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Principality of Monaco
Principauté de Monaco
Flag of Monaco Coat of arms of Monaco
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Deo Juvante"  (Latin)
"With God's Help"
AnthemHymne Monégasque
Location of Monaco
Location of  Monaco  (circled in inset)

on the European continent  (white)

Capital Monaco[1]
Largest Most populated quartier
Monte Carlo
Official languages French[2] is the only official language. Monegasque, Italian and English are widely understood.
Demonym Monégasque or Monagasque
Government Constitutional monarchy and Principality
 -  Prince Albert II
 -  Minister of State Jean-Paul Proust
 -  President of the National Council Stéphane Valeri (UPM)
 -  House of Grimaldi 1297 
 -  Total 1.95 km2 (230th)
.76 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.0
 -  2009 estimate 32,965[3] (205th)
 -  2000 census 32,020 
 -  Density 16,818/km2 (1st)
43,560/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $976 million (179th)
 -  Per capita $70,670 (€50,000) (Mid Sept. 07 est.) (2/3)
HDI (2003) 0.946 (high) (16th as of 2005)
Currency Euro (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .mc
Calling code 377

Monaco en-us-Monaco.ogg /ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ , officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; Italian: Principato di Monaco; Occitan: Principat de Mónegue), is a small sovereign city-state located in South Western Europe (Monaco is the name of the country as well as the name of its only city). The territory lies on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea has land borders only with France and is close to Italy. Monaco is often regarded as a tax haven, and many of its inhabitants are wealthy and from foreign countries making up a majority of the population, at around 84%.[4]

Monaco is a constitutional monarchy and principality, with Prince Albert II as head of state. The Grimaldi family has ruled Monaco since 1297, and the state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite being independent, Monaco's defence is the responsibility of France.

Monaco is the world's most densely populated sovereign country, and the world's smallest French-speaking country. An average person takes only 56 minutes to walk across the width of the country.


[edit] Administrative division

Wards of Monaco

Monaco is the second smallest principality in Europe, as well as the second smallest country in the world. The state consists of only one municipality (commune). There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (State-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different. According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities:

  • Monaco (Monaco-Ville), the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the Rock of Monaco, or simply Le Rocher (the Rock), where the palace is located
  • Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the Monte Carlo Casino in the east and northeast
  • La Condamine, the northwest section including the port area
Directly ahead is La Condamine, to the right with the smaller harbor is Fontvieille and to the left with the high-rise buildings is Monte Carlo.

The three municipalities were merged into one in 1954 (after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer"), and they had the status of wards (quartiers) thereafter.

  • Fontvieille was added as fourth ward, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea (in the 1970s)
  • Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from a part of La Condamine
  • Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from a part of Monte Carlo
  • La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from a part of Monte Carlo

Subsequently, three additional wards were created:

An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation, to be settled from 2014. Prince Albert II announced in his New Year Speech 2009 that such plans had been put on hold due to the current economic climate.

Currently the principality is subdivided into 10 wards (with their official numbers; Le Portier, the proposed ward, was anticipated as number 11):

Nr Ward Area
of 2000)
Former municipality of Monaco
05 Monaco-Ville 184,750 1,034 5597 19 Old City with palace
Former municipality of Monte Carlo
01 Monte Carlo/Spélugues (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone) 281,461 3,034 10779 20 the casino and resort area
02 La Rousse/Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) 105,215 3,223 30633 15 in the northeast, incl. Le Ténao
03 Larvotto/Bas Moulins (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace) 328,479 5,443 16570 15 eastern beach area
10 Saint Michel (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace) 142,223 3,807 26768 24 central residential area
Former municipality of La Condamine
04 La Condamine 237,283 3,847 16213 27 port area in the northwest
07 La Colle (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III) 188,073 2,822 15005 15 on the western border with Cap d'Ail
08 Les Révoires (Hector Otto-Honoré Labande) 75,747 2,515 33203 11 containing the Jardin Exotique
09 Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique 107,056 3,003 28051 18  
new land reclaimed from the sea
06 Fontvieille 324,157 3,292 10156 9 started 1971
11 Le Portier 275,0001) - - - plans put on hold by Prince Albert II in 2009
  Monaco 1,974,444 32,020 16217 173  
1) Area not included in total, as it is only proposed

For statistical purposes, the wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 173 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States.

[edit] History

View of Monte Carlo
The territory of the Principality of Monaco

Monaco's name comes from the nearby Phocaean Greek colony, in the 6th century, which referred to the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek μόνοικος "single house", from μόνος "alone, single" + οίκος "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos.[5]

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was re-founded in 1228 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi ("Il Malizia", translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One") and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while he was dressed as a Franciscan monk - a Monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.

A statue of François Grimaldi says "il Malizia" (the Shrewd) guised as a monk with a sword under his frock before the Prince's Palace of Monaco.

In 1793, French Revolutionary forces captured Monaco, and it remained under French control until 1814. The principality was re-established that year, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy). During this time there was unrest in the towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which declared independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. The unrest continued until the ruling prince gave up his claim to the two towns (some 95% of the country), and they were ceded to France in return for four million francs. This transfer and Monaco's sovereignty was recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

Until the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, part of the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the Nazi German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. The prominent French Jew René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 - Auschwitz, 30 April 1943), who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside Paris, France from whence he was then shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was killed.

Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, 1949 to 2005

Rainier III who ruled until 2005 acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On April 19, 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention onto the tiny Principality.

A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.

In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.

On 31 March 2005, Prince Rainier III, too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Prince Albert Alexandre Louis. Prince Rainier died on 6 April 2005, after a reign of 56 years, and his son succeeded him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.

Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Monaco cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monegasque throne was a two-step event, with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate levée, held on 19 November 2005 at the historic palace in Monaco-Ville. Albert II is the son of the late Princess Grace, known prior to her marriage to Prince Rainer III in 1956 as Grace Kelly.

[edit] Law and government

View of the Port of Hercules, La Condamine, Monaco

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (the head of government), who presides over a four-member Council of Government (the Cabinet). Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since the constitution amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council (parliament). The twenty-four members of this legislative body are elected from lists by universal suffrage for five-year terms. The principality's local affairs are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of fifteen elected members and is presided over by the mayor.

[edit] Economy

Fontvieille and its new harbour

One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism; each year many are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. (Monaco's own citizens are not allowed to gamble in the casino.) In 2001, a major new construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbour. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries such as cosmetics and biothermics.

The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be owned by the state; it now owns 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by Cable and Wireless (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Monaco is not a member of the European Union but is very closely linked to it via a customs union with France, and as such its currency is the same as that of France: the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own franc coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on their national side.

[edit] Tax haven

Monaco levies no income tax on individuals. The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are less well-known business people.

In 2000, a report by French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon alleged that Monaco has lax policies with respect to money laundering, including within its famed casino, and that the government of Monaco puts political pressure on the judiciary so that alleged crimes are not properly investigated.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued in 1998 a first report on the consequences of the tax havens financial systems. Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation[6] and denounced it in its last report[7] (as well as Andorra, the Principality of Liechtenstein, Liberia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands) underlining its lack of co-operation as regards financial information disclosure and availability.

In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) underlined that Monaco suffers a great lack of adequate resources.[8] The Principality is no longer blamed in the FATF 2005 report,[9] as well as all other territories in 2006.[10]

Since 2003, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven.[11]

The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, Monaco included, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco is the only territory that refuses to perform the second round, initially forecast between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are implementing the third and last round, planned between 2005 and 2007.[12]

[edit] Numismatics

First Monegasque euro commemorative coin minted in 2002, face value of €20

In Monaco, the euro was introduced in 2002. As a preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco has the year 2001 on it, instead of 2002 like other countries of the Eurozone. Three different designs were selected for the Monegasque coins. In 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.

Monaco also has a rich and valuable collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from 5 to 100 euro. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. For instance, a €5 Monegasque commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country. The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised with all eurozone countries. Commemorative coins are legal tender only in their country of issue, unlike normal circulation coins, which are accepted in all euro-zone countries.

[edit] Geography of Monaco

Monaco is completely bordered by France to the north, west, and south; to the east it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea.

 Weather averages for Monaco 
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 55
Average low °F (°C) 42
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.5
Source: {{{source}}} {{{accessdate}}}

[citation needed]

[edit] Sport and entertainment

[edit] Formula One

Formation lap for the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix.

Since 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erecting of the circuit takes six weeks to complete, and the removal after the race another three weeks. The circuit has many elevation changes and tight corners, along with a tunnel. This together with being incredibly narrow make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track. Only two drivers have ever crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Grand Prix (Ascari lost his life four days later at Monza). The other was Paul Hawkins during the 1965 Grand Prix.

[edit] Monte Carlo Rally

The Monte Carlo Rally has been held since 1911, having originally been held at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco, and is, like the principality's Grand Prix, organised by the Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship.

[edit] Football

AS Monaco play at Stade Louis II and have been one of the more successful French sides of recent times and because of the popular appeal of living in Monaco and the lack of income tax, many international stars have played for the club such as Jurgen Klinsmann, Oliver Bierhoff, George Weah, John Collins , Akis Zikos , Rafael Márquez and Emmanuel Adebayor. The club reached the UEFA Champions League Final in 2004 led by Fernando Morientes, Akis Zikos , Jerome Rothen and Ludovic Giuly, losing 3-0 to Portuguese team FC Porto. The Stade Louis II also plays host to the annual UEFA Super Cup, which is played between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Cup, which is now called the UEFA Europa League. Technically speaking, one of the goals in the Stade Louis II sits in the territory of Monaco, and the other in France.

[edit] Rugby

Monaco national rugby team, as of January 2009, is 87th in International Rugby Board ranking.

[edit] Other sports

The Monte Carlo Masters is currently held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis' ATP Masters Series. The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has also competed in the Olympics, although, as of 2008, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.

In 2009, the Tour de France, the world's premier bicycle race, starts from Monaco with a 15 km closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day (4 July) and the 182 km second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.

[edit] Education

[edit] Primary and secondary schools

Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including seven nursery and primary schools, one secondary school (Collège Charles III), one lycée that provides general and technological training (Lycée Albert 1er), and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training.[13] There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools (including Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines) and one international school (International School of Monaco).

[edit] Colleges and universities

[edit] Demographics

Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monegasques are a minority in their own country. The largest proportion of residents are French nationals (47%), followed by Monegasque (16%), and Italians (16%). The remaining 21% belong to one of the other 125 nationalities that make up Monaco's international population.

[edit] Religion

Cathedral of Monaco

[edit] Christian

[edit] Roman Catholic

The official religion is Roman Catholicism, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Roman Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-nineteenth century, was raised to an archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco.

[edit] Anglican

There is one Anglican church (St. Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books.[14] The church is part of the Anglican Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.

[edit] Jewish

The Association Culturelle Israelite de Monaco (founded 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo. The community (approximately 1,500 strong) mainly consists of retired Jews from Britain (40%) and North Africa. Half the population is Ashkenazi, while the other half are Sephardic.[15]

[edit] Security

The wider defense of the nation is provided by France.

Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has the largest police force (515 police officers for 32,000 people) and police presence in the world. Its police includes a specialist unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats. There is also a small military consisting of a (mainly ceremonial) bodyguard unit for the Prince and his palace called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince which numbers 112 officers and men and is equipped with modern weapons such as M-16 rifles and 9 mm pistols, and a militarized (and armed) fire and civil defence Corps.

The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers) is the main ceremonial unit of the military force of Monaco. It was created by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the Principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 112 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. Together with the local fire service, the Carabiniers form Monaco's total public forces. In addition to their guard duties, the company patrols the Principality's beaches and coastal waters, as well as duties around the Palace in Monaco-Ville.

[edit] Flag

It is one of the world's oldest national flag designs. The flag of Monaco is identical to that of Indonesia (except for the ratio of height to width).[16]

[edit] Transport

Several train systems serve Monaco.

Monaco is served by Monaco - Fontvieille Heliport. The closest airport is Cote d'Azur Airport in Nice, France. Some airlines marketed Monaco via Nice Airport.[17]

A wide view of La Condamine, Monaco
A wide view of La Condamine, Monaco

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "History & Heritage". Council of Government.!/x2Gb?OpenDocument&2Gb. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. 
  2. ^ "Constitution de la Principauté". Council of Government.$/036c62fe5f92f2efc1256f5b0054fa42gb?OpenDocument&3Gb. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. 
  3. ^ Monaco at the CIA World Factbook
  4. ^ [1] Per capita purchasing power parity GDP (US dept. of State 2006 est.): $30,000
  5. ^ Strabo, Geography, Gaul, 4.6.3 at LacusCurtious
  6. ^ Declaration of April 18th, 2004, by the representative of the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration Gabriel Makhlouf regarding the list of alleged tax havens non-cooperatives countries comparable
  7. ^ Stage Report 2004: Project of OECD on the detrimental tax practices, OECD, Paris, 2004
  8. ^ Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, FATF, Paris, 2000
  9. ^ Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, FATF, Paris, 2005
  10. ^ Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, FATF, Paris, 2006
  11. ^ « Financial Centres with Significant Offshore Activities » in Offshore Financial Centres. The Assessment Program. A Progress Report Supplementary Information, IMF, Washington, 2005
  12. ^ First Mutual Evaluation Report on the Principality of Monaco, Moneyval, Strasbourg, 2003
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ See the website of St Paul's Church, Monaco.
  15. ^ Details at Jewish Virtual Library
  16. ^ Monaco Flag - World Flags 101 - Monacan Flags
  17. ^ "Route Map" in 1993, Trans World Airlines

[edit] External links

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Coordinates: 43°43′58″N 7°25′11″E / 43.73278°N 7.41972°E / 43.73278; 7.41972

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