Immigration to the United States

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2000 Census Population Ancestry Map

American immigration (emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of American history. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, religion, economic benefits, job growth, settlement patterns, environmental impact, impact on upward social mobility, levels of criminality, nationalities, political loyalties, moral values, and work habits. As of 2006, the United States accepts more legal immigrants as permanent residents than any other country in the world.[1] In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled 37.5 million.[2][3]

While an influx of new residents from different cultures presents some challenges, "the United States has always been energized by its immigrant populations..." At the 1998 commencement address at Portland State University, U.S. president Bill Clinton voiced support for immigrants, including immigrants from Asia and Latin America when he said that "America has constantly drawn strength and spirit from wave after wave of immigrants...They have proved to be the most restless, the most adventurous, the most innovative, the most industrious of people.[4]

Given the distance of North America from Eurasia and the difficulty of travel before commercial airlines, most historical U.S. immigration was risky. Passenger aircraft have facilitated travel to the United States since the 1960s, but migration remains difficult, expensive and dangerous for those who cross the United States–Mexico border illegally.

Recent immigration-related legislation has called for increasing enforcement of existing laws with regard to illegal immigrants, building a barrier along some or all of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) U.S.-Mexico border, or creating a new guest worker program.[citation needed] Through much of 2006, the country and Congress was immersed in a debate about these proposals. As of March 2007, few of these proposals had become law, though a partial border fence was approved.

Many cities, including Washington D.C., New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, Dallas, Houston, Detroit, Jersey City, Minneapolis, Miami, Denver, Baltimore, Seattle, Portland, Oregon and Portland, Maine, have adopted sanctuary ordinances banning police from asking people about their immigration status.[5]



American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period, the mid-nineteenth century, the turn of the twentieth, and post-1965. Each epoch brought distinct national groups - and races and ethnicities - to the United States. The mid-nineteenth century saw mainly an influx from northern Europe; the early twentieth-century mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe; post-1965 mostly from Latin America and Asia.[citation needed]

Contemporary immigration

Until the 1930s, the gender imbalance among legal immigrants was quite sharp, with most legal immigrants being male. As of the 1990s, however, women accounted for just over half of all legal immigrants, indicating a shift away from the male dominated immigration of the past.[6]

Contemporary immigrants tend to be younger than the native population of the United States, with people between the ages 15 and 34 substantially overrepresented. [7] Immigrants are also more likely to be married and less likely to be divorced than native-born Americans of the same age.[8]

Immigrants are likely to move to and live in areas populated by people with similar backgrounds. This phenomenon has held true throughout the history of immigration to the United States. [9]

Three-quarters of immigrants surveyed by Public Agenda said they intend to make the U.S. their permanent home. If they had to do it over again, 80 percent of immigrants say they would still come to the U.S. 50 percent of immigrants say the government has become tougher on enforcing immigration laws since 9/11, and 30% report that they personally have experienced discrimination.[9]

Public attitudes about immigration in the U.S. have been heavily influenced by the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The number of Americans who told the Gallup poll they wanted immigration restricted increased 20 percentage points after the attacks.[10] Half of Americans say tighter controls on immigration would do "a great deal" to enhance U.S. national security, according to a Public Agenda survey.[11]

Public opinion surveys suggest that Americans see both the good and bad sides of immigration.[12] A June 2006 NBC/Wall Street Journal poll found the public evenly divided on the fundamental question of whether immigration helps or hurts the country, with 44 percent saying it helps and 45 percent saying it hurts the U.S.[13] Surveys show that the U.S. public has a far more positive outlook about legal immigration than illegal immigration. The public is less willing to provide government services or legal protections to illegal immigrants. When survey data is examined by race, African Americans are both more willing to extend government services to illegal immigrants and more worried about competition for jobs, according to the Pew Research Center.[14]


Current immigration rates are moderate, even though America admitted more legal immigrants from 1991 to 2000 (between 10-11 million) than in any previous decade. In the most recent decade, the 10 million legal immigrants that settled in the U.S. represent an annual growth of only about one-third of 1% (as the U.S. population grew from 249 million to 281 million). By comparison, the highest previous decade was 1901-1910 when 8.8 million people arrived increasing the total U.S. population by 1 percent per year as the U.S. population grew from 76 to 92 million during that decade. Specifically, "nearly 15% of Americans were foreign-born in 1910, while in 1999, only about 10% were foreign-born." [10]

"The racial and ethnic identity of the United States is - once again - being remade. The 2000 Census counts some 28 million first generation immigrants among us. This is the highest number in history - often pointed out by anti-immigration lobbyists - but it is not the highest percentage of the foreign-born in relation to the overall population. In 1907, that ratio was 14 percent; today it is 10 percent."[citation needed]

Legal immigration to the U.S. increased from 250,000 in the 1930s, 2.5 million in the 1950s, 4.5 million in the 1970s, and 7.3 million in the 1980s to about 10 million in the 1990s.[11] Since 2000, legal immigrants to the United States number approximately 1,000,000 per year, of whom about 600,000 are Change of Status immigrants who already are in the U.S. Legal immigrants to the United States now are at their highest level ever at over 37,000,000 legal immigrants. Illegal immigration may be as high as 1,500,000 per year with a net of at least 700,000 illegal immigrants arriving each year to join the 12,000,000 to 20,000,000 that are already there.[12] (Pew Hispanic Data Estimates[15]) Immigration led to a 57.4% increase in foreign born population from 1990 to 2000.[13]

While immigration has increased drastically over the last century, the foreign born share of the population was still higher in 1900 (about 20%) than it is today (about 10%). A number of factors may be attributed to the decrease in the representation of foreign born residents in the United States. Most significant has been the change in the composition of immigrants. Prior to 1890, 82% of immigrants came from north and western Europe. From 1891 to 1920, that number dropped to 25%, with a rise in immigrants from East, Central, and South Europe summing up to 64%. Animosity towards these different and foreign immigrants rose in the United States, resulting in much legislation to limit immigration.

Contemporary immigrants settle predominantly in seven states: California, New York, Florida, Texas, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Illinois.[citation needed] These are all high foreign-born population states, together comprising about 44% of the U.S. population as a whole.[citation needed] The combined total immigrant population of these seven states is much higher than what would be proportional, with 70% of the total foreign-born population as of 2000.[citation needed] Of those who immigrated between 2000 and 2005, 58% were from Latin America.[citation needed]

Bureau figures show that the U.S. population grew by 2.8 million between July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2005.[14] Hispanics accounted for 1.3 million of that increase.[15] If current birth rate and immigration rates were to remain unchanged for another 70 to 80 years, the U.S. population would double to nearly 600 million.[16] The Census Bureau's estimates actually go as high as predicting that there will be one billion Americans in 2100, compared with one million people in 1700 and 5.2 million in 1800.[17][18] Census statistics also show that 45% of children under age 5 are from a racial or ethnic minority.[19][20]

In 2006, a total of 1,266,264 immigrants became legal permanent residents of the United States, up from 601,516 in 1987, 849,807 in 2000, and 1,122,373 in 2005.[21] The top twelve migrant-sending countries in 2006, by country of birth, were Mexico (173,753), People's Republic of China (87,345), Philippines (74,607), India (61,369), Cuba (45,614), Colombia (43,151), Dominican Republic (38,069), El Salvador (31,783), Vietnam (30,695), Jamaica (24,976), South Korea (24,386), Guatemala (24,146), Other countries - 606,370.[22] In fiscal year 2006, 202 refugees from Iraq were allowed to resettle in the United States.[23][24] Muslim immigration to the U.S. is rising and in 2005 alone more people from Muslim countries became legal permanent U.S. residents — nearly 96,000 — than in any year in the previous two decades.[25][26]

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were an estimated 500,000 Hispanics.[27] The Census Bureau projects that by 2050, one-quarter of the population will be of Hispanic descent.[28] This demographic shift is largely fueled by immigration from Latin America.[29][30]


Rate of immigration to the United States relative to sending countries' population size, 2001-2005
Projected regional growth rates using birth, death, immigration, and emigration rates. Latin America and Caribbean will be growing slower than US by 2024

Projected immigration 2000, 2004 and 2010:[citation needed]

Top Ten Foreign Countries - Foreign Born Population Among U.S. Immigrants
Country #/year 2000 2004 2010 2010, %
Canada 24,200 678,000 774,800 920,000 2.3%
China 50,900 1,391,000 1,594,600 1,900,000 4.7%
Cuba 14,800 952,000 1,011,200 1,100,000 2.7%
Dominican Republic 24,900 692,000 791,600 941,000 2.3%
El Salvador 33,500 765,000 899,000 1,100,000 2.7%
India 59,300 1,007,000 1,244,200 1,610,000 4.0%
Korea 17,900 701,000 772,600 880,000 2.2%
Mexico 175,900 7,841,000 8,544,600 9,600,000 23.7%
Philippines 47,800 1,222,000 1,413,200 1,700,000 4.2%
Vietnam 33,700 863,000 997,800 1,200,000 3.0%
Total Pop. Top 10 498,900 16,112,000 18,747,600 21,741,000 53.7%
Total Foreign Born 940,000 31,100,000 34,860,000 40,500,000 100%
Historical Data from 2000 U.S. Census and 2004 Yearbook of Immigrant Statistics
  1. The average number of legal immigrants/year immigrating from 2000 to 2007
  2. The number of foreign born immigrants in the U.S. from 2000 census
  3. Year 2004 foreign born. Year 2000 foreign born plus 2000 to 2004 immigration
  4. Year 2010 foreign born projected assuming average number per year is maintained
  5. Percent of foreign born from this country
  6. Legal immigration numbers as reported to immigration authorities only
  7. Estimated illegal immigration numbers.


Immigration by state

Percentage change in Foreign Born Population 1990 to 2000
[citation needed]
North Carolina 273.7% South Carolina 132.1% Mississippi 95.8% Wisconsin 59.4% Vermont 32.5%
Georgia 233.4% Minnesota 130.4% Washington 90.7% New Jersey 52.7% Connecticut 32.4%
Nevada 202.0% Idaho 121.7% Texas 90.2% Alaska 49.8% New Hampshire 31.5%
Arkansas 196.3% Kansas 114.4% New Mexico 85.8% Michigan 47.3% Ohio 30.7%
Utah 170.8% Iowa 110.3% Virginia 82.9% Wyoming 46.5% Hawaii 30.4%
Tennessee 169.0% Oregon 108.0% Missouri 80.8% Pennsylvania 37.6% North Dakota 29.0%
Nebraska 164.7% Alabama 101.6% South Dakota 74.6% California 37.2% Rhode Island 25.4%
Colorado 159.7% Delaware 101.6% Maryland 65.3% New York 35.6% West Virginia 23.4%
Arizona 135.9% Oklahoma 101.2% Florida 60.6% Massachusetts 34.7% Montana 19.0%
Kentucky 135.3% Indiana 97.9% Illinois 60.6% Louisiana 32.6% Maine 1.1%
Source: U.S. Census 1990 and 2000

Average change in U.S. from 1990 to 2000 was a 57.4% increase in foreign population.[citation needed]

See:Census 2003 publications [16] for more complete information.

Effects of immigration


Immigration is now what keeps America growing. According to the UN the typical American woman today bears 1.93 children. That is below the 2.1 "replacement" rate required to keep a population stable over time, absent immigration. The Census Bureau estimates the US population will grow from 281 million in 2000 to 397 mil in 2050 with expected immigration, but only to 328 mil with zero immigration. "If we have zero immigration with today's low birthrates the American population would eventually begin to shrink. [32]

A new report from the Pew Research Center projects that by 2050, non-Hispanic whites will account for 47% of the population, down from the 2005 figure of 67%.[33] Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[34] It foresees the Hispanic population rising from 14% in 2005 to 29% by 2050.[35] The Asian population is expected to more than triple by 2050. Overall, the population of the United States is due to rise from 296 million in 2005 to 438 million, with 82% of the increase coming from immigrants.[36]

In 35 of the country's 50 largest cities, non-Hispanic whites were at the last census or are predicted to be in the minority.[37] In California, non-Hispanic whites slipped from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 43% in 2006.[38][39]


Hispanic immigrants across the United States are being hit hard by the subprime mortgage crisis. There is a disproportionate level of foreclosures in some immigrant neighborhoods.[40]

The banking industry provided home loans to undocumented immigrants, viewing it as an untapped resource for growing their own revenue stream.[41] In October 2008, KFYI reported that according to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, five million illegal immigrants hold fraudulent home mortgages.[42] The story was later pulled from their website and replaced with a correction.[43] The Phoenix Business Journal cited a HUD spokesman saying there is no basis to news reports that more than 5 million bad mortgages are held by illegal immigants, and that the agency has no data showing the number of illegal immigrants holding foreclosed or bad mortgages.[44] Radio hosts Rush Limbaugh and Lee Rodgers repeated a variation of the claim without noting that HUD has reportedly stated that this statistic is false.[45] Roger Hedgecock also repeated the incorrect claim on CNN's Lou Dobbs show.[46]

At the June 13, 1998, Commencement Address at Portland State University, president Bill Clinton said, "new immigrants are good for America. They are revitalizing our cities...building our new economy...strengthening our ties to the global economy, just as earlier waves of immigrants settled on the new frontier and powered the Industrial Revolution. They are energizing our culture and broadening our vision of the world. They are renewing our most basic values and reminding us all of what it truly means to be an American." [10]

Opinions vary about the economic effects of immigration. Those who find that immigrants produce a negative effect on the U.S. economy often focus on the difference between taxes paid and government services received and wage-lowering effects among low-skilled native workers,[47][48] while those who find positive economics effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services.[49] In a late 1980s study, economists themselves overwhelmingly viewed immigration, including illegal immigration, as a positive for the economy.[50] According to James Smith, a senior economist at Santa Monica-based RAND Corporation and lead author of the United States National Research Council's study "The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration", immigrants contribute as much as $10 billion to the U.S. economy each year.[51] The NRC report found that although immigrants, especially those from Latin America, were a net cost in terms of taxes paid versus social services received, overall immigration was a net economic gain due to an increase in pay for higher-skilled workers, lower prices for goods and services produced by immigrant labor, and more efficiency and lower wages for some owners of capital. The report also notes that although immigrant workers compete with domestic workers for some low skilled jobs, some immigrants specialize in activities that otherwise would not exist in an area, and thus are performing services that otherwise would not exist, and thus can be beneficial to all domestic residents[52] About 21 million immigrants, or about 15 percent of the labor force, hold jobs in the United States. However, the number of unemployed is only seven million, meaning that immigrant workers are not taking jobs from domestic workers. Rather, they are doing jobs that would not have existed had the immigrant workers not been in the United States[53]. U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Business Owners: Hispanic-Owned Firms: 2002 indicated that the number of Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States grew to nearly 1.6 million in 2002. Those Hispanic-owned businesses generated about $222 billion in revenue.[54] The report notes that the burden of poor immigrants is not born equally among states, and is most heavy in California.[55] Another claim that those supporting current and expanded immigration levels is that immigrants mostly do jobs Americans don't want. A 2006 Pew Hispanic Center report added evidence to support that claim when they found that increasing immigration levels have not hurt employment prospects for American workers.[56]

Jason Riley notes that because of progressive income taxation, in which the top 1% of earners pay 37% of federal income taxes, 60% of Americans collect more in government services than they pay in. Thus, it is not remarkable that some immigrants would do the same.[57] In any event, the typical immigrant and his children will pay a net $80,000 more in their lifetimes than they collect in government services, according to the NAS.[58]

The Kauffman Foundation’s index of entrepreneurial activity is nearly 40% higher for immigrants than for natives.[59] Immigrants were involved in the founding of many prominent American high-tech companies, such as Google, Yahoo, Sun Microsystems, and eBay.[60]

On the poor end of the spectrum, the "New Americans" report found that low-skill low wage immigration does not, on aggregate, lower the wages of most domestic workers. The report also addresses the question of if immigration affects black Americans differently from the population in general: "While some have suspected that blacks suffer disproportionately from the inflow of low-skilled immigrants, none of the available evidence suggests that they have been particularly hard-hit on a national level. Some have lost their jobs, especially in places where immigrants are concentrated. But the majority of blacks live elsewhere, and their economic fortunes are tied to other factors."[61]

Robert Samuelson points out that poor immigrants strain public services such as local schools and health care. He points out that "from 2000 to 2006, 41 percent of the increase in people without health insurance occurred among Hispanics."[62] According to the immigration reduction advocacy group Center for Immigration Studies, 25.8% of Mexican immigrants live in poverty — more than double the rate for natives in 1999.[63] In another report, The Heritage Foundation notes that from 1990 to 2006, the number of poor Hispanics increased 3.2 million, from 6 million to 9.2 million.[64]

Brain drain has cost the Africa over $4 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals annually.[65] According to UNDP, "Ethiopia lost 75% of its skilled workforce between 1980 and 1991," which harms the ability of such nations to get out of poverty. There are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia.[66] The UNDP estimates that India loses $2 billion a year because of the emigration of computer experts to the U.S.[67] Over 80% of Jamaicans with higher education live abroad.[68] However, it is noted that these nationals pay valuable remittances. In Jamaica, the money sent back amounts to 18% of GNP.[69]


The more contact a native-born American has with immigrants, typically the more positive view of immigrants one has.[70] The less contact a native-born American has with immigrants, the more likely one would have a negative view of immigrants.[70]

Benjamin Franklin opposed German immigration, stating that they would not assimilate into the culture.[71] Irish immigration was opposed in the 1850s by the Nativist/Know Nothing movement, originating in New York in 1843. It was engendered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants. In 1891, a lynch mob stormed a local jail and hanged several Italians following the acquittal of several Sicilian immigrants alleged to be involved in the murder of New Orleans police chief David Hennessey. The Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s. Systematic bias against Japanese and German immigrants emerged during and after World War II. Irish and Jewish immigrants were popular targets early in the 20th century and most recently immigrants from Latin American countries are often viewed with hostility. Some Americans have not completely adjusted to the largely non-European immigration and racism does occur. After September 11, many Middle Eastern immigrants and those perceived to be of Middle Eastern origins were targets of hate crimes.

Minority racism, on the other hand, is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Racist thinking among and between minority groups does occur,[72][73] examples of this are conflicts between blacks and Korean immigrants (notably in the 1992 Los Angeles Riots) or between African Americans and the mostly non-white Latino immigrants.[74][75] There has been a long running racial tension between African American and Mexican prison gangs and significant riots in California prisons where Mexican inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[76][77] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by people of Mexican descent, and vice versa.[78][79] There has also been an increase in violence between European Americans and Latino immigrants, and between African immigrants and African Americans.[80] There are also tensions between native-born Hispanic Americans and newly-arrived Latino immigrants.[81]


Immigrants differ on their political views; however, the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among immigrants overall.[82][83] However, immigrants are similar to the broader US population in that their religious affiliation can significantly impact both their social values and votes. Hispanic evangelicals, for example, are even more strongly conservative than non-Hispanic evangelicals [84]. This trend is often similar for Hispanics or others strongly identifying with Catholicism - a religion that strongly opposes abortion and gay marriage.


Another topic that is widely discussed relates to the issue of the health of immigrants and the associated cost to the public of their use of public health services. Immigrants, legal and illegal, use the public health care system, particularly emergency room services. The non-emergency use of emergency rooms ostensibly indicates an incapacity to pay, yet some studies allege disproportionately lower access to — and usage of — unpaid health care by immigrants.[85] For this and other reasons, there have been various disputes about how much immigration is costing the United States public health system.[86] University of Maryland economist and Cato Institute scholar, Julian Lincoln Simon, concluded in 1995 that although overall, immigrants probably pay more into the health system than they take out, this is not likely the case for elderly immigrants and many refugees, who are more dependent on public services for survival.[87]

Immigration from areas of high incidence of disease is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, and hepatitis in areas of low incidence.[88] According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), TB cases among foreign-born individuals remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born persons.[89][90] To reduce the risk of diseases in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival.[91]

HIV/AIDS entered the United States in about 1969 likely through a single infected immigrant from Haiti.[92][93] Conversely, many new HIV infections in Mexico can be traced back to the United States.[94]

Researchers have found what is called the "healthy immigrant effect," in which immigrants in general tend to be healthier (mental health, healthy nutrition) than individuals born in the U.S.[95][96]

Various researchers have criticized the position held by Simon and others that increased U.S. population growth is sustainable. David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. To achieve a sustainable economy the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third. Current U.S. population of more than 300 million and U.S. population growth of approximately three million people each year, partly fueled by immigration, are unsustainable, says study.[97] [98]

Perceived heavy immigration, especially in the southwest, has led to some fears about population pressures on the water supply in some areas. California continues to grow by more than a half million a year and is expected to reach 48 million in 2030.[99] According to the California Department of Water Resources, if more supplies are not found by 2020, residents will face a water shortfall nearly as great as the amount consumed today.[100] Los Angeles is a coastal desert able to support at most one million people on its own water.[101] California is considering using desalination to solve this problem.[102]


Empirical studies on links between immigration and crime are mixed. Certain studies have suggested that immigrants are underrepresented in criminal statistics.[103] An Op-Ed in The New York Times by Harvard University Professor in Sociology Robert J. Sampson says that immigration of Hispanics may in fact be associated with decreased crime.[104]A 1999 paper by John Hagan and Alberto Palloni estimated that the involvement in crime by Hispanic immigrants are less than that of other citizens.[105]

Immigrants, both legal and illegal do not raise the rate of crime in the United States and native born Americans are five times more likely to be incarcerated than immigrants.[106] In a study released by the non-partisan research group The Public Policy Institute of California immigrants (legal and illegal) were ten times less likely to be incarcerated than native born Americans[107].

In his 1999 book Crime and Immigrant Youth, sociologist Tony Waters writes that immigrants themselves are less likely to be arrested and incarcerated. He also noted, however, that the children of some immigrant groups are more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. This is a by-product of the strains that emerge between immigrant parents living in poor inner city neighborhoods, and their sons.[108] According to Bureau of Justice Statistics, for example, as of 2001, 4% of Hispanic males in their twenties and thirties were in prison or jail, compared with 1.8% of white males. Hispanic men are almost four times as likely to go to prison at some point in their lives as white males, although less likely than African American males.[109]

There were an estimated 30,000 street gangs and more than 800,000 gang members active across the U.S. in 2007, up from 731,500 in 2002. New immigrants are susceptible to gang influences and activities because of language barriers, employment difficulties, support, protection, and fear.[110][111][112][113]


Some commentators have suggested that increased immigration has a negative effect on the environment, especially as the level of economic development of the United States (and by extension, its energy, water[114] and other needs that underpin its prosperity) means that the impact of a larger population is greater than what would be experienced in other countries[115]. There is, however, no empirical evidence linking immigration to the degradation of the environment.[citation needed]

Americans constitute approximately 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[116] consume about 25% of world’s resources,[117] including approximately 26% of the world's energy,[118] although having only around 3% of the world’s known oil reserves,[119] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[120][121] The average American's impact on the environment is approximately 250 times greater than the average Sub-Saharan African's.[122][123]

With current consumption patterns, population growth in the United States is therefore more of a threat to the Earth's environment than population growth in any other part of the world.[124][125][126][127] (currently, at least 1.8 million legal and illegal immigrants settle in the United States each year; with the average Hispanic woman giving birth to 3 children in her lifetime. Though, "on the other hand, a substantial portion of immigrants (about 30 percent) return to their country of origin, presumably taking at least their younger children with them, thus substantially mitigating the effect of their higher fertility."[128])[unreliable source?].[129][130] Overall, immigrants to the United States, and their first-generation of children, currently account for two-thirds of the country's population growth.[131]

Paul Ehrlich made the point that a state or nation may have a large land area or considerable wealth (which implies, by conventional wisdom, that overpopulation should not be at play), and yet be overpopulated.[132] The U.S. state of Arizona, for example, has enormous land area, but has neither the carrying capacity of arable land or potable water[133][134] to support its growing population. While it imports food, using its wealth to offset this shortfall, that only serves to illustrate that it has insufficient carrying capacity. The only way that Arizona (and Southern California) obtains sufficient water is by extraction of water[135] from the Colorado River beyond its fair share[136] (and beyond its own carrying capacity of innate water resources), based on international standards of fair use per lineal mile of river.[137][138][139]


Forty percent of Ph.D. scientists working in the United States were born abroad [59].

Immigrant children have historically been greatly affected by cultural misunderstanding, language barriers, and feelings of isolation within the school atmosphere. More recently, however, immigrant children are finding a more welcoming school atmosphere.[citation needed] This does not undermine the difficulties immigrants face upon entering U.S. schools. Immigrant children maintain their native tongue which can leave them feeling disadvantaged within English speaking schools.[citation needed]

Public opinion

"By high margins, Americans are telling pollsters it was a very good thing that Poles, Italians, and Jews emigrated to America. Once again, it's the newcomers who are viewed with suspicion. This time, it's the Mexicans, the Filipinos, and the people from the Caribbean who make Americans nervous." [140]

In 2006 the immigration-reduction advocacy think tank the Center for Immigration Studies released a poll that found 68% of Americans said US immigration levels are too high, and just 2% said they are too low. They also found that 70% said they are less likely to vote for candidates that favor increasing legal immigration.[141]

In 2004, 55% of Americans believe legal immigration should remain at the current level or increased and 41% say it should be decreased.[70]

In a 2002 study that occurred soon after 9/11 where 55% of Americans favored decreasing legal immigration, 27% favored keeping it at the same level, and 15% favored increasing it.[142]

In 1996, 70% of Americans want immigration reduced to 300,000 annually and 20% want to halt all immigration.[143]

One of the most important factors regarding public opinion about immigration is the level of unemployment; anti-immigrant sentiment is highest where unemployment is highest and vice-versa.[144]

Legal issues

Laws concerning immigration and naturalization

Laws concerning immigration and naturalization are mainly:

The 1990 Immigration Act (IMMACT) limits the annual number of immigrants to 700,000. It emphasizes that family reunification is the main immigration criteria, in addition to employment-related immigration.

The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) and Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) exemplifies many categories of criminal activity for which immigrants, including green card holders, can be deported and imposed mandatory detention for certain types of deportation cases.


Asylum for refugees

In contrast to economic migrants, who generally do not gain legal admission, refugees, as defined by international law, can gain legal status through a process of seeking and receiving asylum, either by being designated a refugee while abroad or by physically entering the United States and requesting asylee status thereafter. A specified number of legally defined refugees, who either apply for asylum overseas or after arriving in the U.S., are admitted annually. Refugees compose about one-tenth of the total annual immigration to the United States, though some large refugee populations are very prominent.

Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than 2 million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined. For example, Japan accepted just 16 refugees in 1999, while the United States took in 85,010 for resettlement, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

The U.S. will accept 70,000 refugees in fiscal year 2007, and President Bush stated that his eventual goal is a program that resettles 90,000 refugees in the United States each year. In 2006, the State Department officially re-opened the Vietnamese resettlement program. In recent years, the main refugee sending-region has been Africa (Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, Ethiopia).[145] A July 22, 2007 article notes that in the past nine months only 133 of the planned 7000 Iraqi refugees were allowed into the United States.[146][147] The ceiling for refugee resettlement for fiscal year 2008 is 80,000 refugees.[148] The United States expects to admit a minimum of 17,000 Iraqi refugees in fiscal year 2009.[149]

In 1991-92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 ethnic Nepalis, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US as third country settlement programme.[150]

Miscellaneous documented immigration

In removal proceedings (deportation) in front of an immigration judge, cancellation of removal is a form of relief that is available for certain long-time residents of the United States. It allows a person being faced with the threat of removal to obtain permanent residence if that person: (1) has been physically present in the U.S. for at least ten years, (2) has had good moral character during that period, (3) has not been convicted of certain crimes, and (4) can show that removal would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to his or her U.S. citizen/permanent resident spouse, children, or parent. This form of relief is only available when a person is served with a Notice to Appear (like a civil summons) to appear in the proceedings in the Immigration Court. Many persons have received their green cards in this way even when removal or deportation was imminent.[citation needed]

Members of Congress may submit private bills granting residency to specific named individuals. A special committee vets the requests, which require extensive documentation. Congress has bestowed the title of "Honorary Citizen of the United States" to six people. The only two living recipients were Winston Churchill and Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa), the other instances were posthumous honors.

The Central Intelligence Agency has the statutory authority to admit up to one hundred people a year outside of normal immigration procedures, and to provide for their settlement and support. The program is called "PL110" after the legislation that created the agency, Public Law 110, the Central Intelligence Agency Act.

Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration has recently resurfaced as a major political issue. Various bills are in the United States Congress either to provide for legalization and amnesty of those present in the country illegally, or to crack down on employers that hire undocumented workers and build a wall along the Mexican border.[citation needed]

The Illegal immigrant population of the United States is estimated to be between 7 and 20 million.[151] The majority of the illegal immigrants are from Mexico.[152]

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 8.7 million illegal immigrants were living in the United States in 2000.

Immigration in popular culture

1888 cartoon in Puck attacks businessmen for welcoming large numbers of low paid immigrants, leaving the American workingman unemployed

The history of immigration to the United States of America is the history of the United States itself, and the journey from beyond the sea is an element found in the American myth, appearing over and over again in everything from The Godfather to Gangs of New York to "The Song of Myself" to Neil Diamond's "America" to the animated feature An American Tail.

As in many myths, the immigrant story has been exaggerated. Immigrants, including new colonists from before the establishment of the United States as a separate country, were never more than 15% of the population and usually considerably less.[citation needed]Immigrants were often poor and uneducated but the succeeding generations took advantage of the opportunities offered.[citation needed] The reality is even more amazing than the myth in some ways as the succeeding generations learn how to cooperate or at least tolerate each other to build a strong system of shared core beliefs that has succeeded far beyond its original founders would have ever believed possible.

Immigration in literature

  • The Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg wrote a series of four novels describing one Swedish family's migration from Småland to Minnesota in the late 19th century, a destiny shared by almost one million people. These novels have been translated into English (The Emigrants, 1951, Unto a Good Land, 1954, The Settlers, 1961, The Last Letter Home, 1961). The musical Kristina från Duvemåla by ex-ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson is based on this story.

Interpretive perspectives

The Statue of Liberty was a common sight to many immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island

The American Dream is the belief that through hard work and determination, any United States immigrant can achieve a better life, usually in terms of financial prosperity and enhanced personal freedom of choice.[153] This Dream has been a major factor in attracting immigrants to the United States. According to historians, the rapid economic and industrial expansion of the U.S. is not simply a function of being a resource rich, hard working, and inventive country, but the belief that anybody could get a share of the country's wealth if he or she was willing to work hard.[154] Many have also argued that the basis of the American greatness is how the country began without a rigid class structure at a time when other countries in Africa, Europe, China, India and Latin America had much more stratified social structures. [155][156]

Legal perspectives

Hiroshi Motomura, University of North Carolina law professor and nationally recognized expert on citizenship and immigration, has identified three approaches America has taken to the legal status of immigrants (considering only legal immigrants) in his book Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States. The first, dominant in the 19th century, treated immigrants as in transition--that is, as prospective citizens. As soon as people declared their intention to become citizens, and before the five year wait was over, they received multiple low cost benefits, including eligibility for free homesteads (in the Homestead Act of 1869), and in many states the right to vote. The goal was to make America attractive so large numbers of farmers and skilled craftsmen would settle new lands. By the 1880s, a second approach took over, treating newcomers as "immigrants by contract." An implicit deal existed whereby immigrants who were literate and could earn their own living were permitted in restricted numbers (with the exception of Asians). Once in the United States, they would have somewhat limited legal rights, but were not allowed to vote until they became citizens, and would not be eligible for the New Deal government benefits available in the 1930s. The third more recent policy is "immigration by affiliation," Motomura argues, whereby the treatment in part depends on how deeply rooted people have become in America. An immigrant who applies for citizenship as soon as permitted, has a long history of working in the United States, and has significant family ties (such as American-born children), is more deeply affiliated and can expect better treatment.[157]

See also




United States



  1. 2004 Year Book of Immigration Statistics [17]
  2. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 [18]
  3. The Foreign-Born Population: 2000; U.S. Census [19]
  4. Virginia Library Geostat Center Census Data [20]
  5. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigrationl Edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston, National Science Foundation ISBN 0-309-06356-6. [21]

Secondary sources

  • Archdeacon, Thomas J. Becoming American: An Ethnic History (1984)
  • Bankston, Carl L. III and Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, eds. Immigration in U.S. History Salem Press, (2006)
  • Berthoff, Rowland Tappan. British Immigrants in Industrial America, 1790-1950 (1953).
  • Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America Indiana University Press, (1985)
  • Briggs, John. An Italian Passage: Immigrants to Three American Cities, 1890-1930 Yale University Press, (1978)
  • Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 University of Washington Press, (1988)
  • Daniels, Roger. Coming to America 2nd ed. (2005)
  • Daniels, Roger. Guarding the Golden Door : American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882 (2005)
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004)
  • Diner, Hasia. Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration (2003)
  • Eltis, David; Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives (2002) emphasis on migration to Americas before 1800
  • Gjerde, Jon, ed. Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History (1998) primary sources and excerpts from scholars.
  • Glazier, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (1999), articles by over 200 experts, covering both Catholics and Protestants.
  • Greene, Victor R. A Singing Ambivalence: American Immigrants Between Old World and New, 1830-1930 (2004), coving musical traditions
  • Isaac Aaronovich Hourwich. Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (1912) full text online]
  • Joseph, Samuel; Jewish Immigration to the United States from 1881 to 1910 Columbia University Press, (1914)
  • Kulikoff, Allan; From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers (2000), details on colonial immigration
  • Meagher, Timothy J. The Columbia Guide to Irish American History. (2005)
  • Miller, Kerby M. Emigrants and Exiles (1985), influential scholarly interpretation of Irish immigration
  • Motomura, Hiroshi. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006), legal history
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600-1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences (1957)
  • Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History (1981), by a conservative economist
  • Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) (ISBN 0-674-37512-2), the standard reference, covering all major groups and most minor groups
  • Waters, Tony. Crime and Immigrant Youth Sage Publications (1999), a sociological analysis.
  • U.S. Immigration Commission, Abstracts of Reports, 2 vols. (1911); the full 42-volume report is summarized (with additional information) in Jeremiah W. Jenks and W. Jett Lauck, The Immigrant Problem (1912; 6th ed. 1926)
  • Wittke, Carl. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant (1939), covers all major groups
  • Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia ed. Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics Oxford University Press. (1990)


  1. ^ U.S. population hits 300 million
  2. ^ Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants in the United States
  3. ^ Stephen Ohlemacher, Number of Immigrants Hits Record 37.5M, Washington Post
  4. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press) 2004. Page 69.
  5. ^ "Sanctuary Cities, USA". Ohio Jobs & Justice PAC. 
  6. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. Page 5253.
  7. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. Page 54.
  8. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. Page 56.
  9. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. Page 58 ("Immigrants have always moved to relatively few places, settling where they have family or friends, or where there are people from their ancestral country or community.").
  10. ^ a b Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press) 2004. Page 82.
  11. ^ Know the flow - economics of immigration
  12. ^ Illegal immigrants in the US: How many are there?
  13. ^ Characteristics of the Foreign Born in the United States: Results from Census 2000
  14. ^ 300 Million and Counting
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: Nation’s Population One-Third Minority
  16. ^ US population to 'double by 2100', BBC
  17. ^ Balancing Act: Can America Sustain a Population of 500 Million -- Or Even a Billion -- by 2100?
  18. ^ Census Bureau Projects Doubling of Nation's Population by 2100
  19. ^ U.S. Population Is Now One-Third Minority - Population Reference Bureau
  20. ^ Beneath the surface, Americans are deeply ambivalent about diversity
  21. ^ "United States: Country and Comparative Data (table available by menu selection)". Migration Policy Institute. 2007. 
  22. ^ "United States: Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year (table available by menu selection)". Migration Policy Institute. 2007. 
  23. ^ US Faced with a Mammoth Iraq Refugee Crisis
  24. ^ United States Unwelcoming to Iraqi Refugees
  25. ^ More Muslims Arrive in U.S., After 9/11 Dip
  26. ^ The People Perceived as a Threat to Security: Arab Americans Since September 11
  27. ^ Latinos and the Changing Face of America - Population Reference Bureau
  28. ^ More than 100 million Latinos in the U.S. by 2050
  29. ^ US - Census figures show dramatic growth in Asian, Hispanic populations
  30. ^ Population Growth And Immigration, U.S. Has Highest Population Growth Rate Of All Developed Nations - CBS News
  31. ^ Pew Hispanic Center [1] [2], (The Underground Labor Force Is Rising To The Surface)[3]
  32. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004). Page 83.
  33. ^ Pew Research Center: Immigration to Play Lead Role In Future U.S. Growth
  34. ^ U.S. Hispanic population to triple by 2050,
  35. ^ Study Sees Non-Hispanic Whites Shrinking to Minority Status in U.S. - February 12, 2008, The New York Sun
  36. ^ Whites to become minority in U.S. by 2050, Reuters
  37. ^ Asthana, Anushka (2006-08-21). "Changing Face of Western Cities". Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  38. ^ Whites Now A Minority In California, Census: Non-Hispanic Whites Now 47% Of State's Population, CBS News
  39. ^ The Best Story of Our Lives
  40. ^ Immigrants hit hard by slowdown, subprime crisis
  41. ^ Banks help illegal immigrants own their own home, CNN/Money, August 8, 2005
  42. ^ HUD: Five Million Fraudulent Mortgages Held by Illegals
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^ National Poverty Center - The University of Michigan
  48. ^ The Seattle Times: Some blacks say Latino immigrants taking their jobs
  49. ^ Suarez-Orozco, Carola and Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo (2001) Children of Immigration. Harvard University Press pages 41-45
  50. ^ Survey results reported in Simon, Julian L. (1989) The Economic Consequences of Immigration Boston: Basil Blackwell are discussed widely and available as of September 12, 2007 at a Cato group policy paper by Simon here. They find that 81 percent of the economists surveyed felt that 20th century immigration had very favorable effects, and 74 percent felt that illegal immigration had positive effects, with 76 percent feeling that recent immigration has "about the same effect" as immigrants from past years.
  51. ^ The Immigration Debate / Effect on Economy
  52. ^ James p. Smith, Chair. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1997) Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE), National Academy of Sciences. page 5
  53. ^ Lowenstein, Roger. "The Immigration Equation." The New York Times 9 July 2006. <>
  54. ^ U.S. Census Press Releases
  55. ^ Smith (1997) 7,8
  56. ^ Perez, Miguel (2006) "Hire education: Immigrants aren't taking jobs from Americans" Chicago Sun-Times Aug. 22, 2006, available here
  57. ^ Riley, Jason. Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders. pp. 95. ISBN 978-1-592-40349-3. 
  58. ^
  59. ^ a b
  60. ^
  61. ^ Smith (1997) page 6
  62. ^ Samuelson, Robert (2007) "Importing poverty" Washington Post, September 5, 2007 (Accessible as of September 12, 2007 here)
  63. ^ Center for Immigration Studies
  64. ^ Importing Poverty: Immigration and Poverty in the United States: A Book of Charts
  65. ^ Brain drain in Africa
  66. ^ More Ethiopia doctors in Chicago than Ethiopia
  67. ^ Brain drain costs Asia billions , BBC News
  68. ^ Study finds small developing lands hit hardest by 'brain drain', DUGGER, Celia, New York Times, 25 October 2005
  69. ^ Brain drain or export earnings? -
  70. ^ a b c Summary
  71. ^
  72. ^ The black-Latino blame game
  73. ^ Gang rivalry grows into race war
  74. ^ Race relations | Where black and brown collide |
  75. ^ Riot Breaks Out At Calif. High School, Melee Involving 500 People Erupts At Southern California School
  76. ^ JURIST - Paper Chase: Race riot put down at California state prison
  77. ^ Racial segregation continues in California prisons
  78. ^ A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black American gangs is spreading across Los Angeles
  79. ^ The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  80. ^ African immigrants face bias from blacks
  81. ^ Tension between U.S.-born Latinos, immigrants stems from differences in language, values and education
  82. ^ Hispanics turning back to Democrats for 2008 -
  83. ^ Exit Poll of 4,600 Asian American Voters Reveals Robust Support for Democratic Candidates in Key Congressional and State Races
  84. ^ [4]
  85. ^ Brown, Richard, et al (1998) "Access to Health Insurance and Health Care for Mexican American Children in Immigrant Families" In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press pages 225-247
  86. ^ in fact, Simon, Juliana (1995) "Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts". Washington, D.C.: The Cato Institute and National Immigration Forum (available here) finds that estimates of the cost of public health care provided to undocumented immigrants that have been used by the press have been extremely inflated
  87. ^ Simon (1995)
  88. ^ National Institutes of Health. Medical Encyclopedia Accessed 9/25/2006
  89. ^ Tuberculosis in the United States, 2004
  90. ^ U.S. tuberculosis cases at an all-time low in 2006, but drug resistance remains a threat
  91. ^ Tuberculosis among US Immigrants
  92. ^ AIDS virus invaded U.S. from Haiti: study
  93. ^ Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'
  94. ^ Mexican Migrants Carry H.I.V. Home
  95. ^ What Happens to the "Healthy Immigrant Effect"
  96. ^ notably, National Research Council. (1997) "From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families". Washington D.C.: National Academy Press (Available here
  97. ^ Eating Fossil Fuels |
  98. ^ Threat to our food security
  99. ^ See, for instance, immigration reform group Federation for American Immigration Reform,s page on Immigration & U.S. Water Supply
  100. ^ A World Without Water -Global Policy Forum- NGOs
  101. ^ Immigration & U.S. Water Supply
  102. ^ State looks to the sea for drinkable water
  103. ^ On immigration and Crime. [5]
  104. ^ Sampson, Robert (March 11, 2006). ""Open Doors Don't Invite Criminals"". New York Times (Op-Ed).  [6]
  105. ^ John Hagan, Alberto Palloni. [7] Sociological Criminology and the Mythology of Hispanic Immigration and Crime]. Social Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Nov., 1999), pp. 617-632
  106. ^ Rumbaut G. Ruben and Ewing A. Walter, The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation,[8]
  107. ^ California: Study of Immigrants and Crime - New York Times
  108. ^ The Immigrant Gang Plague by Heather Mac Donald, City Journal Summer 2004
  109. ^ Hispanic prisoners in the United States
  110. ^ COPS Office: Gangs
  111. ^ L.A. Gangs: Nine Miles and Spreading
  112. ^ Measuring the Extent of Gang Problems—National Youth Gang Survey Analysis
  113. ^ Into the Abyss: The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs
  114. ^ Overpopulation and Over-Immigration Threaten Water Supply, Says Ad Campaign, Reuters, October 20, 2008
  115. ^ The Environmental Impact Of Immigration Into The United States
  116. ^ Global Warming
  117. ^ Illinois Recycling Association Recycling Facts
  118. ^ SEI: Energy Consumption
  119. ^ NRDC: Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence
  120. ^ Waste WatcherPDF (62.9 KiB)
  121. ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom - The Boston Globe
  122. ^ Consumption Industrialized, Commercialized, Dehumanized, and Deadly
  123. ^ October 4, 2006: U.S. Population Reaches 300 Million, Heading for 400 Million: No Cause for Celebration
  124. ^ U.S. immigration, population growth, and the environment
  125. ^ Immigration's Dire Effect On The Environment
  126. ^ Why Excess Immigration Damages The Environment
  127. ^ Remote Island Provides Clues On Population Growth, Environmental Degradation
  128. ^ Smith and Edmonston: 1997, 304
  129. ^ Women Are Having More Children -
  130. ^ Welcome to United States Hispanic Business Association! -USHispanics
  131. ^ "U.S. Population Growth." Population and Habitat. National Audubon Society. Accessed January 5, 2009.
  132. ^ Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, Buccaneer Books; Reprint edition (December 1995) ISBN 1568495870
  133. ^ Critical water basins worldwide
  134. ^ Colorado River Water Users Association: Arizona
  135. ^ Stakeholders in the Colorado River
  136. ^ Allocation by U.S. of Colorado River use beyond fair share
  137. ^ John F. Kennedy Library, Ralph A. Dungen #8.6 White House Files, Washington DC
  138. ^ Abernethy, C. L., ed. Intersectoral Management of River Basins. Proceedings of an International Workshop on "Integrated Water Management in Water-Stressed River Basins in Developing Countries: Strategies for Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Growth," Loskop Dam, South Africa, 16­21 October 2000. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IWMI and German Foundation for International Development (DSE), 2001.; Mostert, E., ed. River Basin Management. Proceedings of the International Workshop, The Hague, 27­29 October. UNESCO, 1999
  139. ^ Mexico's small share of Colorado River extraction
  140. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press, 2004). Page 85.
  141. ^ New Poll Shows Immigration High Among US Voter Concerns
  142. ^ "Worldviews 2002 Survey of American and European Attitudes and Public Opinion on Foreign Policy: US Report"
  143. ^ NPG/Roper Poll, February 1996
  144. ^ Espenshade, Thomas J. and Belanger, Maryanne (1998) "Immigration and Public Opinion." In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press, pages 365-403
  145. ^ A New Era Of Refugee Resettlement
  146. ^ Ambassador wants more visas for loyal Iraqis
  147. ^ "Iraq refugees find no refuge in America." By Ann McFeatters. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 25, 2007.
  148. ^ Presidential Determination on FY 2008 Refugee Admissions Numbers
  149. ^ U.S. Goals for Iraqi Refugees are Inadequate, Refugees International
  150. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (November 7, 2007). "Bhutan refugees are 'intimidated'". BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  151. ^ Brad Knickerbocker (May 16, 2006). "Illegal immigrants in the US: How many are there?". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  152. ^ Study Details Lives of Illegal Immigrants in U.S., NPR
  153. ^ Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream. Page 1. 1994. ISBN 0-252-06445-3.
  154. ^ Jim Cullen, The American Dream : A Short History of an Idea that Shaped a Nation. 2004. ISBN 0-19-517325-2.
  155. ^ Heiner, Robert. Social Problems: An Introduction to Critical Constructionism. Page 114. August 16, 2001. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-512992-X.
  156. ^ This argument was made in Isaac A. Hourwich. Immigration and Labor: the Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (2012).
  157. ^ Hiroshi Motomura. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006)

Recent: post 1965

  • Beasley, Vanessa B. ed. Who Belongs in America?: Presidents, Rhetoric, And Immigration (2006)
  • Bogen, Elizabeth. Immigration in New York (1987)
  • Bommes, Michael and Andrew Geddes. Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State (2000)
  • Borjas, George J. ed. Issues in the Economics of Immigration (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) (2000) 9 statistical essays by scholars;
  • Borjas, George. Friends or Strangers (1990)
  • Borjas, George J. "Welfare Reform and Immigrant Participation in Welfare Programs" International Migration Review 2002 36(4): 1093-1123. ISSN 0197-9183; finds very steep decline of immigrant welfare participation in California.
  • Briggs, Vernon M., Jr. Immigration Policy and the America Labor Force Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
  • Briggs, Vernon M., Jr. Mass Immigration and the National Interest (1992)
  • Cooper, Mark A. Moving to the United States of America and Immigration. 2008 IBSN 741446251
  • Fawcett, James T., and Benjamin V. Carino. Pacific Bridges: The New Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands . New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1987.
  • Foner, Nancy. In A New Land: A Comparative View Of Immigration (2005)
  • Levinson, David and Melvin Ember, eds. American Immigrant Cultures 2 vol (1997) covers all major and minor groups
  • Lowe, Lisa. Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics (1996)
  • Meier, Matt S. and Gutierrez, Margo, eds. The Mexican American Experience : An Encyclopedia (2003) (ISBN 0-313-31643-0)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Robert L. Bach. Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. University of California Press, 1985.
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Jozsef Borocz. "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation." International Migration Review 23 (1989): 606-30.
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Ruben Rumbaut. Immigrant America. University of California Press, 1990.
  • Reimers, David. Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America Columbia University Press, (1985).
  • Smith, James P, and Barry Edmonston, eds. The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1998), online version
  • Zhou, Min and Carl L. Bankston III Growing Up American: How VIetnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States Russell Sage Foundation. (1998)

External links


Immigration policy

Current immigration

Economic impact

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