldo Emerson House,[31] and quickly became one of the leading citizens in the town. He married his second wife Lydia Jackson in her home town of Plymouth, Massachusetts on September 14, 1835.[32] He called her Lidian and she called him Mr. Emerson.[33] Their children were Waldo, Ellen, Edith, and Edward Waldo Emerson. Ellen was named for his first wife, at Lidian's suggestion.[34]

Emerson lived a financially conservative lifestyle.[35] He had inherited some wealth after his wife's death, though he brought a lawsuit against the Tucker family in 1836 to get it.[36] He received $11,674.79 in July 1837.[37]

[edit] Literary career and Transcendentalism

Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1859

Emerson and other like-minded intellectuals founded the Transcendental Club, which served as a center for the movement. Its first official meeting was held on September 19, 1836.[38] Emerson anonymously published his first essay, Nature, in September 1836. A year later, on August 31, 1837, Emerson delivered his now-famous Phi Beta Kappa address, "The American Scholar",[39] then known as "An Oration, Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge"; it was renamed for a collection of essays in 1849.[40] In the speech, Emerson declared literary independence in the United States and urged Americans to create a writing style all their own and free from Europe.[41] James Russell Lowell, who was a student at Harvard at the time, called it "an event without former parallel on our literary annals".[42] Another member of the audience, Reverend John Pierce, called it "an apparently incoherent and unintelligible address".[43]

In 1837, Emerson befriended Henry David Thoreau. Though they had likely met as early as 1835, in the fall of 1837, Emerson asked Thoreau, "Do you keep a journal?" The question went on to have a lifelong inspiration for Thoreau.[44]

On July 15, 1838,[45] Emerson was invited to Divinity Hall, Harvard Divinity School for the school's graduation address, which came to be known as his "Divinity School Address". Emerson discounted Biblical miracles and proclaimed that, while Jesus was a great man, he was not God: historical Christianity, he said, had turned Jesus into a "demigod, as the Orientals or the Greeks would describe Osiris or Apollo".[46] His comments outraged the establishment and the general Protestant community. For this, he was denounced as an atheist,[46] and a poisoner of young men's minds. Despite the roar of critics, he made no reply, leaving others to put forward a defense. He was not invited back to speak at Harvard for another thirty years.[47]

The Transcendental group began to publish its flagship journal, The Dial, in July 1840.[48] They planned the journal as early as October 1839, but work did not begin until the first week of 1840.[49] George Ripley was its managing editor[50] and Margaret Fuller was its first editor, having been hand-chosen by Emerson after several others had declined the role.[51] Fuller stayed on for about two years and Emerson took over, utilizing the journal to promote talented young writers including William Ellery Channing and Thoreau.[44]

In January 1842, Emerson's first son Waldo died from scarlet fever.[52] Emerson wrote of his grief in the poem "Threnody" ("For this losing is true dying"),[53] and the essay "Experience". In the same year, William James was born, and Emerson agreed to be his godfather.

It was in 1842 that Emerson published Essays, his second book, which included the famous essay, "Self Reliance." His aunt called it a "strange medley of atheism and false independence," but it gained favorable reviews in London and Paris. This book, and its popular reception, more than any of Emerson's contributions to date laid the groundwork for his international fame.[54]

Bronson Alcott announced his plans in November 1842 to find "a farm of a hundred acres in excellent condition with good buildings, a good orchard and grounds".[55] Charles Lane purchased a 90-acre (360,000 m2) farm in Harvard, Massachusetts in May 1843 for what would become Fruitlands, a community based on Utopian ideals inspired in part by Transcendentalism.[56] The farm would run based on a communal effort, using no animals for labor, and its participants would eat no meat and use no wool or leather.[57] Emerson said he felt "sad at heart" for not engaging in the experiment himself.[58] Even so, he did not feel Fruitlands would be a success. "Their whole doctrine is spiritual", he wrote, "but they always end with saying, Give us much land and money".[59] Even Alcott admitted he was not prepared for the difficulty in operating Fruitlands. "None of us were prepared to actualize practically the ideal life of which we dreamed. So we fell apart", he wrote.[60] After its failure, Emerson helped buy a farm for Alcott's family in Concord[59] which Alcott named "Hillside".[60]

The Dial ceased publication in April 1844; Horace Greeley reported it as an end to the "most original and thoughtful periodical ever published in this country".[61]

Emerson made a living as a popular lecturer in New England and much of the rest of the country. From 1847 to 1848, he toured England, Scotland, and Ireland.[62] He also visited Paris between the February Revolution and the bloody June Days.[citation needed] He had begun lecturing in 1833; by the 1850s he was giving as many as 80 per year.[63] Emerson spoke on a wide variety of subjects and many of his essays grew out of his lectures. He charged between $10 and $50 for each appearance, bringing him about $800 to $1,000 per year.[64] His earnings allowed him to expand his property, buying eleven acres of land by Walden Pond and a few more acres in a neighboring pine grove. He wrote that he was "landlord and waterlord of 14 acres, more or less".[59]

In 1845, Emerson's journals show he was reading the Bhagavad Gita and Henry Thomas Colebrooke's Essays on the Vedas.[65] Emerson was strongly influenced by the Vedas, and much of his writing has strong shades of nondualism. One of the clearest examples of this can be found in his essay "The Over-soul":

We live in succession, in division, in parts, in particles. Meantime within man is the soul of the whole; the wise silence; the universal beauty, to which every part and particle is equally related, the eternal ONE. And this deep power in which we exist and whose beatitude is all accessible to us, is not only self-sufficing and perfect in every hour, but the act of seeing and the thing seen, the seer and the spectacle, the subject and the object, are one. We see the world piece by piece, as the sun, the moon, the animal, the tree; but the whole, of which these are shining parts, is the soul.[66]

Emerson was introduced to Indian philosophy when reading the works of French philosopher Victor Cousin.[67]

In February 1852, Emerson and James Freeman Clarke and William Henry Channing edited an edition of the works and letters of Margaret Fuller, who had died in 1850.[68] Within a week of her death, her New York editor Horace Greeley suggested to Emerson that a biography of Fuller, to be called Margaret and Her Friends, be prepared quickly "before the interest excited by her sad decease has passed away".[69] Published with the title The Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli,[70] Fuller's words were heavily censored or rewritten.[71] The three editors were not concerned about accuracy; they believed public interest in Fuller was temporary and that she would not survive as a historical figure.[72] Even so, for a time, it was the best-selling biography of the decade and went through thirteen editions before the end of the century.[70]

Walt Whitman published the innovative poetry collection Leaves of Grass in 1855 and sent a copy to Emerson for his opinion. Emerson responded positively, sending a flattering five-page letter as a response.[73] Emerson's approval helped the first edition of Leaves of Grass stir up significant interest[74] and convinced Whitman to issue a second edition shortly thereafter.[75] This edition quoted a phrase from Emerson's letter, printed in gold leaf on the cover: "I Greet You at the Beginning of a Great Career".[76] Emerson took offense that this letter was made public[77] and later became more critical of the work.[78]

[edit] Civil War years

Though Emerson was anti-slavery, he did not immediately become active in the abolitionist movement. He voted for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, but Emerson was disappointed that Lincoln was more concerned about preserving the Union than eliminating slavery outright.[79] Once the American Civil War broke out, Emerson made it clear that he believed in immediate emancipation of the slaves.[80] Emerson gave a public lecture in Washington, D.C. on January 31, 1862, and declared: "The South calls slavery an institution... I call it destitution... Emancipation is the demand of civilization".[81] The next day, February 1, his friend Charles Sumner took him to meet Lincoln at the White House; his misgivings about Lincoln began to soften after this meeting.[82]

On May 6, 1862, Emerson's protege Henry David Thoreau died of tuberculosis at the age of 44 and Emerson delivered his eulogy. Emerson would continuously refer to Thoreau as his best friend,[83] despite a falling out that began in 1849 after Thoreau published A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.[84] Another friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne, died two years after Thoreau in 1864. Emerson served as one of the pallbearers as Hawthorne was buried in Concord, as Emerson wrote, "in a pomp of sunshine and verdure".[85]

[edit] Final years and death

Emerson's grave in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery

Beginning as early as the summer of 1871 or in the spring of 1872, Emerson was losing his memory[86] and suffered from aphasia.[87] By the end of the decade, he forgot his own name at times and, when anyone asked how he felt, he responded, "Quite well; I have lost my mental faculties, but am perfectly well".[88]

Emerson's Concord home caught fire on July 24, 1872; Emerson called for help from neighbors and, giving up on putting out the flames, all attempted to save as many objects as possible.[89] The fire was put out by Ephraim Bull, Jr., the one-armed son of Ephraim Wales Bull.[90] Donations were collected by friends to help the Emersons rebuild, including $5,000 gathered by Francis Cabot Lowell, another $10,000 collected by LeBaron Russell Briggs, and a personal donation of $1,000 from George Bancroft.[91] Support for shelter was offered as well; though the Emersons ended up staying with family at the Old Manse, invitations came from Anne Lynch Botta, James Elliot Cabot, James Thomas Fields and Annie Adams Fields.[92] The fire marked an end to Emerson's serious lecturing career; from then on, he would lecture only on special occasions and only in front of familiar audiences.[93]

While the house was being rebuilt, Emerson took a trip to England, the main European continent, and Egypt. He left on October 23, 1872, along with his daughter Ellen[94] while his wife Lidian spent time at the Old Manse and with friends.[95] Emerson and his daughter Ellen returned to the United States on the ship Olympus along with friend Charles Eliot Norton on April 15, 1873.[96] Emerson's return to Concord was celebrated by the town and school was canceled that day.[87]

In late 1874, Emerson published an anthology of poetry called Parnassus, which included poems by Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Julia Caroline Dorr, Jean Ingelow, Lucy Larcom, Jones Very, as well as Thoreau and several others.[97] The anthology was originally prepared as early as the fall of 1871 but was delayed when the publishers asked for revisions.[98]

The problems with his memory had become embarrassing to Emerson and he ceased his public appearances by 1879. As Holmes wrote, "Emerson is afraid to trust himself in society much, on account of the failure of his memory and the great difficulty he finds in getting the words he wants. It is painful to witness his embarrassment at times".[88]

On April 19, 1882, Emerson went walking despite having an apparent cold and was caught in a sudden rain shower. Two days later, he was diagnosed with pneumonia.[99] He died on April 27, 1882. Emerson is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Massachusetts.[100] He was placed in his coffin wearing a white robe given by American sculptor Daniel Chester French.[101]

[edit] Lifestyle and beliefs

Ralph Waldo Emerson in later years

Emerson's religious views were often considered radical at the time. He believed that all things are connected to God and, therefore, all things are divine.[102] Critics believed that Emerson was removing the central God figure; as Henry Ware, Jr. said, Emerson was in danger of taking away "the Father of the Universe" and leaving "but a company of children in an orphan asylum".[103] Emerson was partly influenced by German philosophy and Biblical criticism.[104] His views, the basis of Transcendentalism, suggested that God does not have to reveal the truth but that the truth could be intuitively experienced directly from nature.[105]

Emerson did not become an ardent abolitionist until later in his life, though his journals show he was concerned with slavery beginning in his youth. When he was young, he even dreamed about helping to free slaves, though he was not a strong public abolitionist voice at the time. In June 1856, shortly after Charles Sumner, a United States Senator, was beaten for his staunch abolitionist views, Emerson lamented that he himself was not as committed to the cause. He wrote, "There are men who as soon as they are born take a bee-line to the axe of the inquisitor... Wonderful the way in which we are saved by this unfailing supply of the moral element".[106] After Sumner's attack, Emerson began to speak out about slavery. "I think we must get rid of slavery, or we must get rid of freedom", he said at a meeting at Concord that summer.[107] Emerson used slavery as an example of a human injustice, especially in his role as a minister. In early 1838, provoked by the murder of an abolitionist publisher from Alton, Illinois named Elijah Parish Lovejoy, Emerson gave his first public antislavery address. As he said, "It is but the other day that the brave Lovejoy gave his breast to the bullets of a mob, for the rights of free speech and opinion, and died when it was better not to live".[106] John Quincy Adams said the mob-murder of Lovejoy "sent a shock as of any earthquake throughout this continent".[108] However, Emerson maintained that reform would be achieved through moral agreement rather than by militant action. By August 1, 1844, at a lecture in Concord, he stated more clearly his support for the abolitionist movement. He stated, "We are indebted mainly to this movement, and to the continuers of it, for the popular discussion of every point of practical ethics".[109]

There is evidence suggesting that Emerson may have been bisexual.[110] During his early years at Harvard, he found himself "strangely attracted" to a young freshman named Martin Gay about whom he wrote sexually charged poetry.[111][112] Gay would be only the first of his infatuations and interests, with Nathaniel Hawthorne numbered among them.[113]

[edit] Criticism and legacy

As a lecturer and orator, Emerson became the leading voice of intellectual culture in the United States.[114] Herman Melville, who had met Emerson in 1849, originally thought the Concord Sage had "a defect in the region of the heart" and a "self-conceit so intensely intellectual that at first one hesitates to call it by its right name", though he later admitted Emerson was "a great man".[115] Theodore Parker, a minister and Transcendentalist, noted Emerson's ability to influence and inspire others: "the brilliant genius of Emerson rose in the winter nights, and hung over Boston, drawing the eyes of ingenuous young people to look up to that great new start, a beauty and a mystery, which charmed for the moment, while it gave also perennial inspiration, as it led them forward along new paths, and towards new hopes".[116]

In his book The American Religion, Harold Bloom repeatedly refers to Emerson as "The prophet of the American Religion," which in the context of the book refers to indigenously American and gnostic-tinged religions such as Mormonism, Christian Science, and Seventh Day Adventism that arose largely in Emerson's lifetime.

In May 2006, 168 years after Emerson delivered his "Divinity School Address," Harvard Divinity School announced the establishment of the Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Professorship.[117] Harvard has also named a building, Emerson Hall (1900), after him.[118]

[edit] Selected works




[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Cheever, 80
  2. ^ Ward, p. 389.
  3. ^ Sullivan, 3.
  4. ^ Cheever, 76.
  5. ^ McAleer, 12.
  6. ^ a b Baker, 3/
  7. ^ McAleer, 40
  8. ^ Richardson, 22–23
  9. ^ Baker, 35
  10. ^ McAleer, 44
  11. ^ McAleer, 52
  12. ^ Richardson, 11
  13. ^ McAleer, 53
  14. ^ Richardson, 6
  15. ^ McAleer, 61
  16. ^ Buell, 13
  17. ^ McAleer, 66
  18. ^ Baker, 5
  19. ^ Packer, 36–37
  20. ^ Cheever, 78
  21. ^ McAleer, 105
  22. ^ Richardson, 108
  23. ^ Cheever, 79
  24. ^ Baker, 11
  25. ^ Sullivan, 6
  26. ^ Packer, 39
  27. ^ McAleer, 132
  28. ^ Baker, 23
  29. ^ Packer, 40.
  30. ^ Sullivan, 8
  31. ^ Wilson, Susan. Literary Trail of Greater Boston. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000: 127. ISBN 0-618-05013-2
  32. ^ Sullivan, 9
  33. ^ Richardson, 192
  34. ^ Baker, 86
  35. ^ Cheever, 86
  36. ^ Cheever, 82
  37. ^ McAleer, 108
  38. ^ Baker, 53
  39. ^ Sullivan, 13
  40. ^ Buell, 45
  41. ^ Watson, Peter. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005: 688. ISBN 978-0-06-093564-1
  42. ^ Mowat, R. B. The Victorian Age. London: Senate, 1995: 83. ISBN 1-85958-161-8
  43. ^ Menand, Louis. The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001: 18. ISBN 0-374-19963-9
  44. ^ a b Buell, 121
  45. ^ Packer, 73
  46. ^ a b Buell, 161
  47. ^ Sullivan, 14
  48. ^ Gura, 129
  49. ^ Von Mehren, 120
  50. ^ Slater, Abby. In Search of Margaret Fuller. New York: Delacorte Press, 1978: 61–62. ISBN 0-440-03944-4
  51. ^ Gura, 128–129
  52. ^ Cheever, 93
  53. ^ McAleer, 313
  54. ^ The Bedside Baccalaureate, David Rubel, ed. (Sterling 2008), p. 153.
  55. ^ Baker, 218
  56. ^ Packer, 148
  57. ^ Richardson, 381
  58. ^ Baker, 219
  59. ^ a b c Packer, 150
  60. ^ a b Baker, 221
  61. ^ Gura, 130
  62. ^ Buell, 31
  63. ^ Richardson, 418
  64. ^ Sullivan, 16
  65. ^ Sachin N. Pradhan, India in the United States: Contribution of India and Indians in the United States of America, Bethesda, MD: SP Press International, Inc., 1996, p 12.
  66. ^ The Over-Soul from Essays: First Series (1841)
  67. ^ Richardson, 114
  68. ^ Baker, 321
  69. ^ Von Mehren, 340
  70. ^ a b Von Mehren, 343
  71. ^ Blanchard, Paula. Margaret Fuller: From Transcendentalism to Revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1987: 339. ISBN 0-201-10458-X
  72. ^ Von Mehren, 342
  73. ^ Kaplan, 203
  74. ^ Callow, Philip. From Noon to Starry Night: A Life of Walt Whitman. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1992: 232. ISBN 0929587952
  75. ^ Miller, James E., Jr. Walt Whitman. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. 1962: 27.
  76. ^ Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1995: 352. ISBN 0679767096.
  77. ^ Callow, Philip. From Noon to Starry Night: A Life of Walt Whitman. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1992: 236. ISBN 0929587952.
  78. ^ Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1995: 343. ISBN 0679767096.
  79. ^ McAleer, 569–570
  80. ^ Richardson, 547
  81. ^ Baker, 433
  82. ^ McAleer, 570
  83. ^ Richardson, 548
  84. ^ Packer, 193
  85. ^ Baker, 448
  86. ^ Baker, 502
  87. ^ a b Richardson, 569
  88. ^ a b McAleer, 629
  89. ^ Richardson, 566
  90. ^ Baker, 504
  91. ^ Baker, 506
  92. ^ McAleer, 613
  93. ^ Richardson, 567
  94. ^ Richardson, 568
  95. ^ Baker, 507
  96. ^ McAleer, 618
  97. ^ Richardson, 570
  98. ^ Baker, 497
  99. ^ Richardson, 572
  100. ^ Sullivan, 25
  101. ^ McAleer, 662
  102. ^ Richardson, 538
  103. ^ Buell, 165
  104. ^ Packer, 23
  105. ^ Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalists. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2004: 136. ISBN 0-313-31848-4
  106. ^ a b McAleer, 531
  107. ^ Packer, 232
  108. ^ Richardson, 269
  109. ^ Lowance, Mason (2000). Against Slavery: An Abolitionist Reader. Penguin Classics. pp. 301–302. ISBN 0140437584. 
  110. ^ Shand-Tucci, Douglas (2003). The Crimson Letter. New York: St Martens Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-312-19896-5. 
  111. ^ Kaplan, 248
  112. ^ Richardson, 9
  113. ^ Kaplan, 249
  114. ^ Buell, 34
  115. ^ Sullivan, 123
  116. ^ Baker, 201
  117. ^ Harvard Divinity School (May 2006). Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Professorship Established at Harvard Divinity School. Press release. http://www.hds.harvard.edu/news/pr/emerson_uu.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. 
  118. ^ Department of Philosophy of Harvard University

[edit] Sources

  • Baker, Carlos (1996). Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-86675-X. 
  • Buell, Lawrence (2003). Emerson. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN ISBN 0-674-01139-2. 
  • Cheever, Susan (2006). American Bloomsbury: Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau; Their Lives, Their Loves, Their Work. Detroit: Thorndike Press. ISBN 078629521X. 
  • Gura, Philip F (2007). American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3477-2. 
  • Kaplan, Justin (1979). Walt Whitman: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671225421. 
  • McAleer, John (1984). Ralph Waldo Emerson: Days of Encounter. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316553417. 
  • Packer, Barbara L. (2007). The Transcendentalists. The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820329581. 
  • Richardson, Robert D., Jr. (1995). Emerson: The Mind on Fire. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08808-5. 
  • Sullivan, Wilson (1972). New England Men of Letters. New York: The Macmillan Company. ISBN 0027886808. 
  • Von Mehren, Joan (1994). Minerva and the Muse: A Life of Margaret Fuller. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-015-9. 
  • Ward, Julius H. (1887). The Andover Review. Houghton Mifflin. 

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
NAME Emerson, Ralph Waldo
SHORT DESCRIPTION American author, essayist, philosopher, poet
DATE OF BIRTH May 25, 1803
PLACE OF BIRTH Boston, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH April 27, 1882
PLACE OF DEATH Concord, Massachusetts
Personal tools