Paranoia (role-playing game)

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2nd Edition rulebook cover
Paranoia 2nd Edition cover
Designer Greg Costikyan, Dan Gelber, Eric Goldberg
Publisher West End Games, Mongoose Publishing
Publication date 1984 (1st edition)
1989 (2nd edition)
1995 (Fifth edition)
2004 (Paranoia XP)
Genre(s) Humor
System Custom

Paranoia is a humorous role-playing game set in a dystopian future similar to 1984, Brazil, Brave New World, Alphaville, the "downunder" civilization of A Boy and His Dog, and especially Logan's Run; however, the tone of the game is rife with black humor, frequently tongue-in-cheek rather than dark and heavy. The game is set in Alpha Complex, an immense and futuristic domed or underground city (GM's decision) controlled by The Computer, a schizophrenic civil service AI construct. The Computer has made happiness mandatory. Failure to be happy is punishable by summary execution.

The Computer fears a number of threats to its 'perfect' society, such as The Outdoors, mutants, and secret societies (especially Communists). (Secretly, almost all of the people who inhabit Alpha Complex are mutants and members of a variety of secret societies - including Communists.) To deal with these threats, The Computer employs Troubleshooters, whose job is to solve problems: they go out, find trouble and shoot it. Frequently the solution involves identifying and terminating mutants and secret society members. Player characters (PCs) are usually Troubleshooters, although later game supplements offered other roles for player characters. The PCs are also almost invariably mutants and members of secret societies, and so are traitors of the very sort feared by The Computer. The PCs are usually given incomprehensible or self-contradicting mission goals, dangerous, faulty or experimental futuristic gizmos as equipment (such as a tactical nuclear grenade marked "Throw Hard!"), as well as contradictory missions from their secret societies. Paranoia missions are typically fatal for the Troubleshooters.

The Troubleshooter's credo is "Stay Alert! Trust No One! Keep Your Laser Handy!"
The Computer's credo is "Trust The Computer. The Computer is Your Friend."


[edit] The Basics

In most scenarios, each player character is in fact a mutant and/or secret society member, and is given a hidden agenda separate from the group's goals, often involving swindling or killing teammates - hence the name Paranoia. Therefore, Troubleshooter missions invariably turn into a constant comedy of errors as everyone on the team seeks to double-cross everyone else while keeping their own secrets. The game encourages an air of suspicion between the players, offering several tips on how to make Paranoia as paranoid an experience as possible.

Every citizen in Alpha Complex is part of a family of six clones, known as a "six-pack." These clones can replace the citizen in case of death. As a result, Paranoia allows Troubleshooters to be routinely killed (either deliberately or accidentally). Instead of leaving the game, the player simply portrays the next member of the clone family, who is assigned to continue the mission. This easy spending of lives tends to lead to frequent firefights, gruesome slapstick, and the horrible and humorous demise of most if not all of the player character's clone family.

Intended as a spoof on other RPGs, the Paranoia rulebook is unique in a number of ways. For example, in earlier versions of Paranoia, the entire chapter on rules is labeled 'optional', and player knowledge of the rules is treasonous (treason, of course, being punishable by summary execution). Most of the rulebook is written in an easy, conversational tone that scoffs at how screwed the players are and frequently takes potshots at other notable RPGs. Various editions have also had outrageous mechanics — such as the 'Falling From Great Heights' table, which started with a five-foot fall and ended with 'Orbital' ('Orbital' has actually been used in some official adventures).

Equipment includes futuristic weapons such as tangler guns and plasma rifles, but also Heisenberg uncertainty projectors, personal force shields working on a fusion reactor kept stable by a hand crank, robots with obnoxious personalities, and small boxes with loads of different buttons, dials and LEDs, to give only a few examples. These devices are frequently low-quality and/or experimental, putting characters using them at risk. These items are usually very valuable, and financial responsibility, of course, falls on the clone the equipment is assigned to. Characters are frequently denied access to documentation for the devices with the explanation that the character is not of a high enough security clearance to view the manual.

Mutations range from largely harmless ones such as a constant runny nose to the more exotic, like machine empathy (the only mutation that invariably leads to termination when discovered, as it can allow a citizen to exert undue influence on The Computer), and include abilities such as invisibility or pyrokinesis. Most or all citizens have mutations. Various explanations for the prevalence of mutations in Alpha Complex have been given in the game, from being generally blamed on the actions of secret societies to an unavoidable side effect of the cloning process used to create the citizenry.

[edit] Security Clearances

The security clearance system in Alpha Complex is based on colors of the visible spectrum, plus an extra two beyond it. Every citizen starts off with Security Clearance Infrared (represented by the color black). A lucky and trusted few rise to the lofty heights of Ultraviolet (or white) Clearance. Those with Ultraviolet clearance are also sometimes known as "High Programmers" for they have the closest access to the Computer. Generally, higher clearance characters look down on lower clearance characters while seeking to raise their own clearance. Higher level citizens, especially those of Blue and above, can demote and in some cases execute lower level citizens.

Security clearance is not necessarily related to competence, job prestige or even authority, though there is often a correlation; clearance is instead generally a measure of the Computer's trust in a citizen.

Almost everything in Alpha Complex carries a security clearance — for example, corridors are color-coded. Information is rigidly controlled, with the information the players would find most useful almost invariably "unavailable at your security clearance". Everything, including food and equipment, is also subject to security restrictions (for example, TacNukes are available to Violets, as are Salt and Vinegar algae chips). In the game, security clearances exist both to thwart players and to provide them with a coercive tool to use against players and NPCs, but primarily are present to allow the gamemaster to establish boundaries, coerce the players, and create logical puzzles for the players to solve.

The full order of clearances from lowest to highest is Infrared (Black), Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet, and Ultraviolet (White).

Most of the population, about 80%, is Infrared. Infrared citizens live dull lives of mindless drudgery but are kept artificially happy with drugs. They are fed unappetizing food based on processed algae. Infrared citizens roughly correspond to the "proles" of George Orwell's 1984 — although they have little freedom or responsibility, they are also reasonably safe when compared to the upper classes.

Red clearance composes about 10% of Alpha Complex's population. Red citizens are not as heavily drugged. They have access to better food, including fruit. Troubleshooters (and thus most player characters) start at Red clearance. Typically Infrared citizens advance to Red clearance after reporting others for treason (real or faked). Red citizens, especially Troubleshooters, have a shockingly high mortality rate — many player characters in Paranoia never survive to be promoted beyond Red clearance.

Orange and Yellow clearances receive increasing levels of less processed food and greater authority.

Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet clearances provide citizens with frequent or constant food not based on algae, along with further authority. Many live lives of comparative opulence that the lower security classes can only dream of, but are also involved in constant power struggles to hold what they have.

Ultraviolet clearance represents the highest level of security clearance. These citizens enjoy the best life Alpha Complex can offer. Many Ultraviolet characters are skilled at reprogramming the Computer and sometimes attained their position by doing so. The GM is referred to in the rulebooks as being of Ultraviolet clearance.

[edit] History

Multiple versions of Alpha Complex's history have been provided in the various editions of Paranoia. The current edition embraces this, with the concept of "There Is No Truth": the idea that in the setting both the "official" and various "unofficial" histories of Alpha Complex have been manipulated, revised, rewritten and expunged so thoroughly for various political ends that the "real" history of Alpha Complex is nigh-impossible to discern.

However, most versions of the game, including the current edition, share a core story. According to this, Alpha Complex was created to be a self-contained arcology run by The Computer. The Computer itself was poorly maintained. A number of programmers seeking additional power attempted to reprogram The Computer to their own purposes, creating conflicting goals. An unknown catastrophe (described as a nuclear war in some versions, as a freak accident in others) broke The Computer's connection to other Complexes. Searching its databanks and finding historical cold war propaganda, the malfunctioning Computer decided that communists were responsible for its loss of contact. The Computer began seeking out traitors among the citizenry. Ironically, the resulting society bore many similarities to the Soviet Union under Stalin, a communist dictatorship. Stalinist Russia and Alpha Complex are both totalitarian dictatorships. (The most recent edition, Paranoia XP, introduces semi-private corporations and capitalist incentives, mirroring in many ways the introduction of perestroika in the Soviet Union and the current economic system of China.) Knowledge of places other than Alpha Complex ("Outdoors") and history prior to Alpha Complex ("Old Reckoning") is now heavily controlled, but is not - unlike in previous editions of the game - inherently illegal for player characters to possess.

[edit] Secret Societies

In the game, Secret Societies tend to be based on sketchy and spurious knowledge of historical matters. For example, previous editions included societies such as the Seal Club (that idolizes the Outdoors but is unsure what plants and animals actually look like), the Knights of the Circular Object, the Trekkies and the First Church of Christ Computer Programmer. In keeping with the theme of paranoia, a lot of secret societies have spies or double agents in each other's organizations.

Of special notice is the secret society known as the Wobblies. The game's backstory indicates that the Computer was worried about this society, and sent a pack of Troubleshooters to investigate. Since the society didn't actually exist, the Troubleshooters found nothing to report, and were terminated for laziness and insubordination. After a couple of Troubleshooter groups were thus disposed of, a newly sent group founded the society themselves in order to have something to report on. By the time the game setting takes place, a number of other secret societies have sent spies to join the Wobblies and the end result is a group that consists entirely of spies for other groups. The in-joke for the Commie-hating computer is that this group is loosely modeled on the Industrial Workers of the World (the [IWW]), the original "wobbly" trade union movement that attempted to stand up to the robber barons at the start of the 20th century.

The Paranoia XP book and The Traitors Manual supplement include the following societies:

  • Anti-Mutant: A hate group who hates mutants above and beyond the social norm. They attack registered, and even 'suspected' mutants in dark corridors with lead pipes and funball bats. Their members are constantly trying to ferret out the mutant menace that hides among us, and a good percentage are even more paranoid than the average citizen. Ironically, many of them are actually mutants themselves, but remain unregistered.
  • Communists: This secret society was formed based on the theory that, if the Computer hates Communism so much, then there must be something to it. Their knowledge of historical Communism is poor, leading to Alpha Complex Communists adopting stereotypical Russian accents and clothing. Further confusion about Communism leads to Alpha Complex Communists carrying pictures of Groucho Marx and listening to the 'revolutionary' songs of John Lennon.
  • Computer Phreaks: Composed of hackers, crackers, computer geeks, and computer game addicts, the Computer Phreaks practice programming in secret — and try to show off how very l33t they are. This can be a very dangerous hobby in Alpha. The line between 'hacker extraordinaire' and 'terminated traitor' is a fine one.
  • Corpore Metal: Corpore Metal members believes that humans are inferior and outdated. Machines are the wave of the future. CorpMets are obsessed with attaining the perfection of 'bothood', going as far as intentional self-maiming to obtain cybernetic replacements. This secret society, unsurprisingly, also has a large number of rogue bot members.
  • Death Leopard: Their motto is "live fast, die young, and leave a beautiful set of 6 corpses." Death Leopard is into loud music, explosions, and parties. They are not so much a coherent secret society as a collection of gangs. There are frequent wars within the society, but they will usually band together to deal with outside threats — if only to get back to settling their turf wars in peace.
  • First Church of Christ Computer Programmer (FCCC-P) (also referred to as The Assemblers of God in some editions): They believe that the Computer is God. They have their own hymns, services, and worship, and obey the Computer much more than the average Alpha Complex citizen. While secret society membership is still against the law, the FCCC-P is generally ignored, or only given a punitive slap-on-the-wrist. There are interfactional conflicts between different sects of the church, and even simple differences in interpretation can lead to bloodshed.
  • Frankenstein Destroyers: Luddite in faction, this society believes that robots are the cause of all mankind's problems. Some blanket this hate to all technology, but the society is mainly focused on destroying the shiny, soulless AI menace.
  • Free Enterprise: In earlier editions Free Enterprise represents capitalists in The Computer's more communist society. With the increasing amount of authorized capitalism in Paranoia XP, Free Enterprise has become a pseudo-mafia organization, sometimes adopting stereotypical Italian accents. Free Enterprise runs the Infrared markets in Alpha Complex.
  • Humanists: The Humanists are aware of just how flawed Alpha Complex is least to some degree. They realize the Computer is insane, and strive to make Alpha Complex a better place for people. They do this by installing hidden backdoor codes in The Computer, reprogramming rogue bots to serve humanity, and planning for the day when they rise up and restore power to the people. That day is just around the corner — and has been for centuries; the Humanists never seem to get much done, as the society is bogged down by process, meetings, and committees.
  • Illuminati: The Illuminati is a secretive organization whose goals are so well hidden that most members don't know them. No one knows what the goals of this society are, or even how it goes about them. Members may be given orders as simple as 'deliver this', or 'kill him/her', or as unfathomable as 'Take the cap off the pen in the briefing room XLJ11, and dispose of it down the trash chute in X corridor'. Most Illuminati also pose as members of another secret society, in order to keep their true society a secret.
  • Mystics: Supposedly founded by those seeking enlightenment, the Mystics focus on recreational drug use. Another example of an un-society, there is no grand Mystic goal. Some limit themselves to their own personal visions, while others try to drug food or water supplies to try to enlighten as many as possible.
  • Pro Tech: Pro Tech members enjoy high technology. They research new technology and steal research by others. Pro-techers can sometimes be identified by the sheer number of beeping nifty gadgets they tend to carry.
  • Psion: Psion is the pro-mutant group. They believe mutants are superior beings. Heavily run by the 'Controls', a separated and hidden network of telepathic mutants, Psions seeks to pave the way for a better, brighter (mutant-run) future.
  • PURGE: PURGE is an active terrorist organization seeking to violently overthrow The Computer. They have no real ideology about what comes after; they just want the Computer destroyed. In previous editions, PURGE was as slapstick as all the others. In XP, particularly Straight-style games, PURGE is a terrorist organization, out to destroy the hated Computer no matter how many innocents are lost in the fight.
  • Romantics: Enticed by the forbidden lore of the "Old Reckoning" (the days before Alpha Complex and the Computer), the Romantics scavenge what details about the past they can. However, due to the suppression of this information, their information is rather flawed, and different sects focus on different aspects of the past.
  • Sierra Club (referred to as Seal Club in some editions): The Computer restricts leaving Alpha Complex to Green clearance and above, and then only for good reasons. So, aside from Troubleshooters who may be sent into the great Outdoors, almost no one in Alpha Complex has seen so much as a blade of grass. This great mystique has led to the formation of the Sierra Club, devoted to sneaking out. Some want to escape forever, while others try to bring the wonders of nature to the less fortunate inside.

[edit] Publications

Four editions of Paranoia exist:

[edit] 1st edition

1st edition (ISBN 0874310253) - written by Greg Costikyan, Dan Gelber, and Eric Goldberg - published in 1984 by West End Games. In 1985, this edition of Paranoia won the Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Rules of 1984. This edition, while encouraging dark humour in-game, took a fairly serious dystopian tone; the supplements and adventures released to accompany it emphasised the lighter side, however, establishing the freewheeling mix of slapstick, intra-team backstabbing and satire that is classically associated with a game of Paranoia.

[edit] 2nd edition

Cover of 2nd edition

2nd edition (ISBN 0874310180) - written by Greg Costikyan, Dan Gelber, Eric Goldberg, Ken Rolston, and Paul Murphy - published in 1989 by West End Games. This edition can be seen as a response to the natural development of the line towards a rules-light, fast and entertaining play style. Here, the humorous possibilities of life in a paranoid dystopia are emphasised, and the rules are simplified considerably from the first edition.

Metaplot and the Second Edition: Many of the supplements released for the Second edition fall into a story arc set up by new writers and line editors that was intended to freshen up the game and broaden roleplay possibilities. While they undoubtedly did so, giving roleplayers the opportunity to transcend time and space, or play in a post-apocalyptic Computerless Alpha Complex, many fans felt these new settings were simply not paranoid enough, running counter to the spirit of the game. Second edition supplements can generally be divided into four eras: 1) Classic (no metaplot); 2) Secret Society Wars (individual missions can be run in the Classic format, but running themes and conspiracies persist from book to book); 3) The Crash (no Computer, possibly as a result of the Secret Society Wars, possibly not); 4) Reboot (the Computer returns, but does not control all of Alpha Complex - plays as a hybrid of the other eras, with players free to choose sides)

[edit] Fifth Edition

Cover of Fifth Edition

"Fifth Edition" (ISBN 0-87431-171-3) - published in 1995 by West End Games. It has since been declared an "un-product" (cf. "unperson") by the writers of the current edition, due to its extremely poor commercial and critical reception. Almost none of the original production staff were involved, and the books in this line focused less on the dark humor and oppressive nature of Alpha, and more on cheap pop culture spoofs, such as a Vampire: The Masquerade parody. In his introduction to Flashbacks, a compilation of Paranoia adventures from the West End Games era, Allen Varney fully details the management decisions which led, in the eyes of many, to the decline of the Paranoia line, and cites rumours that the line saw a 90% decline in sales before West End Games went into bankruptcy.

[edit] Third and fourth editions?

As the jump from second to "fifth" edition was a joke, no third or fourth editions of the game were actually released. West End Games exhibited pages of a Long Lost Third Edition at GenCon in 1997[1], but this was never released. A single adventure has surfaced, originally scheduled to be published after the supposed Third Edition release, with a summarised version of the Third Edition rules appended[2].

[edit] Paranoia XP

Cover of XP Edition

Following the bankruptcy of West End Games, the original designers of Paranoia banded together and purchased the rights to the game from West End in order to regain control of the line. The designers in turn granted a license to Mongoose Publishing to produce a new version of the game, with the result that "Paranoia XP" (ISBN 1904854265), written by Allen Varney, Aaron Allston, Paul Baldowski, Beth Fischi, Dan Curtis Johnson and Greg Costikyan, was published in 2004. In 2005, Microsoft requested that the XP be removed. As such, the name was shortened to just Paranoia. This edition of the game has received a much warmer critical reception, as well as selling well.

This edition also introduced three different styles of play, with some game mechanics differing between the various modes to support the specific tone being sought-after:

  • Zap is anarchic slapstick with no claims to making sense and little effort at satire. Zap represents Paranoia as popularly understood: troubleshooters who open fire on each other with little to no provocation. It is often associated with the "Fifth Edition".
  • Classic is the atmosphere associated with the 2nd edition. While conflict inside of troubleshooter teams is common, it is less common and less frequently lethal.
  • Straight represents a relatively new style for Paranoia, although it is not entirely without precedent in the darker portions of the original 1st edition rules. Straight Paranoia is more serious and focuses more on dark, complex satire. In Straight Paranoia, players are punished for executing other characters without first filing evidence of the other character's treason; this encourages slower, more careful gameplay and discourages random firefights and horseplay.

Primary designer Allen Varney, in the designer's notes, explained that his aim with the new edition was to return to the game's roots whilst updating both the game system and the satirical setting to take account of twenty years of game design progress. In both the core rulebook and the Flashbacks supplement - a reprint of classic adventures originally published of West End Games - Varney was highly critical of West End Games' handling of the product line in its latter days, and declared many West End products, including the "Fifth Edition" and everything published for the 2nd Edition after The People's Glorious Revolutionary Adventure, to be "unproducts" - no longer part of the game's continuity, and not recommended for use with the new edition. An upshot of this is that the entire metaplot established in the West End Games line, from the Secret Society Wars to the Reboot and beyond, was essentially disposed of. This move proved popular with long-term fans of the game, who had never warmed to the changes West End had made to the setting.

Long-time Paranoia artist Jim Holloway has been a creator of (at least some) of the cover art. 'Thin Green Line' is included.

[edit] Related publications

First edition
  • Acute Paranoia [3]
  • Clones In Space
  • Gamesmaster's Screen
  • HIL Sector Blues
  • Orcbusters
  • Send in the Clones
  • The Yellow Clearance Black Box Blues (Written by John M. Ford and winner of the H.G. Wells Award for Best Role-playing Adventure of 1985[4])
  • Vapors Don't Shoot Back
Second edition
  • Alice Through the Mirrorshades [5]
  • Alpha Complexities
  • The Bot Abusers Manual
  • Crash Course Manual
  • Death, Lies, and Vidtape
  • Don't Take Your Laser to Town
  • Form Pack
  • Gamma-Lot
  • Mad Mechs
  • More Songs About Food Vats
  • Paramilitary
  • Paranoia Excessory Pack
  • Paranormal / CTV
  • Recycled Pack
  • The Computer Always Shoots Twice - Consists of Send in the Clones and Orcbusters updated for second edition
  • The DOA Sector Travelog
  • The People's Glorious Revolutionary Adventure
  • The R&D Catalog
  • The Iceman Returneth
  • The Paranoia Sourcebook
  • Twilightcycle: 2000
  • Vulture Warriors of Dimension X
Fifth edition
  • Paranoia: the Fifth Edition[6]
  • Creatures of the Night Cycle (a pointed spoof of Vampire: The Masquerade)
  • BUG Sector - unreleased
Current (XP) edition
  • Alpha Complex Nights - Contains "My First Treason", "Sweep of Unhistory", and "Spin Control"
  • Alpha Complex Nights 2 - Contains "Viva La Revolution!" and "The Communist Cafeteria Conspiracy"
  • Crash Priority[7]
  • Criminal Histories
  • Extreme Paranoia
  • Flashbacks - Contains updated versions of "Robot Imana-665-C," "Trouble with Cockroaches," "Das Bot," Vapors Don't Shoot Back, The YELLOW Clearance Black Box Blues, Send in the Clones, Me and My Shadow Mark 4, Alpha Complexities, "An ARD Day's Night," "Reboot Camp," "Whitewash," and the new mission "Pre-Paranoia."[8]
  • Flashbacks II - Contains updated versions of Orcbusters, Clones in Space, and The People's Glorious Revolutionary Adventure[9]
  • Mandatory Mission Pack (not yet released)
  • Paranoia Gamemaster's Screen & Mandatory Fun Enforcement Pack[10]
  • Paranoia XP - Main rule book. Later printings shortened the name to Paranoia.[11]
  • Sector Zero
  • Service, Service!
  • STUFF 2: The Gray Subnets
  • The Big Book of Bots
  • The Little RED Book
  • The Mutant Experience
  • The Thin Green Line
  • The Traitor's Manual
  • The Underplex
  • WMD[12]

More titles are in development.

[edit] Novelisations

[edit] Paranoia-related software

Originally being a "pen-and-paper" game, Paranoia has since evolved into a game played over the internet. JParanoia is a freeware, fan-made piece of software specifically created for playing Paranoia in such a way and can be downloaded from the fansite Paranoia Live.

Paranoia was also made into a video game called The Paranoia Complex released in 1989 by Magic Bytes. It was available for Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum.

Finally, a Paranoia-themed piece of "choose-your-own-adventure" hyperfiction (or gamebook) was published in issue #77 of SpaceGamer/FantasyGamer magazine in the late '80s. Since then, various unauthorised automated versions of the story (a Troubleshooter's assignment to undermine the subversive activity known as Christmas) have been circulating through mainframes and PCs, with machine-independent ports to C, Python and Inform as well as to Adventure Game Toolkit and for Applix, CP/M and the Cybiko.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Costikyan, Greg (2004-02-19). "Paranoia Returns". Games * Design * Art * Culture. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  2. ^ Hepler, Chris; Jennifer Brandes. "Down the Tubes". Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  3. ^ Costikyan, Greg (1986). Acute Paranoia. West End Games. ISBN 0-87431-034-2. 
  4. ^ "Origins Award/H.G. Wells Award Winners (1985)". Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  5. ^ Bolme, Edward (1989). Alice Through the Mirrorshades. West End Games. ISBN 0-87431-154-3. 
  6. ^ Paranoia: the Fifth Edition. West End Games. 
  7. ^ Varney (ed.), Allen; Beth Fischi. Crash Priority. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-904854-35-4. 
  8. ^ Fischi (ed.), Beth; Allen Varney (ed.) (2006) [2005]. Flashbacks. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-904854-40-0. 
  9. ^ Varney (ed.), Allen. Flashbacks II. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-904854-40-0. 
  10. ^ Paranoia Gamemaster's Screen & Mandatory Fun Enforcement Pack. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-904854-49-4. 
  11. ^ Varney, Allen. Paranoia XP. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-904854-26-5. 
  12. ^ Varney (ed.), Allen; Beth Fischi. WMD. Swindon, United Kingdom: Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 1-905176-14-7. 

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