List of states with nuclear weapons

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Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Nuclear weapon design
Nuclear testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals
Nuclear terrorism
Civil defense

Nuclear-armed states

US · Russia · UK · France
PR China · India · Israel
Pakistan · North Korea ·
South Africa

Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. There are currently nine states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear weapons states", an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China.

Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conducted nuclear tests, namely India, Pakistan, and North Korea. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003. Israel is also widely believed to have nuclear weapons, though it has refused to confirm or deny this.[1] The status of these nations is not formally recognized by international bodies as none of them are currently parties to the NPT. South Africa has the unique status of a nation which developed nuclear weapons but has since disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT.

In 2005, the IAEA Board of Governors found Iran in non-compliance with its NPT safeguards agreement[2][3] in a rare non-consensus decision.[4] The UN Security Council imposed sanctions against Iran three times when it refused to suspend its previously undeclared enrichment.[5][6][7][8] Iran has argued that the sanctions are illegal[9] and compel it to abandon its rights under the NPT to peaceful nuclear technology.[5] IAEA Director Mohamed ElBaradei states the agency is unable to resolve "outstanding issues of concerns" while also noting the Agency has "not seen any diversion of nuclear materials... nor the capacity to produce weapons usable materials".[10]


Estimated worldwide nuclear stockpiles

Map of Nuclear weapons countries of the world.      NPT Nuclear Weapon States (China, France, Russia, UK, US)      Non-NPT Nuclear Weapon States (India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan)      States accused of having nuclear weapons programs (Iran, Syria)      NATO weapons sharing weapons recipients      States formerly possessing nuclear weapons

The following is a list of states that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the year they tested their first weapon. This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club". With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite unreliable estimates. Also, these figures represent total warheads possessed, rather than deployed. In particular, under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U.S. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors.

From a high of 65,000 active weapons in 1985, there were about 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world in 2002. Many of the "decommissioned" weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled, not destroyed.[11] As of 2007, the total number was expected to continue to decline by 30%-50% over the next decade.

Country Warheads active/total* Year of first test
Five nuclear weapons states from the NPT
Flag of the United States United States 4,075 / 5,535[12] 1945 ("Trinity")
Flag of Russia Russia (former  Soviet Union) 5,200 / 8,800[13] 1949 ("RDS-1")
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 160[14] 1952 ("Hurricane")
Flag of France France <350[15] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue")
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 160-400[16][17] 1964 ("596")
Non-NPT nuclear powers
Flag of India India 100-140 [18] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha")
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan ~60[19] 1998 ("Chagai-I")
Flag of North Korea North Korea 0-10[20] 2006 (Test at Sangpyong-ri)[21] [22]
Undeclared nuclear weapons states
Flag of Israel Israel 100-200[23][24][25][26] unknown or 1979 (See Vela Incident)

*All numbers are estimates from the Natural Resources Defense Council, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, unless other references are given. If differences between active and total stockpile are known, they are given as two figures separated by a forward slash. If no specifics are known, only one figure is given. Stockpile number may not contain all intact warheads if a substantial amount of warheads are scheduled for but have not yet gone through dismantlement; not all "active" warheads are deployed at any given time. When a range of weapons is given (e.g., 0–10), it generally indicates that the estimate is being made on the amount of fissile material that has likely been produced, and the amount of fissile material needed per warhead depends on estimates of a country's proficiency at nuclear weapon design.

Five nuclear weapons states from the NPT

An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball, the first nuclear explosion, 1945.
U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006.
French nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise (left), each of which carries nuclear-capable fighter aircraft

Other known nuclear powers

An Indian Agni-III Intermediate range ballistic missile displayed at the Republic Day Parade 2008.
  •  India India has never been a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India tested what it called a "peaceful nuclear explosive" in 1974 (which became known as "Smiling Buddha"). The test was the first test developed after the creation of the NPT, and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). India's secret development caused great concern and anger particularly from nations that had supplied it nuclear reactors for peaceful and power generating needs such as Canada. It appears to have been primarily motivated as a general deterrent, as well as an attempt to project India as regional power. India later tested weaponized nuclear warheads in 1998 ("Operation Shakti"), including a thermonuclear device.[37] In July 2005, U.S. President George W. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced plans to conclude a Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement.[38] This came to fruition through a series of steps that included India’s announced plan to separate its civil and military nuclear programs in March 2006,[39] the passage of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act by the U.S. Congress in December 2006, the conclusion of a U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement in July 2007,[40] approval by the IAEA of an India-specific safeguards agreement,[41], agreement by the Nuclear Suppliers Group to a waiver of export restrictions for India,[42] approval by the U.S. Congress[43] and culminating in the signature of U.S.-India agreement for civil nuclear cooperation[44] in October 2008. The U.S. State Department said it made it "very clear that we will not recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state".[45] The United States is bound by the Hyde Act with India and may cease all cooperation with India if India detonates a nuclear explosive device. The US had further said it is not its intention to assist India in the design, construction or operation of sensitive nuclear technologies through the transfer of dual-use items.[46] In establishing an exemption for India, the Nuclear Suppliers Group reserved the right to consult on any future issues which might trouble it.[47]
As of September 2005, India was estimated to have had a stockpile of around 100-140 warheads.[48] In addition, Defense News reported in their November 1, 2004 edition, that "[an Indian] Defence Ministry source told Defense News in late 2004 that in the next five to seven years India will have 300–400 nuclear and thermonuclear weapons distributed to air, sea, and land forces." It has estimated that India currently possesses enough separated plutonium to produce and maintain an arsenal of 1,000-2,000 warheads.[49] According to the calculations of one of the key advisers to the US Nuclear deal negotiating team, Ashley Tellis:

Operating India’s eight unsafeguarded PHWRs in such a [conservative] regime would bequeath New Delhi with some 12,135–13,370 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium, which is sufficient to produce between 2,023–2,228 nuclear weapons over and above those already existing in the Indian arsenal. Although no Indian analyst, let alone a policy maker, has ever advocated any nuclear inventory that even remotely approximates such numbers, this heuristic exercise confirms that New Delhi has the capability to produce a gigantic nuclear arsenal while subsisting well within the lowest estimates of its known uranium reserves.

  •  Pakistan Pakistan is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty either. Pakistan covertly developed nuclear weapons over many decades, beginning in the late 1970s. Pakistan first delved into nuclear power after the establishment of its first nuclear power plant near Karachi with equipment and materials supplied mainly by western nations in the early 1970s. Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto promised in 1965 that if India built nuclear weapons Pakistan would too, "even if we have to eat grass." It is nearly certain that China only supplied (sold) 5000[50] critical ring magnets to Pakistan in the early 1980s, and enabled Pakistan to have a rudimentary nuclear weapons capability by the end of the 1980s. The United States continued to certify that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons until 1990, when sanctions were imposed under the Pressler Amendment, requiring a cutoff of U.S. economic and military assistance to Pakistan.[51] In 1998, Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills, in response to the tests conducted by India a few weeks before.
  •  North Korea North Korea was a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but announced a withdrawal on January 10, 2003 after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment program and cut off energy assistance under the 1994 Agreed Framework. In February 2005 they claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons, though their lack of a test at the time led many experts to doubt the claim. However, in October 2006, North Korea stated that due to growing intimidation by the USA, it would conduct a nuclear test to confirm its nuclear status. North Korea reported a successful nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (see 2006 North Korean nuclear test). Most U.S. intelligence officials believe that North Korea did, in fact, test a nuclear device due to radioactive isotopes detected by U.S. aircraft; however, most agree that the test was probably only partially successful.[52] The yield may have been less than a kiloton, which is much smaller than the first successful tests of other powers; however, boosted fission weapons may have an unboosted yield in this range, which is sufficient to start deuterium-tritium fusion in the boost gas at the center; the fast neutrons from fusion then ensure a full fission yield.

Undeclared nuclear states

On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed – the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
  •  Israel Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially confirm or deny having a nuclear arsenal, or having developed nuclear weapons, or even having a nuclear weapons program. Israel has pledged not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region, but is also pursuing a policy of strategic ambiguity with regard to their possession. In the late 1960s, Israeli Ambassador to the US Yitzhak Rabin informed the United States State Department, that its understanding of "introducing" such weapons meant that they would be tested and publicly declared, while merely possessing the weapons did not constitute "introducing" them.[53] Although Israel claims that the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is a "research reactor", or, as was originally claimed, a "textile factory," no scientific reports based on work done there have ever been published. Extensive information about the program in Dimona was also disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986.
According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists, Israel possesses around 75–200 weapons.[54] Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers, mobile missile launchers, and launch sites in satellite photographs. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979, but this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident).
On May 26, 2008, ex-US president Jimmy Carter stated that Israel has “150 or more nuclear warheads” at a press conference at the annual literary Hay festival in Wales.[23]

States alleged to have nuclear weapons programs

Below are countries which have been accused by Israel or the United States of currently attempting to develop nuclear weapons technology.

  •  Iran A U.S. National Intelligence Estimate of December 3, 2007 judged with "high confidence" that Iran had an active nuclear weapons program which was halted in fall 2003 and with "moderate confidence" that it remained halted as of mid-2007. The estimate further judged that US intelligence did not know whether Iran intended "to develop nuclear weapons," but that "Iran probably would be technically capable of producing enough HEU [highly enriched uranium] for a weapon sometime during the 2010-2015 time frame" if it decides to do so.[55] IAEA Director General ElBaradei noted in particular that the Estimate tallies with the Agency's consistent statements over the last few years that "although Iran still needs to clarify some important aspects of its past and present nuclear activities, the Agency has no concrete evidence of an ongoing nuclear weapons program or undeclared nuclear facilities in Iran."[56] Iran's representative to the UN has explained that Iran categorically rejects the development of nuclear weapons and Iran is guaranteed the right to peaceful nuclear technology under the NPT.[5]
  •  Syria On September 6, 2007, Israel bombed an officially unidentified site in Syria which it later asserted was a nuclear reactor under construction (see Operation Orchard).[57] The alleged nuclear reactor was not yet operational and no nuclear material had been introduced into it.[58] Top U.S. intelligence officials claimed low confidence that the site was meant for weapons development, noting that there was no reprocessing facility at the site.[59] Press reports[60] indicated the air strike followed a shipment delivery to Syria by a North Korean freighter, and that North Korea was suspected to be supplying a reactor to Syria for an alleged nuclear weapons program. On October 24, 2007 the Institute for Science and International Security released a report[61] which identified a site next to the Euphrates River in eastern Syria's Deir ez-Zor Governorate province, about 11 kilometers north of the village of At Tibnah, at 35°42′27.05″N 39°49′58.83″E / 35.7075139°N 39.8330083°E / 35.7075139; 39.8330083 ), as the suspected reactor. The building appeared to match the external structure of the North Korean 5 megawatt reactor at Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center, and is surrounded by a security barrier and hidden within a small side canyon off the main river valley. After refusing to comment on the reports for six months, the White House briefed Congress and the IAEA on April 24, 2008, saying that the U.S. Government was "convinced" that Syria had been building a "covert nuclear reactor" that was "not intended for peaceful purposes."[62] Syria denounced "the fabrication and forging of facts" in regards to the incident.[63] IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei criticized the strikes and deplored that information regarding the matter had not been shared with his agency earlier.[59]

Nuclear weapons sharing

Under NATO nuclear weapons sharing, the United States has provided nuclear weapons for Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey to deploy and store.[64] This involves pilots and other staff of the "non-nuclear" NATO states practicing handling and delivering the U.S. nuclear bombs, and adapting non-U.S. warplanes to deliver U.S. nuclear bombs. Until 1984 Canada also received shared nuclear weapons, and until 2001, Greece.[65] Members of the Non-Aligned Movement have called on all countries to "refrain from nuclear sharing for military purposes under any kind of security arrangements."[66] The Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) has criticized the arrangement for allegedly violating Article I and II of the NPT, arguing that "these Articles do not permit the NWS to delegate the control of their nuclear weapons directly or indirectly to others."[67] NATO has argued that the weapons' sharing is compliant with the NPT because "the U.S. nuclear weapons based in Europe are in the sole possession and under constant and complete custody and control of the United States."[68]

States formerly possessing nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations, often as staging grounds under control of other powers. However, in only a few instances have nations given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them; in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. The fall of the USSR, for example, left several former Soviet-bloc countries in possession of nuclear weapons.

Spare bomb casings from South Africa's nuclear weapon programme
  •  South Africa South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but disassembled them in the early 1990s. In 1979, there was a putative detection of a clandestine nuclear test in the Indian Ocean, and it has long been speculated that it was potentially a test by South Africa, perhaps in collaboration with Israel, though this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident). South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[69]

Former Soviet countries

  •  Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed on its territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. They were all transferred to Russia by 1996. Belarus has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[70]
  •  Kazakhstan inherited 1,400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union, and transferred them all to Russia by 1995. Kazakhstan has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[71]
  •  Ukraine has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine inherited about 5,000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991, making its nuclear arsenal the third-largest in the world.[72] By 1996, Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory, transferring them to Russia.[73]

See also


  1. ^ Calls for Olmert to resign after nuclear gaffe Israel and the Middle East | Guardian Unlimited
  2. ^ "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran", IAEA Board of Governors, September 2005.
  3. ^ "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran", IAEA Board of Governors, February 2006.
  4. ^ ASIL Insight - Iran’s Resumption of its Nuclear Program: Addendum
  5. ^ a b c "Security Council Imposes Sanctions on Iran for failure to halt Uranium Enrichment, Unanimously adopting Resolution 1737 (2006)". 2006-12-23. 
  6. ^ "Security Council tightens sanctions against Iran over uranium enrichment". 2007-03-24. 
  7. ^ Security Council Tightens Restrictions on Iran’s Proliferation-Sensitive Nuclear Activities, Increases Vigilance Over Iranian Banks, Has States Inspect Cargo
  8. ^ "UN Security Council demands that Iran suspend nuclear activities". UN News Centre. 2006-07-31. 
  9. ^ "IAEA INFCIRC/724: Communication from Iran (28 March 2008)" (PDF). 2008-03-28. 
  10. ^ "Director General Briefs Press On Iran/DPRK". IAEA Staff Report. 2006-07-31. 
  11. ^ Webster, Paul (July/August 2003). "Just like old times," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59:4: 30–35.
  12. ^ Norris, Robert S., and Hans M. Kristensen, "U.S. nuclear forces, 2008", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 64:1 (March/April 2008): 50-53.
  13. ^ Russian Nuclear Forces 2007
  14. ^ "Gordon Brown offers to cut Britain's nuclear arsenal", Times Online (March 18, 2009). "Gordon Brown said yesterday that he promised to consider cutting the number of British operational warheads below the present 160."
  15. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "French nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:4 (July/August 2005): 73-75.
  16. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Global Nuclear Stockpiles, 1945-2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:4 (June/July 2006): 64-67
  17. ^
  18. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "India's nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:5 (September/October 2005): 73–75.
  19. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Pakistan's nuclear forces, 2007," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 63:3 (May/June 2007): 71-74.
  20. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "North Korea's nuclear program, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:3 (May/June 2005): 64-67.
  21. ^ Nuclear Weapons Testing - North Korean Statements,
  22. ^ "North Korean nuclear test site". Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  23. ^ a b BBC NEWS Middle East | Israel 'has 150 nuclear weapons'
  24. ^ Norris, Robert S., William Arkin, Hans M. Kristensen, and Joshua Handler. "Israeli nuclear forces, 2002," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58:5 (September/October 2002): 73-75.
  25. ^ Nuclear Weapons - Israel, Federation of American Scientists
  26. ^ Arms Control Association: Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance
  27. ^ Hansen, Chuck (1988). U.S. nuclear weapons: The secret history. Arlington, TX: Aerofax. ISBN 0-517-56740-7. 
  28. ^ Hansen, Chuck (1995). The Swords of Armageddon: U.S. nuclear weapons development since 1945. Sunnyvale, CA: Chukelea Publications. 
  29. ^ Stephen I. Schwartz, ed., Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998).
  30. ^ Holloway, David (1994). Stalin and the bomb: The Soviet Union and atomic energy, 1939-1956. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06056-4. 
  31. ^ Gowing, Margaret (1974). Independence and deterrence: Britain and atomic energy, 1945-1952. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0333157818. 
  32. ^ Arnold, Lorna (2001). Britain and the H-bomb. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0312235186. 
  33. ^ France 'would use nuclear arms' (BBC, January 2006)
  34. ^ John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai, China Builds the Bomb (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1988). ISBN 0804714525
  35. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Chinese nuclear forces, 2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:3 (May/June 2006): 60-63.
  36. ^ Lewis, Jeffery. "The ambiguous arsenal," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:3 (May/June 2005): 52-59.
  37. ^ "India's Nuclear Weapons Program: Operation Shakti". 1998. Retrieved on 2006-10-10. 
  38. ^ Joint Statement Between President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
  39. ^ Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of July 18, 2005: India’s Separation Plan
  40. ^ U.S.- India Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative – Bilateral Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation
  41. ^ IAEA Board Approves India-Safeguards Agreement
  42. ^ Statement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation with India
  43. ^ Congressional Approval of the U.S.-India Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (123 Agreement)
  44. ^ Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian Minister of External Affairs Pranab Mukherjee At the Signing of the U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
  45. ^ Interview With Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Robert Joseph, Arms Control Today, May 2006.
  46. ^ Was India misled by America on nuclear deal?, Indian Express.
  47. ^ ACA: Final NSG Statement
  48. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "India's nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:5 (September/October 2005): 73–75.
  49. ^ Tellis, Ashley. "Atoms for War? U.S.-Indian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation and India's Nuclear Arsenal" (PDF). P.31-P.36. 
  50. ^
  51. ^ Case Studies in Sanctions and Terrorism: Pakistan
  52. ^ CIA's Hayden: North Korea Nuke Test 'Was a Failure'
  53. ^ Avner Cohen and William Burr, "The Untold Story of Israel's Bomb," Washington Post, April 30, 2006; B01.
  54. ^ Israel's Nuclear Weapons, Federation of American Scientists (August 17, 2000)
  55. ^ Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities (National Intelligence Estimate)
  56. ^ Statement by IAEA Director General on New U.S. Intelligence Estimate on Iran (4 December 2007),
  57. ^ 6 September 2007 Air strike at, accessed October 24, 2007.
  58. ^ IAEA: Statement by IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei regarding Syria
  59. ^ a b IAEA slams U.S. for withholding data on alleged Syrian nuclear reactor
  60. ^ N. Korea, Syria May Be at Work on Nuclear Facility, Glenn Kessler, Washington Post, Thursday, September 13, 2007; Page A12
  61. ^ Suspect Reactor Construction Site in Eastern Syria: The site of the September 6 Israeli Raid?, David Albright and Paul Brannan, October 23, 2007
  62. ^ Statement by the Press Secretary
  63. ^ Syria rejects U.S. allegations on existence of nuclear activities
  64. ^ Berlin Information-center for Transatlantic Security: NATO Nuclear Sharing and the N.PT - Questions to be Answered
  65. ^ Hans M. Kristensen (February 2005), U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe, Natural Resources Defense Council,, retrieved on 2006-05-23 
  66. ^ Statement on behalf of the non-aligned state parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 2 May 2005
  67. ^ ISSI - NPT in 2000: Challenges ahead, Zafar Nawaz Jaspal, The Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad
  68. ^ NATO's Positions Regarding Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament and Related Issues, NATO, June 2005
  69. ^ Nuclear Weapons Program (South Africa), Federation of American Scientists (May 29, 2000).
  70. ^ Belarus Special Weapons, Federation of American Scientists
  71. ^ Kazakhstan Special Weapons, Federation of American Scientists
  72. ^ Ukraine Special Weapons,
  73. ^ Ukraine Special Weapons, Federation of American Scientists

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