War of 1812

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War of 1812
Part of the Napoleonic Wars

The Battle of Queenston Heights.
Date June 18, 1812 – March 23, 1815
Location Eastern and Central North America, Gulf Coast, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Result Treaty of Ghent
Status quo ante bellum
 United States


Creek allies

British Empire:
Flag of the United Kingdom Great Britain
Flag of the United Kingdom Canadian Provinces

Creek Red Sticks
Delaware (Lenape)

Flag of the United States James Madison
Flag of the United States Henry Dearborn
Flag of the United States Jacob Brown
Flag of the United States Winfield Scott
Flag of the United States Andrew Jackson
Flag of the United Kingdom George Prevost
Flag of the United Kingdom Isaac Brock 
Flag of the United Kingdom Roger Sheaffe
Flag of the United Kingdom Gordon Drummond
Flag of the United States United States
Regular Army:
—   7,000 (at start of war);
— 35,800 (at war's end)
Rangers: 3,049
Militia: 458,463 *
United States Navy &
United States Marines
(at start of war):
Frigates: 6
— Other vessels: 14

Native allies: 125 Choctaw, (unknown others) [1]
Flag of the United Kingdom British Empire
British Army:
—   5,200 (at start of war);
— 48,160 (at war's end)
Provincial Regulars: 10,000
Provincial Militia: 4,000
Royal Navy &
Royal Marines:
Ships of the Line: 11
Frigates: 34
— Other vessels: 52
Provincial Marine‡:
— (unknown)
Native allies: 10,000[2]
Casualties and losses
  2,260 killed in action.
  4,505 wounded.
Approx. 17,000 died from disease (estimated).[3]
1,600 killed in action.
3,679 wounded.
3,321 died from disease.
* Very few militia members left their homes to fight in the war's campaigns.
  Killed in action
‡A locally raised coastal protection and seminaval force on the Great Lakes.

The War of 1812, between the United States of America and the British Empire (particularly Great Britain and British North America), was fought from 1812 to 1815.

There were several immediate stated causes for the U.S. declaration of war: first, a series of trade restrictions introduced by Britain to impede American trade with France, a country with which Britain was at war (the U.S. contested these restrictions as illegal under international law)[4]; second, the impressment (forced recruitment) of U.S. citizens into the Royal Navy (though many of those impressed were British citizens whose change in citizenship was not recognized by Great Britain); third, the British military support for American Indians who were offering armed resistance to the expansion of the American frontier to the Northwest.[5] An unstated but powerful motivation for the Americans was the need to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults (such as the Chesapeake affair).[6]

American expansion into the Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin) was impeded by Indian raids. Some historians maintain that Americans wanted to seize parts of Canada, while others argue this was merely a tactic designed to obtain a bargaining chip.[7] Some members of the British Parliament at the time[8] and dissident American politicians such as John Randolph of Roanoke[9] also claimed that land hunger rather than maritime disputes was the main motivation for the American declaration. Although the British made some concessions before the war on neutral trade, they saw themselves as having the right to reclaim their deserting sailors, and also as the protectors of the native Amerindians from encroaching settlers.[10] The British also had the long-standing goal of creating a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover much of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. They made the demand as late as 1814 at the peace conference, but lost battles that would have validated their claims.[11]

The war was fought in four theatres: on the oceans, where the warships and privateers of both sides preyed on each other's merchant shipping; along the Atlantic coast of the U.S., which was blockaded with increasing severity by the British, who also mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war; on the long frontier, running along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River, which separated the U.S. from Upper and Lower Canada (Ontario and Quebec); and finally along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, where U.S. General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814) and a major British regular army at the Battle of New Orleans (early 1815).

During the course of the war, both the Americans and British launched invasions of each other's territory, all of which were unsuccessful or gained only temporary success. At the end of the war, the British held parts of Maine and some outposts in the sparsely populated West while the Americans held Canadian territory near Detroit, but these occupied territories were restored at the end of the war.

In 1813, the Americans gained one of their main goals by breaking a confederation of Native American tribes. By taking control of Lake Erie, they cut them off from British aid, and Tecumseh, the Indian leader, was killed at the Battle of the Thames. While some Natives continued to fight alongside British troops, they subsequently did so only as individual tribes or groups of warriors and where they were directly supplied and armed by British agents.

After two years of warfare, the major causes of the war had disappeared. Neither side had any reason to continue or any chance of gaining a decisive success which would compel their opponents to cede territory or advantageous peace terms. As a result of this stalemate, the two countries signed the Treaty of Ghent on 24 December 1814. News of the peace treaty took two months to reach the U.S., during which fighting continued. In this interim, the Americans won a major victory at the Battle of New Orleans, while the British won the Battle of Fort Bowyer.

In the United States, battles such as New Orleans and the earlier successful defence of Baltimore (which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner) produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain. It ushered in an "Era of Good Feelings," in which the partisan animosity that had once verged on treason practically vanished. Canada also emerged from the war with a heightened sense of national feeling and solidarity. This was later expressed as the "Militia Myth," the notion that locally recruited militia rather than British regular troops bore the major burden of the fighting in Canada and the adjoining parts of the United States. Britain, which had regarded the war as a sideshow to the Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe, was less affected by the fighting; its government and people subsequently welcomed an era of peaceful relations with the United States.



The war was fought between the United States and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies of Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Québec), New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island (at that time a separate colony from Nova Scotia), and Bermuda.

The war started poorly for the Americans in August 1812, when an attempt to invade Canada was repulsed by Major General Isaac Brock and a force of 350 regular British troops he commanded (supported in turn by local militias and warriors from native Indian tribes). This led to the British capture of Detroit (in the southeast corner of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan). A second invasion, on the Niagara peninsula, was defeated on October 13, 1812 at the Battle of Queenston Heights, in which Brock was killed.

The American strategy relied in part on militias that either resisted service or were incompetently led. Financial and logistical problems also plagued the American effort. Military and civilian leadership was lacking and remained a critical American weakness until 1814. New England opposed the war and refused to provide troops or financing.[12] Britain had excellent financing and logistics, but the war with France had a higher priority, so in 1812–13, it adopted a defensive strategy. After the final defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the British were able to send veteran armies to the U.S., but by then the Americans had learned how to mobilise and fight.[13]

At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded much of the coastline, though it was allowing substantial exports from New England, which was trading with Britain and Canada in defiance of American laws. The blockade devastated American agricultural exports but helped stimulate local factories that replaced goods previously imported. The American strategy of using small gunboats to defend ports was a fiasco, as the British raided the coast at will. The most famous episode was a series of British raids on the shores of Chesapeake Bay, including an attack on Washington, D.C. that resulted in the British burning of the White House, the Capitol, the Navy Yard, and other public buildings, later called the "Burning of Washington." The British power at sea was sufficient to allow the Royal Navy to levy "contributions" on bayside towns in return for not burning them to the ground. The Americans were more successful in ship-to-ship actions, building fast frigates. They sent out several hundred privateers to attack British merchant ships; British commercial interests were damaged, especially in the West Indies.[14]

The decisive use of naval power came on the Great Lakes and depended on a contest of building ships. In 1813, the Americans won control of Lake Erie and cut off British and native forces to the west from their supplies. Control of Lake Ontario changed hands several times, with neither side able or willing to take advantage of any temporary superiority. The Americans ultimately gained control of Lake Champlain, and naval victory there forced a large invading British army to turn back in 1814. In disrupting the power of the native peoples of the northwest and southeast, the Americans secured a major war goal.[15]

Once Britain defeated France in 1814, it ended the trade restrictions and impressment of American sailors, thus removing another cause of the war. Both Great Britain and the United States agreed to a peace that left the prewar boundaries intact.

In January 1815, after the Treaty of Ghent was signed but before word crossed the Atlantic, the Americans succeeded in inflicting 2000 casualties in defeating a British invasion army at New Orleans. The British captured Fort Bowyer.

The war had the effect of uniting the populations within each country. Canadians celebrated the war as a victory because they avoided conquest. Americans celebrated victory personified in Andrew Jackson. He was the hero of the defense of New Orleans, and in 1828, was elected the 7th President of the United States.

Origins of the war

On June 18, the United States declared war on Britain. The war had many causes, but at the centre of the conflict was Britain's ongoing war with Napoleon’s France. The British, said Jon Latimer in 2007, had only one goal: "Britain's sole objective throughout the period was the defeat of France."  If America helped France, then America had to be damaged until she stopped, or "Britain was prepared to go to any lengths to deny neutral trade with France." Latimer concludes, "All this British activity seriously angered Americans." [16]

Trade tensions

The British were engaged in war with the First French Empire and did not wish to allow the Americans to trade with France, regardless of their theoretical neutral rights to do so. As Horsman explains, "If possible, England wished to avoid war with America, but not to the extent of allowing her to hinder the British war effort against France. Moreover… a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."[17]

The United States Merchant Marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810.[18] Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of all U.S. cotton and 50% of all other U.S. exports.[19] The United States Merchant Marine was the largest neutral fleet in the world by a large margin. The British public and press were very resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition.[20] The United States' view was that Britain was in violation of a neutral nation's right to trade with any nation it saw fit.


During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 175 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors.[21] While the Royal Navy was able to man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, in war, it competed with merchant shipping and privateers for a small pool of experienced sailors and turned to impressment when unable to man ships with volunteers alone. A sizeable number of sailors (estimated to be as many as 11,000 in 1805) in the United States merchant navy were Royal Navy veterans or deserters who had left for better pay and conditions.[22] The Royal Navy went after them by intercepting and searching U.S. merchant ships for deserters. Such actions, especially the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, incensed the Americans.

The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become United States citizens. Britain did not recognise naturalised United States citizenship, so in addition to recovering deserters, it considered any United States citizen born British liable for impressment. Exacerbating the situation was the widespread use of forged identity papers by sailors. This made it all the more difficult for the Royal Navy to distinguish Americans from non-Americans and led it to impress some Americans who had never been British. (Some gained freedom on appeal.)[23] American anger at impressment grew when British frigates stationed themselves just outside U.S. harbors in U.S. territorial waters and searched ships for contraband and impressed men in view of U.S. shores.[24] "Free trade and sailors' rights" was a rallying cry for the United States throughout the conflict.

Question of United States expansionism

American expansion into the Northwest Territory (the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin) was being obstructed by Indian leaders like Tecumseh, supplied and encouraged by the British. Americans on the frontier demanded that interference be stopped. Before 1940, some historians held that United States expansionism into Canada was also a reason for the war, but the theory lost supporters. The territory in question (western Ontario), had already been largely settled by Americans, and they remained mostly neutral during the war.[25] Some Canadian historians propounded the notion in the early 20th century, and it survives among most Canadians.[26] This view was also shared by members of the British Parliament at the time. [27]

Madison and his advisers believed that conquest of Canada would be easy and that economic coercion would force the British to come to terms by cutting off the food supply for their West Indies colonies. Furthermore, possession of Canada would be a valuable bargaining chip. Frontiersmen demanded the seizure of Canada not because they wanted the land, but because the British were thought to be arming the Indians and thereby blocking settlement of the West.[28] As Horsman concluded, "The idea of conquering Canada had been present since at least 1807 as a means of forcing England to change her policy at sea. The conquest of Canada was primarily a means of waging war, not a reason for starting it."[29] Hickey flatly stated, "The desire to annex Canada did not bring on the war."[30] Brown (1964) concluded, "The purpose of the Canadian expedition was to serve negotiation, not to annex Canada."[31] Burt, a leading Canadian scholar, agreed completely, noting that Foster—the British minister to Washington—also rejected the argument that annexation of Canada was a war goal.[32]

The majority of the inhabitants of Upper Canada (Ontario) were either exiles from the United States (United Empire Loyalists) or postwar immigrants. The Loyalists were hostile to union with the U.S., while the other settlers seem to have been uninterested. The Canadian colonies were thinly populated and only lightly defended by the British Army. Americans then believed that many in Upper Canada would rise up and greet a United States invading army as liberators, a now-discredited belief. The combination suggested an easy conquest, as former President Thomas Jefferson seemed to believe in 1812: "The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent."

The declaration of war was passed by the smallest margin recorded on a war vote in the United States Congress.[33] On May 11, Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was shot and killed by an assassin, resulting in a change of the British government, putting Lord Liverpool in power. Liverpool wanted a more practical relationship with the United States. He issued a repeal of the impressment orders, but the U.S. was unaware of this, as it took three weeks for the news to cross the Atlantic.[33]

Course of the war

Although the outbreak of the war had been preceded by years of angry diplomatic dispute, neither side was ready for war when it came. Britain was heavily engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, most of the British Army was engaged in the Peninsular War (in Spain), and the Royal Navy was compelled to blockade most of the coast of Europe. The total number of British regular troops present in Canada in July 1812 was officially stated to be 6,034, supported by Canadian militia.[34] Throughout the war, the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was the Earl of Bathurst. For the first two years of the war, he could spare few troops to reinforce North America and urged the commander in chief in North America (Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost) to maintain a defensive strategy. The naturally cautious Prevost followed these instructions, concentrating on defending Lower Canada at the expense of Upper Canada (which was more vulnerable to American attacks) and allowing few offensive actions. In the final year of the war, large numbers of British soldiers became available after the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte. Prevost launched an offensive of his own into Upper New York State, but mishandled it and was forced to retreat after the British lost the Battle of Plattsburgh.

The United States was not prepared to prosecute a war, for President Madison assumed that the state militias would easily seize Canada and negotiations would follow. In 1812, the regular army consisted of fewer than 12,000 men. Congress authorised the expansion of the army to 35,000 men, but the service was voluntary and unpopular, it offered poor pay, and there were very few trained and experienced officers, at least initially. The militia called in to aid the regulars objected to serving outside their home states, were not amenable to discipline, and as a rule, performed poorly in the presence of the enemy when outside of their home state. The U.S. had great difficulty financing its war. It had disbanded its national bank, and private bankers in the Northeast were opposed to the war.

The early disasters brought about chiefly by American unpreparedness and lack of leadership drove United States Secretary of War William Eustis from office. His successor, John Armstrong, Jr., attempted a coordinated strategy late in 1813 aimed at the capture of Montreal, but was thwarted by logistical difficulties, uncooperative and quarrelsome commanders, and ill-trained troops. By 1814, the United States Army's morale and leadership had greatly improved, but the embarrassing Burning of Washington led to Armstrong's dismissal from office in turn. The war ended before the new Secretary of War James Monroe could put any new strategy into effect.

American prosecution of the war also suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England, where antiwar spokesmen were vocal. The failure of New England to provide militia units or financial support was a serious blow. Threats of secession by New England states were loud; Britain immediately exploited these divisions, blockading only southern ports for much of the war and encouraging smuggling.

The war was conducted in three theatres of operations:

  1. The Atlantic Ocean
  2. The Great Lakes and the Canadian frontier
  3. The Southern States

Atlantic theatre

Single-ship actions

In 1812, Britain's Royal Navy was the world's largest, with several hundred vessels in commission. Although most of these were involved in blockading the French navy and protecting British trade against French (and Danish) privateers, the Royal Navy nevertheless had 85 vessels in American waters.[35] By contrast, the United States Navy, which was not yet twenty years old, was a frigate navy with only 22 commissioned vessels, though a number of the American frigates were exceptionally large and powerful for their class. Whereas the standard British frigate of the time mounted 38 guns, with their main battery consisting of 18-pounder guns, the USS Constitution, USS President, and USS United States were theoretically 44-gun ships and were capable of carrying 56 guns, with a main battery of 24-pounders.[36]

The USS Constitution defeats the HMS Guerriere, a significant event during the war.

The British strategy was to protect their own merchant shipping to and from Halifax, Canada and the West Indies, and to enforce a blockade of major American ports to restrict American trade. Because of their numerical inferiority, the Americans aimed to cause disruption through hit-and-run tactics, such as the capture of prizes and engaging Royal Navy vessels only under favorable circumstances. Days after the formal declaration of war, however, two small squadrons sailed, including the frigate USS President and the sloop USS Hornet under Commodore John Rodgers, and the frigates USS United States and USS Congress, with the brig USS Argus under Captain Stephen Decatur. These were initially concentrated as one unit under Rodgers, and it was his intention to force the Royal Navy to concentrate its own ships to prevent isolated units being captured by his powerful force. Large numbers of American merchant ships were still returning to the United States, and if the Royal Navy was concentrated, it could not watch all the ports on the American seaboard. Rodgers' strategy worked, in that the Royal Navy concentrated most of its frigates off New York Harbor under Captain Philip Broke and allowed many American ships to reach home. However, his own cruise captured only five small merchant ships, and the Americans never subsequently concentrated more than two or three ships together as a unit.

Meanwhile, the USS Constitution, commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from Chesapeake Bay on July 12. On July 17, Broke's British squadron gave chase off New York, but the Constitution evaded her pursuers after two days. After briefly calling at Boston to replenish water, on August 19, the Constitution engaged the British frigate HMS Guerriere. After a 35-minute battle, Guerriere had been dismasted and captured and was later burned. Hull returned to Boston with news of this significant victory. On October 25, the USS United States, commanded by Captain Decatur, captured the British frigate HMS Macedonian, which he then carried back to port.[37] At the close of the month, the Constitution sailed south, now under the command of Captain William Bainbridge. On December 29, off Bahia, Brazil, she met the British frigate HMS Java. After a battle lasting three hours, Java struck her colours and was burned after being judged unsalvageable. The USS Constitution, however, was undamaged in the battle and earned the name "Old Ironsides."

The successes gained by the three big American frigates forced Britain to construct five 40-gun, 24-pounder heavy frigates[38] and two of its own 50-gun "spar-decked" frigates (HMS Leander and HMS Newcastle[39]) and to razee three old 74-gun ships of the line to convert them to heavy frigates.[40] It was acknowledged by the Royal Navy that there were factors other than greater size and heavier guns. The United States Navy's sloops and brigs had also won several victories over Royal Navy vessels of approximately equal strength. While the American ships had experienced and well-drilled volunteer crews, the enormous size of the overstretched Royal Navy meant that many ships were shorthanded and the average quality of crews suffered, and constant sea duties of those serving in North America interfered with their training and exercises.[41]

The capture of the three British frigates stimulated the British to greater exertions. More vessels were deployed on the American seaboard and the blockade tightened. On June 1, 1813, off Boston Harbor, the frigate USS Chesapeake, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, was captured by the British frigate HMS Shannon under Captain Sir Philip Broke. Lawrence was mortally wounded and famously cried out, "Don't give up the ship! Hold on, men!"[41] Although the Chesapeake was only of equal strength to the average British frigate and the crew had mustered together only hours before the battle, the British press reacted with almost hysterical relief that the run of American victories had ended.[42]

In January 1813, the American frigate USS Essex, under the command of Captain David Porter, sailed into the Pacific in an attempt to harass British shipping. Many British whaling ships carried letters of marque allowing them to prey on American whalers and nearly destroyed the industry. The Essex challenged this practice. She inflicted considerable damage on British interests before she was captured off Valparaiso, Chile, by the British frigate HMS Phoebe and the sloop HMS Cherub on March 28, 1814.[43]

Following their earlier losses, the British Admiralty instituted a new policy that the three American heavy frigates should not be engaged except by a ship of the line or smaller vessels in squadron strength. An example of this was the capture of the USS President by a squadron of four British frigates in January 1815 (although the action was fought on the British side mainly by the HMS Endymion).[44][45]


The blockade of American ports later tightened to the extent that most American merchant ships and naval vessels were confined to port. The American frigates USS United States and USS Macedonian ended the war blockaded and hulked in New London, Connecticut. Some merchant ships were based in Europe or Asia and continued operations. Others, mainly from New England, were issued licenses to trade by Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, commander in chief on the American station in 1813. This allowed Wellington's army in Spain to be supplied with American goods, as well as maintaining the New Englanders' opposition to the war. The blockade nevertheless resulted in American exports decreasing from $130-million in 1807 to $7-million in 1814.[46]

The operations of American privateers (some of which belonged to the United States Navy, but most of which were private ventures) were extensive. They continued until the close of the war and were only partially affected by the strict enforcement of convoy by the Royal Navy. An example of the audacity of the American cruisers was the depredations in British home waters carried out by the American sloop USS Argus. It was eventually captured off St. David's Head in Wales by the British brig HMS Pelican on August 14, 1813. A total of 1,554 vessels were claimed captured by all American naval and privateering vessels, 1300 of which were captured by privateers.[47][48] However, insurer Lloyd's of London reported that only 1,175 British ships were taken, 373 of which were recaptured, for a total loss of 802.[49]

As the Royal Navy base that supervised the blockade, the Halifax profited greatly during the war. British privateers based there seized many French and American ships and sold their prizes in Halifax.

The war was the last time the British allowed privateering, since the practice was coming to be seen as politically inexpedient and of diminishing value in maintaining its naval supremacy. It was certainly the swan song of Bermuda's privateers, who had returned to the practice with a vengeance after American lawsuits had put a stop to it two decades earlier. The nimble Bermuda sloops captured 298 enemy ships (the total number of captures by all British naval and privateering vessels between the Great Lakes and the West Indies was 1,593).[50]

Atlantic coast

When the war began, the British naval forces had some difficulty in blockading the entire U.S. coast, and they were also preoccupied in their pursuit of American privateers. The British government, having need of American foodstuffs for its army in Spain, benefited from the willingness of the New Englanders to trade with them, so no blockade of New England was at first attempted. The Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay were declared in a state of blockade on December 26, 1812.

This was extended to the coast south of Narragansett by November 1813 and to all of the American coast on May 31, 1814. In the meantime, much illicit trade was carried on by collusive captures arranged between American traders and British officers. American ships were fraudulently transferred to neutral flags. Eventually, the U.S. government was driven to issue orders to stop illicit trading; this put only a further strain on the commerce of the country. The overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to attack and destroy numerous docks and harbors.

Additionally, commanders of the blockading fleet, based at the Bermuda dockyard, were given instructions to encourage the defection of American slaves by offering freedom, as they did during the Revolutionary War. Thousands of black slaves went over to the Crown with their families and were recruited into the 3rd (Colonial) Battalion of the Royal Marines on occupied Tangier Island, in the Chesapeake. A further company of colonial marines was raised at the Bermuda dockyard, where many freed slaves—men, women, and children—had been given refuge and employment. It was kept as a defensive force in case of an attack. These former slaves fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including the attack on Washington, D.C. and the Louisiana Campaign, and most were later re-enlisted into British West India regiments or settled in Trinidad in August 1816, where seven hundred of these ex-marines were granted land (they reportedly organised themselves in villages along the lines of military companies). Many other freed American slaves were recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments or newly created British Army units. A few thousand freed slaves were later settled at Nova Scotia by the British.


Maine, then part of Massachusetts, was a base for smuggling and illegal trade between the U.S. and the British. From his base in New Brunswick, in September 1814, Sir John Coape Sherbrooke led 500 British troops in the "Penobscot Expedition". In 26 days, he raided and looted Hampden, Bangor, and Machias, destroying or capturing 17 American ships. He won the Battle of Hampden (losing two killed while the Americans lost one killed) and occupied the village of Castine for the rest of the war. This territory was returned to the United States by the Treaty of Ghent. The British left in April 1815, at which time they took 10,750 pounds obtained from tariff duties at Castine. This money, called the "Castine Fund", was used in the establishment of Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia.[51]

Chesapeake campaign and "The Star-Spangled Banner"

The strategic location of the Chesapeake Bay near America's capital made it a prime target for the British. Starting in March 1813, a squadron under Rear Admiral George Cockburn started a blockade of the bay and raided towns along the bay from Norfolk to Havre de Grace.

On July 4, 1813, Joshua Barney, a Revolutionary War naval hero, convinced the Navy Department to build the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla, a squadron of twenty barges to defend the Chesapeake Bay. Launched in April 1814, the squadron was quickly cornered in the Patuxent River, and while successful in harassing the Royal Navy, they were powerless to stop the British campaign that ultimately led to the "Burning of Washington." This expedition, led by Cockburn and General Robert Ross, was carried out between August 19 and 29, 1814, as the result of the hardened British policy of 1814 (although British and American commissioners had convened peace negotiations at Ghent in June of that year). As part of this, Admiral Warren had been replaced as commander in chief by Admiral Alexander Cochrane, with reinforcements and orders to coerce the Americans into a favourable peace.

Governor-General Sir George Prevost of Canada had written to the Admirals in Bermuda, calling for a retaliation for the American sacking of York (now Toronto). A force of 2,500 soldiers under General Ross—aboard a Royal Navy task force composed of the HMS Royal Oak, three frigates, three sloops, and ten other vessels—had just arrived in Bermuda. Released from the Peninsular War by British victory, the British intended to use them for diversionary raids along the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. In response to Prevost's request, they decided to employ this force, together with the naval and military units already on the station, to strike at Washington, D.C.

On August 24, U.S. Secretary of War John Armstrong insisted that the British would attack Baltimore rather than Washington, even when the British army was obviously on its way to the capital. The inexperienced American militia, which had congregated at Bladensburg, Maryland, to protect the capital, were routed in the Battle of Bladensburg, opening the route to Washington. While Dolley Madison saved valuables from the Presidential Mansion, President James Madison was forced to flee to Virginia.[52]

The British commanders ate the supper that had been prepared for the President before they burned the Presidential Mansion; American morale was reduced to an all-time low. The British viewed their actions as retaliation for destructive American raids into Canada, most notably the Americans' burning of York (now Toronto) in 1813. Later that same evening, a furious storm swept into Washington, D.C., sending one or more tornadoes into the city that caused more damage but finally extinguished the fires with torrential rains.[53] The naval yards were set afire at the direction of U.S. officials to prevent the capture of naval ships and supplies.[54] The British left Washington, D.C. as soon as the storm subsided. Having destroyed Washington's public buildings, including the President's Mansion and the Treasury, the British army next moved to capture Baltimore, a busy port and a key base for American privateers. The subsequent Battle of Baltimore began with the British landing at North Point, but they withdrew when General Ross was killed at an American outpost. The British also attempted to attack Baltimore by sea on September 13 but were unable to reduce Fort McHenry, at the entrance to Baltimore Harbor.

An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key was inspired to write "The Star-Spangled Banner."

The Battle of Fort McHenry was no battle at all. British guns had range on American cannon, and stood off out of U.S. range, bombarding the fort, which returned no fire. Their plan was to coordinate with a land force, but from that distance coordination proved impossible, so the British called off the attack and left. All the lights were extinguished in Baltimore the night of the attack, and the fort was bombarded for 25 hours. The only light was given off by the exploding shells over Fort McHenry, which gave proof that the flag was still over the fort. The defense of the fort inspired the American lawyer Francis Scott Key to write a poem that would eventually supply the lyrics to "The Star-Spangled Banner."

Great Lakes and Western Territories

Invasions of Upper and Lower Canada, 1812

America's leaders assumed that Canada could be easily overrun. Former President Jefferson optimistically referred to the conquest of Canada as "a matter of marching." Many Loyalist Americans had migrated to Upper Canada after the Revolutionary War, and it was assumed they would favor the American cause, but they did not. In prewar Upper Canada, General Prevost found himself in the unusual position of purchasing many provisions for his troops from the American side. This peculiar trade persisted throughout the war in spite of an abortive attempt by the American government to curtail it. In Lower Canada, much more populous, support for Britain came from the English elite with strong loyalty to the Empire, and from the French elite, who feared American conquest would destroy the old order by introducing Protestantism and weakening the Catholic Church, Anglicization, republican democracy, and commercial capitalism. The French inhabitants feared the loss to potential American immigrants of a shrinking area of good lands.[55]

In 1812–13, British military experience prevailed over inexperienced American commanders. Geography dictated that operations would take place in the west: principally around Lake Erie, near the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and near the Saint Lawrence River area and Lake Champlain. This was the focus of the three-pronged attacks by the Americans in 1812. Although cutting the St. Lawrence River through the capture of Montreal and Quebec would have made Britain's hold in North America unsustainable, the United States began operations first in the western frontier because of the general popularity there of a war with the British, who had sold arms to the American Indians opposing the settlers.

The British scored an important early success when their detachment at St. Joseph Island, on Lake Huron, learned of the declaration of war before the nearby American garrison at the important trading post at Mackinac Island, in Michigan. A scratch force landed on the island on July 17, 1812, and mounted a gun overlooking Fort Mackinac. After the British fired one shot from their gun, the Americans, taken by surprise, surrendered. This early victory encouraged the Indians, and large numbers of them moved to help the British at Amherstburg.

An American army under the command of William Hull invaded Canada on July 12, with his forces chiefly composed of militiamen.[56] Once on Canadian soil, Hull issued a proclamation ordering all British subjects to surrender, or "the horrors, and calamities of war will stalk before you." He also threatened to kill any British prisoner caught fighting alongside an Indian. The proclamation helped stiffen resistance to the American attacks. The senior British officer in Upper Canada, Major General Isaac Brock, decided to oppose Hull's forces, and felt that he should make a bold action to calm the settler population in Canada, and to try and convince the aboriginals that were needed to defend the region that Britain was strong.[56] Hull was worried that his army was too weak to achieve its objectives, and engaged in minor skirmishing and felt more vulnerable after the British captured a vessel on Lake Erie carrying his baggage, medical supplies, and important papers.[56] On July 17, without a fight, the American fort on Mackinac Island surrendered after a group of soldiers, fur traders, and native warriors ordered by Brock to capture the settlement deployed a piece of artillery overlooking the post before the fort realised it, which led to its capitulation.[56] This capture secured British fur trade operations in the area and maintained a British connection to the Native American tribes in the Mississippi region, as well as inspiring a sizeable number of Natives of the upper lakes region to combat the United States.[56] Hull, believing after he learned about the capture that the tribes along the Detroit border would rise up and oppose him and perhaps attack Americans on the frontier, on August 8 withdrew most of his army from Canada back to secure Detroit whilst sending a request for reinforcements and ordering the American garrison at Fort Dearborn to abandon the post for fear of an aboriginal attack.[56]

Brock advanced on Fort Detroit with 1,200 men. Brock sent a fake correspondence and allowed the letter to be captured by the Americans, saying they required only 5,000 Native warriors to capture Detroit. Hull feared the Indians and their threats of torture and scalping. Believing the British had more troops than they did, Hull surrendered at Detroit without a fight on August 16. Fearing British-instigated Indian attacks on other locations, Hull ordered the evacuation of the inhabitants of Fort Dearborn (Chicago) to Fort Wayne. After initially being granted safe passage, the inhabitants (soldiers as well as civilians) were attacked by Potowatomi Indians on August 15 after traveling two miles (3 km) in what is known as the Fort Dearborn Massacre. The fort was subsequently burned.

Brock promptly transferred himself to the eastern end of Lake Erie, where American General Stephen Van Rensselaer was attempting a second invasion. An armistice (arranged by Prevost in the hope the British renunciation of the Orders in Council to which the United States objected might lead to peace) prevented Brock from invading American territory. When the armistice ended, the Americans attempted an attack across the Niagara River on October 13, but suffered a crushing defeat at Queenston Heights. Brock was killed during the battle. While the professionalism of the American forces would improve by the war's end, British leadership suffered after Brock's death. A final attempt in 1812 by American General Henry Dearborn to advance north from Lake Champlain failed when his militia refused to advance beyond American territory.

In contrast to the American militia, the Canadian militia performed well. French Canadians, who found the anti-Catholic stance of most of the United States troublesome, and United Empire Loyalists, who had fought for the Crown during the American Revolutionary War, strongly opposed the American invasion. However, a large segment of Upper Canada's population were recent settlers from the United States who had no obvious loyalties to the Crown. Nevertheless, while there were some who sympathised with the invaders, the American forces found strong opposition from men loyal to the Empire.[57]

American Northwest, 1813

After Hull's surrender, General William Henry Harrison was given command of the American Army of the Northwest. He set out to retake Detroit, which was now defended by Colonel Henry Procter in conjunction with Tecumseh. A detachment of Harrison's army was defeated at Frenchtown along the River Raisin on January 22, 1813. Procter left the prisoners with an inadequate guard, who were unable to prevent some of his North American Indian allies from attacking and killing perhaps as many as sixty Americans, many of whom were Kentucky militiamen.[58] The incident became known as the "River Raisin Massacre." The defeat ended Harrison's campaign against Detroit, and the phrase "Remember the River Raisin!" became a rallying cry for the Americans.

Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with what would become one of the most famous sentences in American military history: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." This 1865 painting by William H. Powell shows Perry transferring to a different ship during the battle.

In May 1813, Procter and Tecumseh set siege to Fort Meigs in northern Ohio. American reinforcements arriving during the siege were defeated by the Indians, but the fort held out. The Indians eventually began to disperse, forcing Procter and Tecumseh to return to Canada. A second offensive against Fort Meigs also failed in July. In an attempt to improve Indian morale, Procter and Tecumseh attempted to storm Fort Stephenson, a small American post on the Sandusky River, only to be repulsed with serious losses, marking the end of the Ohio campaign.

On Lake Erie, American commander Captain Oliver Hazard Perry fought the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813. His decisive victory ensured American control of the lake, improved American morale after a series of defeats, and compelled the British to fall back from Detroit. This paved the way for General Harrison to launch another invasion of Upper Canada, which culminated in the U.S. victory at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, in which Tecumseh was killed. Tecumseh's death effectively ended the North American Indian alliance with the British in the Detroit region. American control of Lake Erie meant the British could no longer provide essential military supplies to their Indian allies, who therefore dropped out of the war. The Americans controlled the area for the duration of the war.

Niagara frontier, 1813

Because of the difficulties of land communications, control of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River corridor was crucial. When the war began, the British already had a small squadron of warships on Lake Ontario and had the initial advantage. To redress the situation, the Americans established a Navy yard at Sackett's Harbor, New York. Commodore Isaac Chauncey took charge of the large number of sailors and shipwrights sent there from New York; they completed the second warship built there in a mere 45 days. Ultimately, 3000 men worked at the shipyard, building eleven warships and many smaller boats and transports. Having regained the advantage by their rapid building program, Chauncey and Dearborn attacked York (now called Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada, on April 27, 1813. The Battle of York was an American victory, marred by looting and the burning of the Parliament buildings and a library. However, Kingston was strategically more valuable to British supply and communications along the St. Lawrence. Without control of Kingston, the American navy could not effectively control Lake Ontario or sever the British supply line from Lower Canada.

On May 27, 1813, an American amphibious force from Lake Ontario assaulted Fort George on the northern end of the Niagara River and captured it without serious losses. The retreating British forces were not pursued, however, until they had largely escaped and organised a counteroffensive against the advancing Americans at the Battle of Stoney Creek on June 5. On June 24, with the help of advance warning by Loyalist Laura Secord, another American force was forced to surrender by a much smaller British and Indian force at the Battle of Beaver Dams, marking the end of the American offensive into Upper Canada. Meanwhile, Commodore James Lucas Yeo had taken charge of the British ships on the lake and mounted a counterattack, which was nevertheless repulsed at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor. Thereafter, Chauncey's and Yeo's squadrons fought two indecisive actions, neither commander seeking a fight to the finish.

Late in 1813, the Americans abandoned the Canadian territory they occupied around Fort George. They set fire to the village of Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) on December 15, 1813, incensing the British and Canadians. Many of the inhabitants were left without shelter, freezing to death in the snow. This led to British retaliation following the Capture of Fort Niagara on December 18, 1813, and similar destruction at Buffalo on December 30, 1813.

In 1814, the contest for Lake Ontario turned into a building race. Eventually, by the end of the year, Yeo had constructed the HMS St. Lawrence, a first-rate ship of the line of 112 guns that gave him superiority, but the overall result of the Engagements on Lake Ontario had been an indecisive draw.

St. Lawrence and Lower Canada, 1813

Sakawarton (John Smoke Johnson), John Tutela, and Young Warner, three Six Nations veterans of the War of 1812.

The British were potentially most vulnerable over the stretch of the St. Lawrence where it formed the frontier between Upper Canada and the United States. During the early days of the war, there was much illicit commerce across the river, but over the winter of 1812–13, the Americans launched a series of raids from Ogdensburg on the American side of the river, hampering British supply traffic up the river. On February 21, Sir George Prevost passed through Prescott on the opposite bank of the river with reinforcements for Upper Canada. When he left the next day, the reinforcements and local militia attacked. At the Battle of Ogdensburg, the Americans were forced to retire.

For the rest of the year, Ogdensburg had no American garrison, and many residents of Ogdensburg resumed visits and trade with Prescott. This British victory removed the last American regular troops from the Upper St. Lawrence frontier and helped secure British communications with Montreal. Late in 1813, after much argument, the Americans made two thrusts against Montreal. The plan eventually agreed upon was for Major General Wade Hampton to march north from Lake Champlain and join a force under General James Wilkinson that would embark in boats and sail from Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario and descend the St. Lawrence. Hampton was delayed by bad roads and supply problems and also had an intense dislike of Wilkinson, which limited his desire to support his plan. On October 25, his 4,000-strong force was defeated at the Chateauguay River by Charles de Salaberry's smaller force of French-Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawks. Wilkinson's force of 8,000 set out on October 17, but was also delayed by bad weather. After learning that Hampton had been checked, Wilkinson heard that a British force under Captain William Mulcaster and Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison was pursuing him, and by November 10, he was forced to land near Morrisburg, about 150 kilometers (90 mi.) from Montreal. On November 11, Wilkinson's rear guard, numbering 2,500, attacked Morrison's force of 800 at Crysler's Farm and was repulsed with heavy losses. After learning that Hampton was unable to renew his advance, Wilkinson retreated to the U.S. and settled into winter quarters. He resigned his command after a failed attack on a British outpost at Lacolle Mills.

Niagara and Plattsburgh Campaigns, 1814

By the middle of 1814, American generals, including Major Generals Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott, had drastically improved the fighting abilities and discipline of the army. Their renewed attack on the Niagara peninsula quickly captured Fort Erie. Winfield Scott then gained a victory over an inferior British force at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5. An attempt to advance further ended with a hard-fought but inconclusive battle at Lundy's Lane on July 25.

The outnumbered Americans withdrew but withstood a prolonged Siege of Fort Erie. The British suffered heavy casualties in a failed assault and were also weakened by exposure and shortage of supplies in their siege lines. Eventually the British raised the siege, but American Major General George Izard took over command on the Niagara front and followed up only halfheartedly. The Americans themselves lacked provisions, and eventually destroyed the fort and retreated across the Niagara.

Meanwhile, following the abdication of Napoleon, 15,000 British troops were sent to North America under four of Wellington’s ablest brigade commanders. Fewer than half were veterans of the Peninsula and the remainder came from garrisons. Along with the troops came instructions for offensives against the United States. British strategy was changing, and like the Americans, the British were seeking advantages for the peace negotiations. Governor-General Sir George Prevost was instructed to launch an invasion into the New York-Vermont region. The army available to him outnumbered the American defenders of Plattsburgh, but control of this town depended on being able to control Lake Champlain. On the lake, the British squadron under Captain George Downie and the Americans under Master Commandant Thomas MacDonough were more evenly matched.

On reaching Plattsburgh, Prevost delayed the assault until the arrival of Downie in the hastily completed 36-gun frigate HMS Confiance. Prevost forced Downie into a premature attack, but then unaccountably failed to provide the promised military backing. Downie was killed and his naval force defeated at the naval Battle of Plattsburgh in Plattsburgh Bay on September 11, 1814. The Americans now had control of Lake Champlain; Theodore Roosevelt later termed it "the greatest naval battle of the war." The successful land defense was led by Alexander Macomb (American general). To the astonishment of his senior officers, Prevost then turned back, saying it would be too hazardous to remain on enemy territory after the loss of naval supremacy. Prevost's political and military enemies forced his recall. In London, a naval court-martial of the surviving officers of the Plattsburgh Bay debacle decided that defeat had been caused principally by Prevost’s urging the squadron into premature action and then failing to afford the promised support from the land forces. Prevost died suddenly, just before his own court-martial was to convene. Prevost's reputation sank to a new low, as Canadians claimed that their militia under Brock did the job and he failed. Recently, however, historians have been more kindly, measuring him not against Wellington but against his American foes. They judge Prevost’s preparations for defending the Canadas with limited means to be energetic, well-conceived, and comprehensive; and against the odds, he had achieved the primary objective of preventing an American conquest.[55]

American West, 1813–14

Plans of the original Fort Madison, 1810. It was defeated by British-supported Indians in 1813.

Far to the west of where regular British forces were fighting, more than 65 forts were built in the Illinois Territory, mostly by American settlers. Skirmishes between settlers and U.S. soldiers against Indians allied to the British occurred throughout the Mississippi River valley during the war. The Sauk were considered the most formidable tribe. Two notable battles fought by the Sauk were the Battle of Cote Sans Dessein, at the mouth of the Osage River in the Missouri Territory, and the Battle of the Sinkhole, near St. Louis.

In September 1813, Fort Madison, an American outpost in what is now Iowa, was abandoned after it was attacked and besieged by Indians, who had support from the British. This was one of the few battles fought west of the Mississippi. Black Hawk participated in the siege of Fort Madison, which helped to form his reputation as a resourceful Sauk leader.[59][60]

Little of note took place on Lake Huron in 1813, but the American victory on Lake Erie and the recapture of Detroit isolated the British there. During the ensuing winter, a Canadian party under Lieutenant Colonel Robert McDouall established a new supply line from York to Nottawasaga Bay on Georgian Bay. When he arrived at Fort Mackinac with supplies and reinforcements, he sent an expedition to recapture the trading post of Prairie du Chien in the far west. The Battle of Prairie du Chien ended in a British victory on July 20, 1814.

Earlier in July, the Americans sent a force of five vessels from Detroit to recapture Mackinac. A mixed force of regulars and volunteers from the militia landed on the island on August 4. They did not attempt to achieve surprise, and at the brief Battle of Mackinac Island, they were ambushed by Indians and forced to re-embark. The Americans discovered the new base at Nottawasaga Bay, and on August 13, they destroyed its fortifications and a schooner that they found there. They then returned to Detroit, leaving two gunboats to blockade Mackinac. On September 4, these gunboats were taken unawares and captured by enemy boarding parties from canoes and small boats. This Engagement on Lake Huron left Mackinac under British control.

The British garrison at Prairie du Chien also fought off another attack by Major Zachary Taylor. In this distant theatre, the British retained the upper hand until the end of the war, through the allegiance of several Indian tribes that received British gifts and arms. At the conclusion of peace, Mackinac and other captured territory was returned to the United States. Fighting between Americans and the Sauk and other Indian tribes continued through 1817, well after the war ended in the east.[61]

Creek War

In March 1814, Jackson led a force of Tennessee militia, Choctaw,[62] Cherokee warriors, and U.S. regulars southward to attack the Creek tribes, led by Chief Menawa. On March 26, Jackson and General John Coffee decisively defeated the Creek at Horseshoe Bend, killing 800 of 1,000 Creeks at a cost of 49 killed and 154 wounded out of approximately 2,000 American and Cherokee forces. Jackson pursued the surviving Creek until they surrendered. Most historians consider the Creek War as part of the War of 1812, because the British supported them.

The Treaty of Ghent

Factors leading to the peace negotiations

By 1814, both sides, weary of a costly war that seemingly offered nothing but stalemate, were ready to grope their way to a settlement. It is difficult to measure accurately the costs of the American war to Britain, because they are bound up in general expenditure on the Napoleonic War in Europe. But an estimate may be made based on the increased borrowing undertaken during the period, with the American war as a whole adding some £25-million to the national debt.[63] In America, the cost was $105-million, although because the British pound was worth considerably more than the dollar, the costs of the war to both sides were roughly equal.[64] The national debt rose from $45-million in 1812 to $127-million by the end of 1815, although through discounts and paper money, the government received only $34-million worth of specie.[65] By this time, the British blockade of U.S. ports was having a detrimental effect on the American economy. Licensed flour exports, which had been close to a million barrels in 1812 and 1813, fell to 5,000 in 1814. By this time, insurance rates on Boston shipping had reached 75%, coastal shipping was at a complete standstill, and New England was considering secession.[66] Exports and imports fell dramatically as American shipping engaged in foreign trade dropped from 948,000 tons in 1811 to just 60,000 tons by 1814. But although American privateers found chances of success much reduced, with most British merchantmen now sailing in convoy, privateering continued to prove troublesome to the British. With insurance rates between Liverpool, England and Halifax, Nova Scotia rising to 30%, the Morning Chronicle complained that with American privateers operating around the British Isles, "We have been insulted with impunity."[67] The British could not fully celebrate a great victory in Europe until there was peace in North America, and more pertinently, taxes could not come down until such time. Landowners particularly balked at continued high taxation; both they and the shipping interests urged the government to secure peace.[68]

Negotiations and peace

New Orleans, 1815, by Herbert Morton Stoops.

On December 24, 1814, diplomats from the two countries, meeting in Ghent, United Kingdom of the Netherlands (now in Belgium), signed the Treaty of Ghent. This was ratified by the Americans on February 16, 1815.

Britain, which had forces in uninhabited areas near Lake Superior and Lake Michigan and two towns in Maine, demanded the ceding of large areas, plus turning most of the Midwest into a neutral zone for Indians. American public opinion was outraged when Madison published the demands; even the Federalists were now willing to fight on. The British were planning three invasions. One force burned Washington but failed to capture Baltimore, and sailed away when its commander was killed. In New York, 10,000 British veterans were marching south until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada.[69] Nothing was known of the fate of the third large invasion force aimed at capturing New Orleans and southwest. The Prime Minister wanted the Duke of Wellington to command in Canada and finally win the war; Wellington said no, because the war was a military stalemate and should be promptly ended:

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America… You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You can not on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cessation of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power… Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.[70]

With a rift opening between Britain and Russia at the Congress of Vienna and little chance of improving the military situation in North America, Britain was prepared to end the war promptly. In concluding the war, the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, was taking into account domestic opposition to continued taxation, especially among Liverpool and Bristol merchants—keen to get back to doing business with America—and there was nothing to gain from prolonged warfare.[71]


The Battle of New Orleans and other post-treaty fighting

Unaware of the peace, Andrew Jackson's forces moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, in late 1814 to defend against a large-scale British invasion. Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, with 1,784 British killed or wounded compared to 210 Americans. It was hailed as a great victory for the U.S., making Jackson a national hero and eventually propelling him to the presidency.[72][73]

The British gave up on New Orleans but moved to attack the Gulf Coast port of Mobile, Alabama. In one of the last military actions of the war, 1,000 British troops won the Battle of Fort Bowyer on February 12, 1815. When news of peace arrived the next day, they abandoned the fort and sailed home. In May 1815, a band of British-allied Sauk, unaware that the war had ended months ago, attacked a small band of U.S. soldiers northwest of St. Louis.[74] Intermittent fighting, primarily with the Sauk, continued in the Missouri Territory well into 1817, although it is unknown if the Sauk were acting on their own or on behalf of Great Britain.[75]


British losses in the war were about 1,600 killed in action and 3,679 wounded; 3,321 British died from disease. American losses were 2,260 killed in action and 4,505 wounded. While the number of Americans who died from disease is not known, it is estimated to have been about 17,000.[76] These figures do not include deaths among American or Canadian militia forces or losses among native tribes.

In addition, tens of thousands of American slaves escaped to the British because of their offer of freedom, or they just fled in the chaos of war. The British settled a few thousand of the newly freed slaves in Nova Scotia.[77]

Terms of the Treaty of Ghent

The war was ended by the Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814 and taking effect February 18, 1815. The terms stated that fighting between the United States and Britain would cease, all conquered territory was to be returned to the prewar claimant, the Americans were to gain fishing rights in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and that both the United States and Britain agreed to recognise the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States.

The Treaty of Ghent, which was promptly ratified by the Senate in 1815, ignored the grievances that led to war. Britain made no concessions concerning impressment, blockades, or other maritime differences; the treaty proved to be merely an expedient to end the fighting. Mobile and parts of western Florida remained permanently in American possession, despite objections by Spain, and Britain was unwilling to enforce treaty provisions regarding their claim to the territories.[78] Thus, the war ended in a stalemate with no gain for either side.


Neither side lost any territory, with the exception of Carleton Island, now part of New York, nor were the original points of contention addressed by the treaty that ended it—and yet it changed much between the United States of America and Britain.

The Treaty of Ghent established the status quo ante bellum; that is, there were no territorial changes made by either side. The issue of impressment was made moot when the Royal Navy stopped impressment after the defeat of Napoleon. Excepting occasional border disputes and the circumstances of the American Civil War, relations between the United States and Britain remained generally peaceful for the rest of the nineteenth century, and the two countries became close allies in the twentieth century.

Border adjustments between the United States and British North America were made in the Treaty of 1818. A border dispute along the Maine-New Brunswick border was settled by the 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War, and the border in the Oregon Territory was settled by the 1846 Oregon Treaty. Yet, according to Winston Churchill, "The lessons of the war were taken to heart. Anti-American sentiment in Britain ran high for several years, but the United States was never again refused proper treatment as an independent power."[79]

United States

The U.S. ended the Indian threat on its western and southern borders. The nation also gained a psychological sense of complete independence as people celebrated their "second war of independence."[28] Nationalism soared after the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. The opposition Federalist Party collapsed, and the Era of Good Feelings ensued. The U.S. did make one minor territorial gain during the war, though not at Britain's expense, when it captured Mobile, Alabama from Spain.[80]

The United States no longer questioned the need for a strong Navy and indeed completed three new 74-gun ships of the line and two new 44-gun frigates shortly after the end of the war.[81] (Another frigate had been destroyed to prevent it being captured on the stocks).[82] In 1816, the U.S. Congress passed into law an "Act for the gradual increase of the Navy" at a cost of $1,000,000 a year for eight years, authorizing nine ships of the line and 12 heavy frigates.[83] The Captains and Commodores of the U.S. Navy became the heroes of their generation in the United States. Decorated plates and pitchers of Decatur, Hull, Bainbridge, Lawrence, Perry, and Macdonough were made in Staffordshire, England, and found a ready market in the United States. Three of the war heroes used their celebrity to win national office: Andrew Jackson (elected President in 1828 and 1832), Richard Mentor Johnson (elected Vice President in 1836), and William Henry Harrison (elected President in 1840).

The New England states became increasingly frustrated over how the war was being conducted and how the conflict was affecting their states. They complained that the United States government was not investing enough in the states' defenses both militarily and financially and that the states should have more control over their militia. The increased taxes, the British blockade, and the occupation of some of New England by enemy forces also agitated public opinion in the states.[84] As a result, at the Hartford Convention (December 1814–January 1815) held in Connecticut, New England representatives asked for New England to have its states' powers fully restored. Nevertheless, a common misconception propagated by newspapers of the time was that the New England representatives wanted to secede from the Union and make a separate peace with the British. This view is not supported by what actually happened at the Convention.[85]

Slaveholders primarily in the South suffered considerable loss of property as tens of thousands of slaves escaped to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. The planters' complacency about slave contentment was shocked by their seeing slaves who would risk so much to be free.[86]

Today, American popular memory includes the British capture and destruction of the U.S. Presidential Mansion in August 1814, which necessitated its extensive renovation. From this event has arisen the tradition that the building's new white paint inspired a popular new nickname, the White House. However, the tale appears apocryphal; the name "White House" is actually first attested in 1811. Another memory is the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in September 1814, which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner.

British North America

The War of 1812 was seen by British loyalists in British North America (which formed the Dominion of Canada in 1867) as a victory, as they had successfully defended their borders from an American takeover. The outcome gave Empire-oriented Canadians confidence and, together with the postwar "militia myth" that the civilian militia had been primarily responsible rather than the British regulars, was used to stimulate a new sense of Canadian nationalism.[87]

A long-term implication of the militia myth that was false (but remained popular in the Canadian public at least until World War I) was that Canada did not need a regular professional army.[88] The U.S. Army had done poorly, on the whole, in several attempts to invade Canada, and the Canadians had shown that they would fight bravely to defend their country. But the British did not doubt that the thinly populated territory would be vulnerable in a third war. "We cannot keep Canada if the Americans declare war against us again," Admiral Sir David Milne wrote to a correspondent in 1817.[89]

The Battle of York demonstrated the vulnerability of Upper and Lower Canada. In the 1820s, work began on La Citadelle at Quebec City as a defence against the United States; the fort remains an operational base of the Canadian Forces. Additionally, work began on the Halifax citadel to defend the port against American attacks. This fort remained in operation through World War II.

In the 1830s, the Rideau Canal was built to provide a secure waterway from Montreal to Lake Ontario, avoiding the narrows of the St. Lawrence River, where ships could be vulnerable to American cannon fire. To defend the western end of the canal, the British also built Fort Henry at Kingston, which remained operational until 1891.


The Native Americans allied to the British came out as losers. The British proposal to create a "neutral" Indian zone in the American west was rejected at the Ghent peace conference and never resurfaced. In the decade after 1815, many Americans assumed that the British continued to conspire with their former Indian allies in an attempt to forestall American hegemony in the Great Lakes region. Such perceptions were faulty. After the Treaty of Ghent, the Indians became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement for Indian campaigns to stop American expansionism in the Midwest. Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, Great Lakes Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the Americans.[90] In the Southwest, Indian resistance had been crushed by General Andrew Jackson; as President (1829-37), Jackson systematically removed the major tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.[91]


Bermuda had been largely left to the defenses of its own militia and privateers prior to American independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795, as its location was a useful substitute for the lost American ports. It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard. The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West." Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after World War II.


The war was scarcely noticed at the time and is barely remembered in Britain because it was overshadowed by the far-larger conflict against the French Empire under Napoleon.[92] Britain's goals of impressing seamen and blocking trade with France had been achieved and were no longer needed. In the early years of the 19th century, the Royal Navy was the dominant nautical power in the world.[93] It used its overwhelming strength to cripple American maritime trade and launch raids on the American coast. However, the Royal Navy was acutely conscious that the United States Navy had won most of the single-ship duels during the war.[82] The causes of the losses were many, but among those were the heavier broadside of the American 44-gun frigates and the fact that the large American crews were hand-picked from among the approximately 55,000 unemployed merchant seamen in American harbors. The United States Navy had 14 frigates and smaller ships to crew at the start of the war, while Britain maintained 85 ships in North American waters alone. The crews of the British fleet, which numbered some 140,000 men, were rounded out with impressed ordinary seamen and landsmen.[94] In an order to his ships, Admiral Warren ordered that less attention be paid to spit and polish and more to gunnery practice.[95] It is notable that the well-trained gunnery of the HMS Shannon allowed her victory over the untrained crew of the USS Chesapeake.[41]

See also


  1. ^ Upton, David. "Soldiers of the Mississipi Territory", 2003 (HTML). http://web.archive.org/web/20070906061647/http://home.bak.rr.com/simpsoncounty/war1812.htm Retrieved on 2009-3-27.
  2. ^ Allen, Robert S. (1996). His Majesty's Indian Allies. Dundurn Press. p. 121. ISBN 1550021753. http://books.google.com/books?id=t9T6y_zk5B0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=his+majesty%27s+indian+allies&lr=&num=30&as_brr=0#PPA121,M1. 
  3. ^ All US figures from Hickey (1990) p.302-3
  4. ^ Caffery, pp.56-58
  5. ^ Caffery, pp.101-104
  6. ^ Norman K. Risjord, "1812: Conservatives, War Hawks, and the Nation's Honor." William And Mary Quarterly 1961 18(2): 196-210. in JSTOR
  7. ^ Bowler, pp. 11-32
  8. ^ [http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1813/feb/18/address-respecting-the-war-with-america#S1V0024P0_18130218_HOC_15 British Parliament online, 18 Feb 1813 House of Commons sitting, Canning
  9. ^ Fregosi, Paul (1989). Dreams of Empire. Hutchinson. p. 328. ISBN 0-09-173926-8. 
  10. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1815/apr/11/address-on-the-treaty-of-peace-with#S1V0030P0_18150411_HOC_11 British Parliament online, April 11 1815 House of Commons sitting, Goulburn
  11. ^ Dwight L. Smith, "A North American Neutral Indian Zone: Persistence of a British Idea" Northwest Ohio Quarterly 1989 61(2-4): 46-63; Francis M. Carroll, A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783-1842 (2001) p 23 online
  12. ^ Hickey (1990) p. 80
  13. ^ Hickey (1990) p. 126
  14. ^ Mark Lardas, Tony Bryan, and Giuseppe Rava, American Light and Medium Frigates 1794-1836 (2008), pp 6, 25; George Coggeshall, History of the American privateers, (2005)
  15. ^ Hickey, War of 1812 p. 183
  16. ^ All quoted from Latimer, 1812 p.8.
  17. ^ Horsman (1962) p. 264
  18. ^ Caffery, p.51
  19. ^ Caffery, p.50
  20. ^ Toll, p.281
  21. ^ Toll, p.382
  22. ^ Caffrey, p.60
  23. ^ Latimer (2007) ch 1
  24. ^ Toll, pp. 278-279
  25. ^ Egan, 1974; see also Warren H. Goodman, "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, (1941), pp. 171-186. Egan writes, "Almost all accounts of the 1811-1812 period have stressed the influence of a youthful band, denominated War Hawks, on Madison's policy. According to the standard picture, these men were a rather wild and exuberant group enraged by Britain's maritime practices, certain that the British were encouraging the Indians and convinced that Canada would be an easy conquest and a choice addition to the national domain. Like all stereotypes, there is some truth in this tableau; however, inaccuracies predominate. First, Perkins has shown that those favoring war were older than those opposed. Second, the lure of the Canadas has been played down by most recent investigators." Egan, 1974:74).
  26. ^ Bowler, pp. 11-32
  27. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1813/feb/18/address-respecting-the-war-with-america#S1V0024P0_18130218_HOC_15 18 Feb 1813 Canning
  28. ^ a b Stagg (1983)[where?]
  29. ^ Horsman (1962) p. 267[where?]
  30. ^ Hickey, p.72
  31. ^ Brown, p. 128[where?]
  32. ^ Burt(1940) pp.305-10[where?]
  33. ^ a b Toll, p.329
  34. ^ Hickey (1990) p. 72-75
  35. ^ Toll, p.180 Admiralty reply to British press criticism
  36. ^ Toll, p. 50
  37. ^ Toll, pp. 360-365,
  38. ^ Gardner, p.162
  39. ^ Gardner p.164
  40. ^ Gardner, p.163
  41. ^ a b c Toll, pp.405-417
  42. ^ Forester, pp. 131-132
  43. ^ Naval Historical Centre [1]
  44. ^ James, p.363
  45. ^ "WebRoots Library U.S. Military". Webroots.org. http://www.webroots.org/library/usamilit/hotusn07.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  46. ^ Robert Leckie, The Wars of America (1998) p. 255
  47. ^ http://www.usmm.org/warof1812.html][http://www.princedeneufchatel.com/
  48. ^ "Sealift - Merchant Mariners – America’s unsung heroes". Msc.navy.mil. http://www.msc.navy.mil/sealift/2004/May/perspective.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  49. ^ Hansard, vol 29, pp.649-50.
  50. ^ "The American War of 1812" online
  51. ^ D.C. Harvey, "The Halifax–Castine expedition," Dalhousie Review, 18 (1938–39): 207–13.
  52. ^ "The Defense and Burning of Washington in 1814: Naval Documents of the War of 1812". History.navy.mil. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/burning_washington.htm#rodgers-p. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  53. ^ "The Tornado and the Burning of". Weatherbook.com. http://www.weatherbook.com/1814.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  54. ^ "The Defense and Burning of Washington in 1814: Naval Documents of the War of 1812". History.navy.mil. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/burning_washington.htm#johnson. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  55. ^ a b Peter Burroughs, "Prevost, Sir George" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  56. ^ a b c d e f Benn, Carl; Marston, Daniel (2006), Liberty or Death: Wars That Forged a Nation, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-86403-022-6 
  57. ^ See "Mallory, Benajah" and "Willcocks, Joseph" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography
  58. ^ "Kentucky: National Guard History eMuseum - War of 1812". Kynghistory.ky.gov. http://www.kynghistory.ky.gov/history/1qtr/warof1812.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  59. ^ Jackson, Donald (1960), A Critic’s View of Old Fort Madison., Iowa Journal of History and Politics 58(1) pp.31–36
  60. ^ Black Hawk (1882) Autobiography of Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak or Black Hawk. Continental Printing, St. Louis. (Originally published 1833)
  61. ^ First United States Infantry
  62. ^ Lossing, Benson J.. "XXXIV: War Against the Creek Indians.". Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. New York: Harper & Brothers. ISBN 0781238609. http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wcarr1/Lossing2/Chap34.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  63. ^ Kenneth Ross Nelson, "Socio-Economic Effects of the War of 1812 on Britain," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1972, pp. 129-44.
  64. ^ "Measuring Worth - What Was Pound/ Dollar Exchange Rate Then?". Measuringworth.org. http://www.measuringworth.org/datasets/exchangepound/result.php. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  65. ^ Henry Adams, History of the United States of America (during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison), New York: A. and C. Boni, 1930, vol. 7, p. 385; Donald R. Hickey, The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict, (1990), p. 303.
  66. ^ Hickey, War of 1812, pp. 172-4; Samuel E. Morison, The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860, (1941), pp. 205-6.
  67. ^ Morning Chronicle, November 2, 1814; Hickey, War of 1812, pp. 217-18.
  68. ^ Jon Latimer, 1812: War with America, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, pp.362-5.
  69. ^ The British were unsure whether the Washington episode was a total failure, but Plattsburg was a humiliation that called for court martial. Latimer, 1812, pp. 331, 359, 365
  70. ^ Dudley Mills, "The Duke of Wellington and the Peace Negotiations at Ghent in 1814," Canadian Historical Review Volume 2, Number 1 / 1921 pp. 19-32; Latimer, 1812 p. 390
  71. ^ Latimer, 1812 pp. 389-91; Norman Gash, Lord Liverpool: The Life and Political Career of Robert Banks Jenkinson, Second Earl of Liverpool, 1770-1828, (1984) pp. 111-119
  72. ^ Kendall, John Smith (1922). "Chapter VI". History of New Orleans. The Lewis Publishing Company. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/6*.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 
  73. ^ "Chapter 6: The War of 1812". Army.mil. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/amh/amh-06.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 
  74. ^ Helen H. Tanner, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. (1987) p. 120)
  75. ^ First United States Infantry, http://www.iaw.on.ca/~jsek/us1inf.htm
  76. ^ Hickey (1990) pp. 302-303
  77. ^ Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution, (2006) p. 406
  78. ^ Gene A. Smith, "'Our flag was display'd within their works': The Treaty of Ghent and the Conquest of Mobile." Reprint from Alabama Review, January 1999.
  79. ^ Toll, Ian W. pg 458 Quote of Winston Churchill
  80. ^ ""James Wilkinson"". "War of 1812". http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/people/wilkinson.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-20. 
  81. ^ Toll, Ian W. Pg. 456,467
  82. ^ a b The Naval War of 1812 Or the History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain to Which Is Appended an Account of the Battle of New Orleans / Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919
  83. ^ Toll, Ian W. pg 457
  84. ^ Hickey (1990) pp 255ff
  85. ^ Carl Benn, The War of 1812 pp. 259-260
  86. ^ Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution, New York: HarperCollins, 2006, p. 406
  87. ^ Erik Kaufman, "Condemned to Rootlessness: The Loyalist Origins of Canada's Identity Crisis", Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol.3, no.1, (1997), pp. 110-135 online at [2]
  88. ^ CMH, "Origins of the Militia Myth" (February 2006) online}
  89. ^ Toll, Ian W. pp. 458, 459
  90. ^ Colin G. Calloway, "The End of an Era: British-Indian Relations in the Great Lakes Region after the War of 1812," Michigan Historical Review 1986 12(2): 1-20. 0890-1686
  91. ^ Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars (2002)
  92. ^ Latimer (2007)
  93. ^ B. Lavery, Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organisation 1793-1815 (1989).
  94. ^ Toll, Ian W. Pg. 382–383
  95. ^ Toll, Ian W., p. 382


  • Bowler, W. Arthur, "Propaganda in Upper Canada in the War of 1812," American Review of Canadian Studies (1988) 28:11-32
  • Caffrey, Kate (1977). The Twilight's Last Gleaming: Britain vs. America 1812-1815. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0812819209. 
  • Egan, Clifford L. (1974). The Origins of the War of 1812: Three Decades of Historical Writing. Military Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 2 (April), pp. 72-75.
  • Forester, C.S.. The Age of Fighting Sail. New English Library. ISBN 0-939218-06-2. 
  • Gardner, Robert, ed. (1996). The Naval War of 1812: Caxton pictorial history. Caxton Editions. ISBN 1840673605. 
  • Heidler, Donald & Jeanne T. Heidler (eds) Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 (2nd ed 2004) 636pp; most comprehensive guide; 500 entries by 70 scholars from several countries
  • Heidler, David S. and Heidler, Jeanne T. The War of 1812. Greenwood, 2002. 217 pp.
  • Herbert C. W. Goltz, "Tecumseh" Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online online version
  • Hickey, Donald. The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict. (1989). the standard history; by leading American scholar excerpts and text search
  • Hickey, Donald R., "The War of 1812: Still a Forgotten Conflict?," The Journal of Military History, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Jul., 2001), pp. 741-769 in JSTOR
  • James, William, Naval History of Great Britain 1793 - 1827, London, 1837 [http://www.pbenyon.plus.com/Naval_History/Vol_VI/P_363.html
  • Latimer, Jon (2007). 1812: War with America. Cambridge: Belknap Press. ISBN 9780674025844. , military history from British perspective
  • Naval Historical Centre, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Essex entry, Department of the Navy, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC [3]
  • Toll, Ian W. (2006). Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393058475. 

Further reading

See List of books about the War of 1812

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