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"The Wrestlers", a reproduction of a 3rd-century bronze statue, from the Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
Focus Mixed
Hardness Full Contact
Country of origin Flag of Greece Greece
Parenthood 1
Olympic sport Ancient Olympic Games from 648 BC, not in modern.

Pankration (Greek: Παγκράτιο(ν), Pagkratio(n), IPA[paŋ.'kra.ti.o(n)]) is a martial arts sport introduced to the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and founded as a blend of boxing and wrestling. The term comes from the Ancient Greek παγκράτιον, literally meaning "all powers" and that from πᾶν (pan) "all" + κράτος (kratos) "strength" or "power". It is also used to describe the sport's contemporary variations. Some consider it as the first all-encompassing fighting system in human history. It is also arguable that pankration competitions in antiquity were the closest an athletic event has come to outright, no-rules, empty hand combat. Modern mixed martial arts competitions have come to feature many of the same methods that were used in pankration competitions in the ancient Greek world.[1]


[edit] History

In Greek mythology it was said that the heroes Herakles and Theseus invented pankration as a result of using both wrestling and boxing in their confrontations with opponents. Theseus was said to have utilized his extraordinary pankration skills to defeat the dreaded Minotaur in the Labyrinth. Herakles was said to have subdued the Nemean lion using pankration, and was often depicted in ancient artwork doing that. In this context, it should be noted that pankration was also referred to as pammachon or pammachion (πάμμαχον or παμμάχιον), meaning "total combat", from πᾶν-, pān-, "all-" or "total", and μάχη, machē, "combat". The term pammachon was older[2], and would later become used less than the term pankration.

The mainstream academic view has been that pankration was the product of the development of archaic Greek society of the seventh century BC, whereby, as the need for expression in violent sport increased, pankration filled a niche of "total contest" that neither boxing or wrestling could.[3]. However, some evidence suggests that pankration, in both its sport form and its combat form, may have been practiced in Greece already from the second millennium BC.[4]

Pankration, as practiced in historical antiquity, was an athletic event that combined techniques of both boxing (pygmē/pygmachia - πυγμή/πυγμαχία) and wrestling (palē - πάλη), as well as additional elements, such as the use of strikes with the lower extremities, to create a broad fighting sport very similar to today's mixed martial arts competitions. There is evidence that, although knockouts were common, most pankration competitions were probably decided on the ground where both striking and submission techniques would freely come into play. Pankratiasts were highly skilled grapplers and were extremely effective in applying a variety of takedowns, chokes, and punishing joint locks.

However, pankration was more than just an event in the athletic competitions of the ancient Greek world; it was also part of the arsenal of Greek soldiers - including the famous Spartan hoplites and Alexander the Great's Macedonian phalanx.

A bronze smaller reproduction in Munich of a Roman marble after a 3rd c.BC Greek depiction of pankratists grappling and striking

The feats of the ancient pankratiasts became legendary in the annals of Greek athletics. Stories abound of past champions who were considered invincible beings. Arrhichion, Dioxippus and Polydamas of Skotoussa are among the most highly-recognized names. Their accomplishments defying the odds were some of the most inspiring of ancient Greek athletics and they served as inspiration to the Hellenic world for centuries, as Pausanias,[5] the ancient traveller and writer indicates when he re-tells these stories in his narrative of his travels around Greece.

Dioxippus was an Athenian who had won the Olympic Games in 336 BC, and was serving in Alexander the Great's army in its expedition in Asia. As an admired champion, he naturally became part of the circle of Alexander the Great. In that context, he accepted a challenge from one of Alexander's most skilled soldiers named Coragus to fight in front of Alexander and the troops in armed combat. While Coragus fought with weapons and full armour, Dioxippus showed up armed only with a club and defeated Coragus without killing him making use of his pankration skills. Later, however, Dioxippus was framed for theft, which led him to commit suicide.

In an odd turn of events, a pankration fighter named Arrhichion (Ἀρριχίων) of Phigalia won the event despite being dead. His opponent had locked him in a chokehold and Arrhichion, desperate to loosen it, broke his opponent's toe (some records say his ankle). The opponent nearly passed out from pain and submitted. As the referee raised Arrhichion's hand, it was discovered that he had died from the chokehold. His body was crowned with the olive wreath and taken back to Phigaleia as a hero.

By the Imperial Period, the Romans had adopted the Greek combat sport (spelled in Latin as pancratium) into their Games. In 393 A.D. the pankration, along with gladiatorial combat and all pagan festivals, was abolished by edict of the Christian Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I. Pankration itself was practiced for some 1000 years in the context of an Olympic event. It is a matter of controversy whether and to what extent pankration persisted in Greek and the broader Byzantine society after the ancient Games were discontinued.

[edit] Structure of ancient competition

There were neither weight divisions nor time limits in pankration competitions. However, there were two or three age groups in the competitions of antiquity. In the Olympic Games there were only two such age groups: men (andres- άνδρες) and boys (paedes - παῖδες). The pankration event for boys was established at the Olympic Games in 200 B.C.. In pankration competitions, referees were armed with stout rods or switches to enforce the rules. In fact, there were only two rules: contestants were not allowed to gouge eyes or to bite.[6]The contest itself usually continued uninterrupted until one of the combatants was submitted, which was often signalled by the submitted contestant raising his index finger. The judges appear, however, to have had the right to stop a contest under certain conditions and award the victory to one of the two athletes; they could also declare the contest a tie.[4]

Pankration competitions were held in tournaments, most being outside of the Olympics. Each tournament began with a ritual which would decide how the tournament would take place. Grecophone satirist Lucian describes the process[7] in a detailed manner:

A sacred silver urn is brought, in which they have put bean-size lots. On two lots an alpha is inscribed, on two a beta, and on another two a gamma, and so on. If there are more athletes, two lots always have the same letter. Each athlete comes forth, prays to Zeus, puts his hand into the urn and draws out a lot. Following him, the other athletes do the same. Whip bearers are standing next to the athletes, holding their hands and not allowing them to read the letter they have drawn. When everyone has drawn a lot, the alytarch[8], or one of the Hellanodikai walks around and looks at the lots of the athletes as they stand in a circle. He then joins the athlete holding the alpha to the other who has drawn the alpha for wrestling or pankration, the one who has the beta to the other with the beta, and the other matching inscribed lots in the same manner.

This process was apparently repeated every round until the finals.

If there was an odd number of competitors, there would be a bye (ἔφεδρος — ephedros "reserve") in every round until the last one. The same athlete could be an ephedros more than once, and this could of course be of great value to him as the ephedros would be spared the wear and tear of the rounds imposed on his opponent(s). To win a tournament without being an ephedros in any of the rounds (ἀνέφεδρος — anephedros "non-reserve") was thus an honorable achievement.

There is evidence that the major Games easily had four tournament rounds, that is, a field of sixteen athletes. Xanthos mentions the largest number—nine tournament rounds. If these tournament rounds were held in one competition, up to 512 contestants would participate in the tournament, which is difficult to believe for a single contest. Therefore one can hypothesize that the nine rounds included those in which the athlete participated during regional qualification competitions that were held before the major games. In this context, it should be noted that it is quite certain that such preliminary contests were held prior to the major games to determine who would participate in the main event. This makes sense, as the 15-20 athletes competing in the major games could not have been the only available contestants. There is clear evidence of this in Plato, who refers to competitors in the Panhellenic Games, with opponents numbering in the thousands. Moreover, in the first century CE, the Greco-Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria —who was himself probably a practitioner of pankration— makes a statement that could be an allusion to preliminary contests in which an athlete would participate and then collect his strength before coming forward fresh in the major competition. [4]

[edit] Techniques

The athletes engaged in a pankration competition-i.e., the pankratiasts (παγκρατιαστές)employed a variety of techniques in order to strike their opponent as well as take him to the ground in order to use a submission technique. When the pankratiasts would fight standing, pankration would be called anō pankration (ἄνω παγκράτιον);[9] and when they would take the fight to the ground, that stage of pankration competition would be called katō pankration (κάτω παγκράτιον). Some of the techniques that would be applied in anō pankration and katō pankration, respectively, are known to us through depictions on ancient pottery and sculptures, as well as in descriptions in ancient literature. There were also strategies documented in ancient literature that were meant to be used to obtain an advantage over the competitor. These strategies and techniques include:

[edit] Fighting stance

The pankratiast faces his opponent with a nearly frontal stance—only slightly turned sideways. This is an intermediate directional positioning, between the wrestler’s more frontal positioning and the boxer’s more sideways stance and is consistent with the need to preserve both the option of using striking and protecting the center line of the body and the option of applying grappling techniques. Thus, the left side of the body is slightly forward of the right side of the body and the left hand is more forward than the right one. Both hands are held high so that the tips of the fingers are at the level of the hairline or just below the top of the head. The hands are partially open, the fingers are relaxed, and the palms are facing naturally forward, down, and slightly towards each other. The front arm is nearly fully extended but not entirely so; the rear arm is more cambered than the front arm, but more extended than a modern-day boxer’s rear arm. The back of the athlete is somewhat rounded, but not as much as a wrestler’s would be. The body is only slightly leaning forward.

The weight is virtually all on the back (right) foot with the front (left) foot touching the ground with the ball of the foot. It is a stance in which the athlete is ready at the same time to give a kick with the front leg as well as defend against the opponent’s low level kicks by lifting the front knee and blocking. The back leg is bent for stability and power and is facing slightly to the side, to go with the slightly sideways body position. The head and torso are behind the protecting two upper limbs and front leg.[4]

[edit] Striking techniques

[edit] Strikes with the Legs

Strikes delivered with the legs was an integral part of pankration and one of its most characteristic features as was discussed above. Therefore, kicking well was a great advantage to the pankratiast. Epiktētos is making a reference —albeit derogatory in the context of Epiktētos’ discussion— to a compliment one may give another: “μεγάλα λακτίζεις” ("you kick great"). Moreover, in an accolade to the fighting prowess of the pankratiast Glykon from Pergamo, the athlete is described as “wide foot”. The characterization comes actually before the reference to his “unbeatable hands”, implying at least as crucial a role for strikes with the feet as with the hands in pankration. That proficiency in kicking could carry the pankratiast to victory is indicated in a—albeit sarcastic—passage of Galen, where he awards the winning prize in pankration to a donkey because of its excellence in kicking. Below are the striking techniques with the legs that have been identified from the ancient sources (visual arts or literature). Any counters to these techniques identifiable in research of the sources are also provided. This is followed by the identified strikes with the arms and with the head, respectively.

[edit] Straight kick to the stomach

The straight kick with the bottom of the foot to the stomach (γαστρίζειν/λάκτισμα εἰς γαστέραν — gastrizein/laktisma eis gasteran "kicking in the stomach") was apparently a common technique, given the number of depictions of such kicks on vases. This type of kick is mentioned by Lucian.

Counter: The athlete sidesteps to the outside of the oncoming kick but grasps the inside of the kicking leg from behind the knee with his front hand (overhand grip) and pulls up, which tends to unbalance the opponent so that he falls backward as the athlete advances. The back hand can be used for striking the opponent while he is preoccupied maintaining his balance. This counter is shown on a Panathenaic amphora now in Leiden. In another counter, the athlete sidesteps the oncoming kick, but now to the inside of the opponent’s leg. He catches and lifts the heel/foot of the kicking leg with his rear hand and with the front arm goes under the knee of the kicking leg, hooks it with the nook of his elbow, and lifts while advancing to throw the opponent backward. The athlete executing the counter has to lean forward to avoid hand strikes by the opponent.[4]

[edit] Locking techniques

[edit] Arm locks

[edit] Single shoulder lock (overextension)

The athlete is behind the opponent and has him leaning down, with the right knee of the opponent on the ground. The athlete has the opponent’s right arm straightened out and extended maximally backward at the shoulder joint. With the opponent’s right arm across his own torso, the athlete uses his left hand to keep the pressure on the opponent’s right arm by grabbing and pressing down on it just above the wrist. The right hand of the athlete is pressing down at the (side of) the head of the opponent, thus not permitting him to rotate to his right to relieve the pressure on his shoulder. As the opponent could escape by lowering himself closer to the ground and rolling, the athlete steps with his left leg over the left leg of the opponent and wraps his foot around the ankle of the opponent stepping on his instep, while pushing his body weight on the back of the opponent.

[edit] Single arm bar (elbow lock)

In this technique, the position of the bodies is very similar to the one described just above. The athlete executing the technique is standing over his opponent’s back, while the latter is down on his right knee. The left leg of the athlete is straddling the left thigh of the opponent—the left knee of the opponent is not on the floor—and is trapping the left foot of the opponent by stepping on it. The athlete uses his left hand to push down on the side/back of the head of the opponent while with his right hand he pulls the opponent’s right arm back, against his midsection. This creates an arm bar on the right arm with the pressure now being mostly on the elbow. The fallen opponent cannot relieve it, because his head is being shoved the opposite way by the left hand of the athlete executing the technique.

[edit] Arm bar - shoulder lock combination

In this technique, the athlete is again behind his opponent, has the left arm of his opponent trapped, and is pulling back on his right arm. The trapped left arm is bent, with the fingers and palm trapped inside the armpit of the athlete. To trap the left arm, the athlete has pushed (from outside) his own left arm underneath the left elbow of the opponent. The athlete’s left hand ends up pressing down on the scapula region of his opponent’s back. This position does not permit the opponent to pull out his hand from the athlete’s armpit and puts pressure on the left shoulder. The right arm of the athlete is pulling back at the opponent’s right wrist (or forearm). In this way, the athlete keeps the right arm of his opponent straightened and tightly pulled against his right hip/lower abdomen area, which results in an arm bar putting pressure on the right elbow. The athlete is in full contact with—and on top of—the opponent, with his right leg in front of the right leg of the opponent to block him from escaping by rolling forward.[4]

[edit] Choking techniques

[edit] Tracheal grip choke

In executing this choking technique (ἄγχειν — anchein), the athlete grabs the tracheal area (windpipe and “Adam’s apple”) between his thumb and his four fingers and squeezes. This type of choke can be applied with the athlete being in front or behind his opponent. Regarding the hand grip to be used with this choke, the web area between the thumb and the index finger is to be quite high up the neck and the thumb is bent inward and downward, “reaching” behind the Adam’s apple of the opponent. It is unclear if such a grip would have been considered gouging and thus illegal in the Panhellenic Games.

[edit] Tracheal dig using the thumb

The athlete grabs the throat of the opponent with the four fingers on the outside of the throat and the tip of the thumb pressing in and down the hollow of the throat, putting pressure on the trachea.

[edit] Choke from behind with the forearm

The athlete has put himself behind his opponent, who is either in the standing, prone, or prostrate position. The choke is applied by placing the forearm against the trachea (i.e. the forearm is parallel to the clavicles of the opponent) and pulling back, with the other hand of the athlete possibly assisting the pull by gripping the hand of the choking arm. The pressure on the trachea is painful and causes a reduction of air flow to the lungs. An alternative way of applying this choke is to bend the choking arm in a “V” shape and put pressure with the biceps and the forearm on the two sides of the neck, respectively, This is a circulatory choke, which puts pressure on the arteries taking blood to the brain and thus deprives the latter of oxygen. The chokes from behind were usually accompanied with a grapevine body lock (ἄγχειν μετὰ κλιμακισμοῦ — anchein meta klimakismou "choking with the ladder trick"), as the resulting stretch of the body of the opponent accentuated the effect of the choke. There are few representations of this type of choke in surviving art objects, but there are a number of references to it in the ancient literature.

Counter: A counter to the choke from behind involves the twisting of one of the fingers of the choking arm. This counter is mentioned by Philostratus. In case the choke was set together with a grapevine body lock, another counter was the one applied against that lock; by causing enough pain to the ankle of the opponent, the latter could give up his choke.[4]

[edit] Throws and takedowns

[edit] Heave from a reverse waist lock

From a reverse waist lock set from the front, and staying with hips close to the opponent, the athlete lifts and rotates his opponent using the strength of his hips and legs (ἀναβαστάσαι εἰς ὕψος — anabastasai eis hypsos "high lifting"). Depending on the torque the athlete imparts, the opponent becomes more or less vertically inverted, facing the body of the athlete. If however the reverse waist lock is set from the back of the opponent, then the latter would face away from the athlete in the inverted position.

To finish the attack, the athlete has the option of either dropping his opponent head-first to the ground, or driving him into the ground while retaining the hold. To execute the latter option, the athlete bends one of his legs and goes down on that knee while the other leg remains only partially bent; this is presumably to allow for greater mobility in case the “pile driver” does not work. Another approach emphasizes less putting the opponent in an inverted vertical position and more the throw; it is shown in a sculpture in the metōpē (μετώπη) of the Hephaisteion in Athens, where Theseus is depicted heaving Kerkyōn.

[edit] Heave from a waist lock following a sprawl

The opponents are facing in opposite directions with the athlete at a higher level, over the back of his opponent. The athlete can get in this position after making a shallow sprawl to counter a tackle attempt. From here the athlete sets a waist lock by encircling, from the back, the torso of the opponent with his arms and securing a “handshake” grip close to the abdomen of the opponent. He then heaves the opponent back and up, using the muscles of his legs and his back, so that the opponent’s feet rise in the air and he ends up inverted, perpendicular to the ground, and facing away from the athlete. The throw finishes with a “pile driver” or, alternatively, with a simple release of the opponent so that he falls to the ground.

[edit] Heave from a waist lock from behind

The athlete passes to the back of his opponent, secures a regular waist lock, lifts and throws/ drops the opponent backwards and sideways. As a result of these moves, the opponent would tend to land on his side or face down. The athlete can follow the opponent to the ground and place himself on his back, where he could strike him or choke him from behind while holding him in the “grapevine” body lock (see above), stretching him face down on the ground. This technique is described by the Roman poet Statius in his account of a match between the hero Tydeus of Thebes and an opponent in the Thebaid. Tydeus is described to have followed this takedown with a choke while applying the “grapevine” body lock on the prone opponent.[4]

[edit] Strategy and tactics

[edit] Positioning in the Skamma (σκάμμα "pit")

As the pankration competitions were held outside and in the afternoon, appropriately positioning one’s face vis-a-vis the low sun was a major tactical objective. The pankratiast, as well as the boxer, did not want to have to face the ever-present Greek sun, as this would partly blind him to the blows of the opponent and make accurate delivery of strikes to specific targets difficult. Theocritus, in his narration of the (boxing) match between Polydeukēs and Amykos, noted that the two opponents struggled a lot, vying to see who would get the sun’s rays on his back. In the end, with skill and cunning, Polydeukēs managed so that Amykos’ face was struck with sunlight while his own was in the shade.

While this positioning was of paramount importance in boxing, which involved only upright striking (with the eyes facing straight), it was also important in pankration, especially in the beginning of the competition and as long as the athletes remained standing.

[edit] Remaining Standing Versus Going to the Ground

The decision to remain standing or go to the ground obviously depended on the relative strengths of the athlete in anō pankration and katō pankration, respectively. However, there are indications that staying on one’s feet was generally considered a positive thing, while touching the knee(s) to the ground or being put to the ground was overall considered disadvantageous. In fact, in antiquity as today, falling to one’s knee(s) was a metaphor for coming to a disadvantage and putting oneself at risk of losing the fight, as argued persuasively by Michael B. Poliakoff.

[edit] Offensive Versus Reactive Fighting

Regarding the choice of attacking into the attack of the opponent versus defending and retreating, there are indications—from boxing—that it was preferable to attack. Dio Chrysostom notes that retreat under fear tends to result in even greater injuries, while attacking before the opponent strikes is less injurious and could very well end in victory.

[edit] Identifying and Exploiting the Weak Side of the Opponent

As indicated by Plato in his Laws, an important element of strategy was to understand if the opponent had a weak or untrained side and to force him to operate on that side and generally take advantage of that weakness. For example, if the athlete recognizes that the opponent is strictly right-handed, he could circle away from the right hand of the opponent and towards the left side of the opponent. Moreover, if the opponent is weak in his left –side throws, the athlete could aim to position himself accordingly. Training in ambidexterity was instrumental in both applying this strategy and not falling victim to it.[4]

[edit] Aspects of Pankration Preparation and Practice

The basic instruction of pankration techniques was conducted by the paedotribae (παιδοτρίβαι), who were in charge of boys' physical education.[10] High level athletes were also trained by special trainers who were called gymnastae (γυμνασταί),[11] some of whom had been successful pankration competitors themselves. There are indications that the methods and techniques used by different athletes varied, i.e., there were different ‘styles’. While specific styles taught by different teachers, in the mode of Asian martial arts, cannot be excluded, it is very clear (including in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics) that the objective of a teacher of combat sports was to help each of his athletes to develop his personal style that would fit his strengths and weaknesses.[4]

The preparation of pankratiasts included a very wide variery of methods,[4] most of which would be immediately recognizable by the trainers of modern high level athletes, including competitors in modern mixed martial arts competitions. These methods included among others the periodization of training; a wealth of regimes for the development of strength, speed-strength, speed, and endurance; specialized training for the different stages of competition (i.e., for anō pankration and katō pankration), and methods for learning and engraining techniques. Interestingly, among the multitude of the latter were also training tools that appear to be very similar to modern martial arts Forms or kata, and were known as cheironomia (χειρονομία) and anapale (αναπάλη). Punching bags (kōrykos κώρυκος "leather sack") of different sizes and dummies were used for striking practice as well as for the hardening of the body and limbs. Nutrition, massage, and other recovery techniques were used very actively by pankratiasts.

[edit] Modern Pankration

At the time of the revival of Olympic Games (1896 AD), pankration was not reinstated as an Olympic event. Specifically, in 1895 the Cardinal of Lyon, voiced his official decision on the reinstatement of sports to Pierre de Coubertain, [the founder of the Modern Olympic Games] by stating “Nous acceptons tout, sauf pankration” meaning “ We accept all events to be reinstated but pankration”.[12]

Up to today, pankration has not yet been recognized as an event/sport in the modern Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) does not include pankration in its list of "recognized sports." Moreover the IOC does not include in the list of the Association of the IOC Recognised International Sports Federations any international pankration federation. Inclusion in the latter list would be a first step toward including pankration in the modern Olympic program of events.[13]

Some efforts were made prior to the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens to have a discussion with the IOC regarding the introduction of pankration as a "demonstration sport" in the program, as hosting countries have the prerogative to do so, leading usually to the entry of the demonstration sport in the list of the "recognized sports" and thus its becoming a regular event in the Olympic program. However, these efforts did not bear fruit.

Despite the failures up to now to reintroduce pankration in the Olympic program, pankration has had an extraordinary revival in recent decades, and especially since the mid-1990s. This revival has taken the form of the explosive growth of interest in mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions, which are pankration competitions, in inspiration and-most importantly-in their practice. As MMA competitions and MMA-type training are arguably the fastest growing sport in the world in recent years, there will undoubtedly be interest in entering MMA in the Olympics, potentially under the name of pankration.

In the revival of pankration in the form of mixed martial arts competitions there have been many responsible, coming from many different martial arts backgrounds and representing various cultural and business interests. It is interesting, however, that MMA competitions and the training for them have evolved in a few years to resemble the ancient pankration competitions and training, even if more rules than in the ancient competition had to be introduced for the purpose of recognition by sanctioning bodies.

Regarding international organizations that have been created with the explicit aim to support competition and training under the name of pankration, and to push for the reintroduction of pankration in the Olympic Games, probably the most internationally active one is The International Federation of Pankration Athlima (IFPA)[14]

Regarding the growth of fighting systems that bear the name of pankration, it has been robust in recent decades. Often the proponents of such systems are of Greek ancestry and they have contributed with their schools, books, articles, videos, and television appearances to bringing attention to pankration and assisting in its revival.

[edit] References

  1. ^ International Federation of Pankration Athlima. "Ancient History". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  2. ^ Poliakoff, Studies in the Terminology of Greek Combat Sport
  3. ^ Poliakoff, Combat Sport in the Ancient World
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Georgiou, Andreas V.. "Pankration – An Olympic Combat Sport". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  5. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece
  6. ^ Miller, Christopher. "Historical Pankration Project". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  7. ^ Lucian, Hermotimos
  8. ^ ἀλυτάρχης (ἀλύτης + ἄρχω) "rod-ruler, referee"
  9. ^ However, besides being a stage of combat, anō pankration was often an athletic event in itself, whereby the athletes would not be permitted to take the fight to the ground but had to remain standing throughout the match(somewhat like modern Thai boxing).
  10. ^ Gardiner, Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals
  11. ^ Gardiner, Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals
  12. ^ International Federation of Pankration Athlima. "Ancient History". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  13. ^ International Olympic Committee. "Sports". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  14. ^ International Federation of Pankration Athlima. "Ancient History". Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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