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A piece of toast covered with a fried egg.
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Breakfast is a meal eaten after a long period of sleep, most often eaten in the morning. The word came about because it means breaking the fast after one has not eaten (fasted) since the night before.


[edit] Etymological information

English: 1463, from break (v.) + fast (n.). Cf. Fr. déjeuner "to breakfast," derived from L. jejunare "to fast." The verb dates from 1679. The English word derives from the concept that sleep prevents eating, thus an involuntary fast occurs during sleep; this fast is broken by the first meal of the day referred to as breakfast.[1]

[edit] Typical breakfasts by world regions

[edit] Africa

  • Nigeria. With Nigeria being the most populous state in Africa hosting over 250 different ethnic groups, consistency of eating habits is not possible. In Southwest Nigeria (Ilé Yorùbá) one of the most common breakfasts (onjẹ árọ) is ògì. Ògì - a porridge made from corn usually served with evaporated milk.Ogi is eaten with Akara or Moi moi and both are made from grounded bean paste, akara is fried in oil, and Moi moi is steamed cooked wrapped in leaves or foil. Ogi can also be steamed cooked in leaves to harden it and eaten with akara or moi moi for breakfast. Also served with breakfast is English tea or malta. Another popular option in SW Nigeria is garri, which is eaten like a cereal. Garri, known in Brazil as farofa, is made from the root of cassava. For breakfast garri is drenched in water and sweetened with sugar.
  • Ghana. In Ghana, the typical breakfast across the country includes goat omelets, a very sweet and dense bread, and tea. Porridge is occasionally eaten at home, while many people purchase their breakfasts from street vendors.
  • Uganda. Different parts of Uganda serve varying breakfasts. A usual breakfast is a cup of tea with a variety of either warm or cold foods. In central Uganda, a typical breakfast would be a tea (made with milk and ginger) served with a warm meal known locally as katogo. This is a combination of green cooking bananas (matooke) mixed either in a stew from beef or in sauce from vegetables like beans. In some parts of Northern Uganda, breakfast would consist of tea and boiled cassava.
  • Senegal. In Senegal, breakfast typically includes freeze dried coffee, typically Nescafe, with dried milk and abundant sugar, accompanied by baguette pieces with any number of spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts; butter; or Laughing Cow processed cheese. Fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are often also part of a simple breakfast.

[edit] Asia

[edit] Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong

A typical rice porridge complete with dried minced pork; popular breakfast fare in China.

Chinese breakfasts vary greatly between different regions. With the exception of Hong Kong and Taiwan, Western types of breakfasts or their derivatives are rarely had. In Northern China breakfast fare typically includes huājuǎn, mántou (steamed breads), shāobǐng (unleavened pocket-bread with sesame), bāozi (steamed buns with meat or vegetable stuffing), with Dòunǎi or dòujiāng (soy milk) or tea served in Chinese style as beverages.

In Central and Eastern China, typified by Shanghai and the neighbouring Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui provinces breakfast fares include some Northern as well as Southern dishes. Typically breakfast consists of ci fan tuan, 油豆腐粉絲 → yóudoùfu fěnsī (a soup made by fried tofu and cellophane noodles), plain rice porridge (粥 → zhōu) served with numerous side dishes such as salted duck eggs, pickled vegetables, and century eggs, or sweetened or savoury soy milk served with shāobǐng or 油條 → yóutiáo.

In Southeastern China, such as Fujian province, breakfasts consist of rice porridge served with side dishes like pickled vegetables and century eggs.

In Southern China, represented by Guangdong province breakfasts include rice porridge prepared to a thicker consistency than those sold in Shanghai and side dishes are not served. Congee is served with yóutiáo if it is plain. In many cases, however, congee is prepared with meats or dried vegetables such as beef slices, shredded salted pork and century eggs, fish, or slices of pig's liver and kidney and can be served with or without yóutiáo. Other breakfast fares include rice noodle rolls (cheong fun) (served with Hoi sin sauce and soy sauce, without fillings), fried noodles (pan fried noodles with bean sprouts, spring onions, and soy sauce), fagao (rice cakes), jiānbǐng (thin crispy omelets with fillings folded in), lúobogāo (turnip cakes) and zòngzi (another kind of rice cake wrapped in bamboo leaves). The dim sum breakfast is a world in itself, and is often eaten as brunch at specialist restaurants.

In Taiwan, due to the influx of mainland Chinese in the aftermath of the Taiwan Province retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after the end of the Chinese Civil War, breakfasts tend to be a mix of Northern and Eastern Chinese dishes in addition to the traditional south-eastern Chinese fare. This is more pronounced in cities with high proportions of people of mainland Han Chinese descent, like Taipei.

A typical Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfast, including a cup of silk-sock milk tea.

Traditional breakfasts in Hong Kong follow very closely those in Guangdong, but due to long periods of British colonial rule and the influx of substantial refugees from Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai with the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, localized interpretations of English breakfast and Eastern Chinese breakfast fare are commonly found alongside Cantonese breakfasts. In a Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfasts could consist of milk tea, coffee, or yuanyang served with bread, ham, and fried eggs, and a bowl of macaroni soup with ham. This local interpretation of English breakfast is regarded in both mainland China and Taiwan as uniquely Hong Kong. In upper market restaurants or hotels, however, standard English and Continental breakfasts are served.

[edit] India

The South Indian staple breakfast item of idly, sambar, and vada served on a banana leaf.

In Indian Bengal and Bangladesh the breakfast items may include luchi/ Kochuri(stuffed luchis), puffed rice crisps with milk, jaggery and fruits. The luchi/kochuri are served with a vegetable curry or something shallow fried. Semi-fermented rice having a mild pungent flavour (panta bhaath) is also eaten sometimes with dal and chillies.

In South India, the most popular breakfast is an assortment with several possible main dishes, such as idlis, vadas, dosas, salty pongal, and chapatis. These are most often served with hot sambar and at least one kind of chutney are the common items in Tamilnadu.

Kerala's traditional breakfast (Praatal/പ്രാതല്‍) includes Puttu(പുട്ടു്) (eaten with kadala(കടല)(black chana) curry or ripe bananas (നേന്ത്രപ്പഴം), Porotta(പൊറോട്ട) / Pathiri(പത്തിരി)/ Orotti (ഒറോട്ടി) (eaten with Chicken / Mutton / Veg Curry), Appam(അപ്പം) (Paalappam, Vellayappam, Kallappam) or Idiyappam (ഇടിയപ്പം) (Noolappam / നൂലപ്പം) with Egg Curry (മുട്ടക്കറി) or Veg stew, Kappa(കപ്പ) (Tapioca) and MeenCurry / MeenVaruttathu (Tapioca and Fish) and other popular breakfast items like Idli (ഇഡ്ഡലി) and Dosa (ദോശ) / Masala Dosa (മസാല ദോശ). Other common dishes include Ada (അട) (Ilayada, Ottada),Ariyappam, Uppumaavu (ഉപ്പുമാവു്) etc.

The usual North Indian breakfast consists of stuffed paratha breads or unstuffed parathas (they resemble oily milee crepes) with fresh butter, cooked spicy vegetables -- especially aloo sabzi. Puri and chholey is also a popular north-Indian breakfast, along with rajma-chawal. Popular accompaniments include sweets like jalebi, halwa, and sweetened milk. Samosas, and combination of jalebi with yogurt (dahi-jalebi) comprise stand-alone breakfast items in U.P. and its surrounding parts. In Maharashtra, Poha, Upma, or Shira (similar to Kesaribath) is frequently eaten for breakfast.

Gujarati breakfast items include haandvo, dhokla, sev-khamni, theplas (a form of paratha), bhaakhri and assorted hard and crispy masala puris with pickles. Tea is a staple item in breakfast. Children are encouraged to drink milk instead of tea.

In urban areas, omelettes and simple butter sandwiches are becoming a popular breakfast food.[citation needed]

Traditional Japanese kaiseki breakfast in a Kyoto Ryokan

[edit] Japan

A typical Japanese breakfast.

A traditional Japanese breakfast is based on rice, seafood, and fermented foods, which do not differ substantially from dishes eaten at other meals in Japanese cuisine. An exception is nattō (a type of fermented soybeans), which is most popularly eaten for breakfast. A typical Japanese restaurant breakfast presentation would be miso soup, rice with nori or other garnishes, nattō, grilled fish, raw egg, and a pickled vegetable. The influence of Japanese travelers has made this traditional breakfast a standard option on the menus of many upscale hotels worldwide. It is common in Japanese households to include left-over items from the last evening's dinner in the next day's breakfast. Western breakfast foods such as toast and boiled or fried eggs are also common, and cereals are becoming popular. Typical breakfast beverages are green tea (traditional) and coffee (modern).

[edit] Korea

In Korea, breakfast contains rice, soup, several kinds of Namul or seasoned vegetables, Kimchi (fermented, pickled vegetables), and grilled meat or fish. Traditionally, food eaten in the morning does not differ substantially from the other meals of the day (see Korean cuisine) though the number of dishes is fewer. Today, however, people are more likely to eat Western-style breakfasts similar to those in the United States.

[edit] Malaysia and Singapore

In Malaysia, breakfast sometimes consists of a popular Malay food called nasi lemak. Other food such as roti prata (known as roti canai in Malaysia), kaya toast, half boiled eggs and wonton noodles are also among the favorites. In the Malaysian's East Coast, glutinous rice is eaten as breakfast. Malaysian Chinese from the town of Klang, which is famous for its Bak Kut Teh, frequently eat it for breakfast. In other parts of Malaysia and Singapore however, it is more commonly eaten at other meals.

A typical Singaporean breakfast usually consists of a variety of food options from various cultures. Most common are fried noodle with egg (or other side dishes like vegetables, ham, fish cake or tofu), mee goreng (Malay version of fried noodle, albeit spicier), nasi lemak, curry puffs, kueh-kueh (malay cakes) or sandwiches for those on the move. For those who can afford a more leisurely breakfast, it can be noodle soup, kway chap (flat noodles in braised soup along with sides like tofu, peanut, pork and pig organs.), a variety of malay noodle soup dishes like mee soto, mee siam. There are other local favourite like bean curd, sweet soup like black glutinous rice porridge or green/ red bean soup. Others may prefer toast, cereals or an American breakfast from fast-food chains. It is common especially among older students and working adults to skip breakfast.

[edit] Burma

htamin gyaw - leftover or cold rice fried with onions and boiled peas from a streethawker is quick and popular.

In Burma, the traditional breakfast in town and country alike is htamin gyaw, fried rice with boiled peas (pè byouk), and yei nway gyan ( green tea) especially among the poor.

Glutinous rice or kao hnyin is a popular alternative, steamed wrapped in banana leaf often with peas as kao hnyin baung served with a sprinkle of crushed and salted toasted sesame. Equally popular is the purple variety known as nga cheik cooked the same way and called nga cheik paung. Si damin is sticky rice cooked with turmeric and onions in peanut oil and served with crushed and salted toasted sesame and crispfried onions. Assorted fritters such as baya gyaw (urad dal) go with all of them.

Nan bya or naan (Indian-style flatbreads) again with pè byouk or simply buttered is served with Indian tea or coffee. It also goes very well with hseiksoup (mutton soup).

Fried chapati, blistered like nan bya but crispy, with pè byouk and crispy fried onions is a popular alternative.

Htat ta ya, lit. "a hundred layers", is flaky multilayered fried paratha served with either pè byouk or a sprinkle of sugar.

E kya kway (Chinese-style fried breadsticks or youtiao) with Indian tea or coffee is another favourite.

Mohinga, perhaps the most popular of all, now available as an "all-day breakfast" in many towns and cities, is rice vermicelli in fish broth kept on the boil with chickpea flour and/or crushed toasted rice, lemon grass, sliced banana stem, onions, garlic, ginger, pepper and fish paste and served with crispy fried onions, crushed dried chilli, coriander, fish sauce and lime. Add fritters such as split chickpea (pè gyan gyaw), urad dal (baya gyaw) or gourd (bu gyaw), boiled egg and fried fish cake (nga hpè gyaw).

Another dish, growing in popularity because of its healthier composite and economic friendliness, is the Rakhine Mont-de, a variant of Mohinga, but lighter. It consists of thin rice noodles eaten with clear soup, made from boiled ngapi and lemon grass. Toasted fish flakes, from snakefish and green and red chili paste are also added, with seasoning. Rakhine Mont-de is also called ar-pu-shar-pu (lit. hot throat, hot tongue) because of its heavy use of spicy ingredients. A salad version also exists. It is now available in many cities and towns across Burma.

[edit] Pakistan

The traditional breakfast in Pakistan is usually a heavy meal. There are several dishes

  • Halva Puri Cholay or Halva Puri for short which consists of two separate dishes, Halva, a sweet made from semolina, and Aloo Cholay, a spicy chick-pea and potato curry eaten with Puri, a small circular deep-fried flat bread.
  • Siri paya eaten with Naan Bread (siri paya is a stew made of cow, goat or lamb's skull and feet. Siri means the head of the animal and paya means the feet of the animal. It is considered a delicacy.)
  • Nihari. Nihari is a stew made from beef or lamb and curry. Nihari is also eaten with Naan bread.
  • Lassi. It is a drink made from milk and yogurt, served in sweet, and rarely, in salty flavor.

Otherwise parathas are widely eaten for breakfast; they may be stuffed with vegetables, chicken, beef or mutton mince or unstuffed eaten alongside fried or scrambled eggs or aloo (potatoes). Tea is sometimes served with breakfast.

In cities and urban areas, eggs and toast with butter and jam are also popular. Another breakfast popular in urban areas in Pakistan is tea with butter and rusk.

[edit] Philippines

Breakfast is known in the Philippines as "agahan" or "almusal." Philippine breakfasts vary from moderate to very heavy, depending on tradition. In some areas, even leftover lechon (roast suckling pig) is eaten with fried rice. "Recycling" of leftover food is common in households, mostly using food from leftovers the other day.

Rice is a predominant staple in the Philippines. As such, a favourite traditional breakfast has fried rice called sinangag. Usually, this is made of leftover rice from the previous dinner (so nothing is wasted, as well as because this yields a firm and "tossed" texture, which is preferred over sticky), and fried with salt and garlic cloves. This is then combined with fried or scrambled eggs, and a choice of breakfast meat: beef tapa (similar to beef jerky), pork tocino (sweet cured pork), longganisa (fresh garlic sausage), dried, smoked fish (such as tuyo), canned sardines, sauteed corned beef, or crispy pork adobo, sometimes with Western-style baked beans, sliced tomatoes and a local pickle (achara) on the side. Alternatively, a cheese-topped breakfast pastry called an ensaymada (a colonial relative of the Mallorcan ensaimada) is also eaten, usually with hot chocolate, as is pan de sal (Philippine breakfast roll) filled with a buffalo milk white cheese, and local barako coffee.

Western style breakfasts such as pancakes, French toast, and porridge are also eaten at home, as are cold 'corn flake-type' cereals which are popular with children. There is also a breakfast known as "Tapsilog", which is a combination of Tapa (Breakfast Steak), Sinangag (Fried Rice) and Itlog (Egg) Finally, there is champorado, a local chocolate sticky rice porridge, often served with a side dish of crisp-fried sun-dried fish (danggit or tuyo) -- an unusual, though authentically Filipino combination.

In the early mornings, hawkers also sell rice porridge (lugaw/goto), and noodle soups (mami, lomi, batchoy, etc.) in stalls to those on their way to work. Bakeries also open early for those purchasing pan de sal to eat at home, as well as for people who eat breakfast "on the go." Taho is also a popular accompaniment to breakfast, especially with children, and these are bought from vendors who carry them (along with other breakfast rice cakes such as puto, pichi-pichi, cuchinta, palitaw, etc.) in two small cans/barrels suspended in opposite poles of a yoke placed over a shoulder (which culturally recalls an irrigation device used on rice paddies).

[edit] Sri Lanka

The Singhalese traditional breakfast includes usually fresh (hot) bread, roti, pittu (rice or manipittu), string hoppers, hoppers, milk rice, appam, or green gram. These are usually eaten with curry (meat or vegetable), sambol (coconut, maldive fish or seeni-onion fried with chili and sugar) or with jaggery and plantains. Noodles and cereals such as Cornflakes are relative newcomers.

Also sri lankans Traditional drink is Kanda(Like soup)

A typical everyday breakfast can simply consist of "brother bread" with butter, and cheese or jam, plantain banana and tea.

[edit] Cambodia and Laos

In Cambodia, grilled pork served on rice with pickles (bai sach chrouk), noodles (mee cha), noodle soup (khtieau) and congee (bobor) are popular breakfasts.

In Laos, it is customary to eat soup for breakfast, as well as congee.

[edit] Thailand

In the case of Thailand, a variety of different foods are served for breakfast since the country has opened to the eating cultures from many countries. Thai-Chinese people typically have congee/jook, boil-rice with fishes, pickles, dried shredded pork; dim-sum is also popular in some provinces particularly in the South of Thailand. During rush hours in big cities, particularly Bangkok, people would have fast and simple Western style breakfast, for example, bread, cornflakes, omelet, coffee and milk. Street eateries in Bangkok offer a wide range of food, such as sandwiches, grilled or fried pork with sticky rice, noodles, rice and Thai curries. Since there are so many kinds of food for breakfast, Thai people usually say that they would eat whatever they want for their breakfast.

[edit] Vietnam

There are multiple breakfast menu options across Vietnam, and usually the household will buy this from vendors rather than make it. Breakfast can be quite hearty, depending on whether one chooses to top their meal with a meat roll or pastries. Typical noodle breakfast dishes in Vietnam (which are usually served with a loaf of bread to dip in the soup) include Pho (Vietnamese beef or chicken soup based rice noodle), hu tieu (egg/wheat noodles, either soup based or not, with various meat or seafood), Bún bò Huế (spicy Hue style beef soup based noodles), Bún riêu (crab soup based vermicelli noodles) or mi quang (prawn and pork rice noodles). Banh cuon ( crêpe-like roll made from thin, wide sheets of rice flour filled with ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and other ingredients, including meat loaves and sauce), banh bao (savoury meat buns or sweet bean buns), banh mi (Vietnamese cold cut meat loaf breads), banh mi hot ga op la[2] (Vietnamese French Bread with Sunnyside-Up Eggs. The term op-la is from a French word "oeuf au plat" (which may be served with a hot meat ball soup)), xôi (or glutinous rice, either savoury or sweet), boiled eggs or congee (similar to the Southern Chinese), are common breakfast meals in Vietnam. Often, the Vietnamese will drink coffee, tea, juice, or soy milk to complete their breakfasts.

[edit] Australia and New Zealand

In New Zealand and Australia, the typical breakfast strongly resembles breakfast in other English-speaking countries. Owing to the warm weather in some parts of Australia, breakfast is generally light. The light breakfast consists of cereals, toast (often with Vegemite spread), fruit, and fruit juices rather than cooked items. However, Australians may also enjoy a heavy breakfast with fried bacon, egg, mushroom, sausage, tomatoes and toast, with tea or coffee and juice (similar to the full English breakfast). Some other typical meals include pancakes, porridge, yogurt, and hash browns. Australians have also been known to enjoy onion rings[2] as part of their cooked breakfast, often using them as a substitute for hash browns.

In summer, a New Zealand breakfast will typically consist of some variation on toast, cereal, juice and fruit. In winter many New Zealanders prefer porridge or Weet-Bix, (although weet-bix is an australian food) with hot milk. On special occasions some New Zealanders will create a full cooked breakfast after the English tradition — generally bacon and eggs, fried tomatoes, fried mushrooms, and toast. American-type breakfasts (pancakes etc.) are becoming more common in New Zealand. These are usually purchased from a restaurant for weekend brunch.

[edit] Europe

Continental breakfast

As a general rule, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and central-European countries.

Hotels and other types of lodging in Europe typically include breakfast in their rates, and in many cases, especially in larger hotels, it is served as a buffet. Specific items will vary from country to country, depending on local breakfast tastes and habits. In Switzerland, for example, cold cuts (luncheon meats), cheese, yoghurt, prepared fruit, butter, croissants, breads, and rolls are served. Sometimes foods belonging to the British breakfast (eggs, sausages, tomatoes (fresh, grilled or canned), bacon) can occasionally be found as part of the buffet.

[edit] Continental breakfast

Continental breakfast is an institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions. It is a light meal meant to satisfy one until lunch. A typical Continental breakfast consists of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) or hot chocolate with a variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate filling. It is often served with juice. The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats, such as salami or ham, and yogurt or cereal. Some countries of Europe, such as The Netherlands and those in Scandinavia, add a bit of fruit and cheese to the bread menu, occasionally even a boiled egg or a little salami.

The Continental Breakfast concept is not limited to Europe, as evidenced by the numerous hotel chains that offer this service worldwide.

[edit] Britain and Ireland

English breakfast

Traditionally, people in Britain and Ireland have enjoyed a substantial hot meal for breakfast, featuring eggs, bacon, and sausages, accompanied by toast and tea or coffee. These items are sometimes eaten separately on morning rolls. Many other items (for example kedgeree, grilled or fried tomatoes, black pudding or white pudding, baked beans, fried sliced bread, various types of fried potatoes and mushrooms) may be included depending on taste and location. Today, this dish remains popular but is not usually served at breakfast time during the week. Many people instead reserve the full cooked breakfast for weekends, or go to a café or pub for it at the weekend. A full breakfast is also a meal available any time at many cafés and greasy spoons. It is also served at hotels where it can be quite substantial in size and variety. The author Somerset Maugham once quipped that "the only way to eat well in England is to have breakfast three times a day."

This traditional cooked breakfast has largely been replaced by simple, light foods mainly eaten cold: fruit, yogurt, packaged cereal with cold milk, and toast with a variety of spreads such as butter, jam, marmalade, lemon curd, Marmite, or peanut butter. Boiled eggs with soldiers are also a popular breakfast meal in the UK although like the full English breakfast they are mainly eaten at the weekend. Porridge is a traditional breakfast in Scotland as well as the rest of Britain in the winter months. In most British hotels this breakfast is included in the room rate.

Another popular breakfast in England is the kipper, a type of salted, smoked herring that is then heated by grilling or frying.

However, times have progressed and due to the need for fast nourishment, cold breakfast foodstuffs such as commercial cereal brands (Sugar Puffs, Cheerios, weetabix etc) are becoming the norm for many persons first meal of the day; the option of smoothies and yogurt has also became a popular choice in later years as well as French-influenced croissants as a sweet replacement to toast or crumpets. Cereal bars are also popular-- i.e. bars the shape of chocolate bars made from processed cereal, that may be sold from vending machines.

[edit] Northern Europe

  • Belgium. A typical Belgian breakfast is like that of its northern neighbor, the Netherlands. Belgians do not eat their most famous food, Belgian waffles, which are traditionally sold in tourist areas of large cities, and are eaten as a snack. The breakfast in Belgium consists of breads, toasted or untoasted, with several marmalades, jams, and nut spreads, such as Nutella or just with a bar of chocolate. Other common toppings include sliced meats and cheeses. Pastries and croissants may be served on Sundays, but are mostly not eaten on weekdays. Belgians often enjoy coffee, tea, hot chocolate, water, or fresh juice with breakfast.
  • Netherlands. The Dutch typically eat sliced bread with three choices of toppings: dairy products (numerous variations of cheese), a variety of cured and sliced meats, or sweet or semi-sweet products such as jam, peanut butter or chocolate toppings (hagelslag (chocolate sprinkles), chocoladevlokken (chocolate flakes) and chocolate spread). Some typical, but less common products are apple syrup, honey, stroop (lesser known as bebogeen, a very sweet caramel topping made from sugar beets) and kokosbrood (a coconut product that is served thinly sliced like sliced cheese; also known as Cocosbread). Furthermore are breakfast cereals or muesli popular, served with milk or yoghurt. Tea, dripolator coffee, milk, and juice are the most popular breakfast beverages. Breakfast may also include (for instance on Sundays) boiled eggs, raisin bread, pumpernickel, ontbijtkoek or croissants.
  • Denmark. A typical breakfast in Denmark consists of cereals or bread, accompanied by tea or coffee. Weekends or festive occasions may call for bread rolls (rundstykker) and possibly Danish pastries (wienerbrød) or a bitters, such as Gammel Dansk.[3]
  • Sweden. Breakfast in Sweden is generally a sandwich made of a large amount of different types of soft bread or crisp bread, cold cuts, caviar, cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese, goat cheese, eggs, scrambled or boiled, tomatoes or cucumber, or a toast with marmalade or maybe honey, juices, coffee, hot chocolate or tea. Breakfast cereals or muesli with milk, yoghurt or filmjölk, currants and fruits are popular or warm whole-grain porridge with milk and jam, (for example lingonberry jam). Pickled herring or shrimp, pâté (leverpastej) with pickled cucumber, blueberry-soup (blåbärssoppa) and rose hip soup is also possible sometimes for breakfast.
  • Finland. Breakfast usually consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is often buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as hard cheese or cold cuts. Finns usually do not have sweets on their breads such as jam (like the French and the Americans), or chocolate (like the Danes). Sour milk products such as yogurt or viili are also common breakfast foods, usually served in a bowl with cereals such as corn flakes, muesli, and sometimes with sugar, fruit or jam. A third food that is commonly eaten at breakfast is porridge (puuro), often made of rolled oats, and eaten with a pat of butter (voisilmä, lit. "butter eye") and/or with milk, or fruit or jam, especially the sort made of raspberries or strawberries (sometimes lingonberries). Drinks are milk, juice, tea, or coffee.
  • Scandinavia. Breakfasts in other parts of Scandinavia can be quite ample. Fish, cheese, eggs, bacon, hot and cold cereals, breads, potatoes, and fruits are all eaten in various combinations, along with juices, coffee, and tea. or kulturmelk (Norway), a cultured milk similar to buttermilk or yogurt is often eaten with cereals. Whole-grain porridges with regular milk or butter are popular. A funny thing in the Scandinavian languages is that the word for breakfast in Swedish language/Norwegian language ("frukost" = early meal) means lunch in Danish. The Danish language word for breakfast is "morgenmad" (= morning meal).
  • In Russia, with the cold climate breakfasts tend to be substantial. Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal or kasha, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter (Butterbrods), and coffee or tea.

[edit] Central and eastern Europe

A typical German breakfast
  • Germany & Austria. The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls, butter, jam, ham, sausages, soft-boiled eggs and coffee. Cereals have become popular, and regional variation is significant — cheeses, cold cuts, meat spreads, yogurt, granola and fruit (fresh or stewed) may appear, as well as eggs cooked to order (usually at smaller hotels or bed-and-breakfasts). A second breakfast is traditional in parts of Germany, notably Bavaria (there also called Brotzeit, literally "bread time").
  • Hungary. In Hungary people usually have a large breakfast. It consists of bread, bread rolls or crescent-shaped bread (kifli), toast, pastries with different fillings (sweet and salty as well), butter, jam or honey, eggs in different forms (fried eggs/scrambled eggs/omelette, etc), salami, cold cuts, cheeses, hot dogs with mustard, tea, coffee or milk. Fruit juice in the morning is not that usual, hot drinks are more common. Hungarians sometimes have rice pudding called (tejberizs) or cream of wheat (tejbegriz), usually eaten with cocoa powder or cinnamon sugar. "Lecsó" made from tomatoes and green pepper can sometimes be a breakfast meal as well, mainly in the summer.
  • Poland. The traditional Polish breakfast is a large spread with a variety of sides eaten with bread or toast. Sides include various cold cuts, meat spreads, the Polish sausage kielbasa, tomatoes, Swiss cheese, and sliced pickles. Twaróg, a Polish cheese, is the breakfast classic and comes in many forms. Twaróg can be eaten plain, with salt, sugar, or honey, or it can be mixed with chives into a cream cheese-like spread. Eggs are served often as the main breakfast item, mostly soft-boiled or scrambled. For a quick winter breakfast, hot oatmeal, to which cocoa is sometimes added, is often served. Jam spreads are popular for a quick breakfast, including plum, raspberry, and black or red currant spreads. Breakfast drinks include coffee, milk (some areas may serve fresh milk from the cow), hot cocoa, or tea. Traditionally, the Poles avoid heavy-cooked foods for breakfast. For the most part, one will not see fried meats or potatoes in a classic Polish breakfast. Emphasis is placed on a large variety of foods to satisfy everyone at the breakfast table.
  • Romania. The traditional Romanian breakfast consists of bread, cold plates such as mortadella and cheese, feta cheese, cucumber, tomatoes and eggs prepared as omelette or sunny side up. Also, a cup or two of black coffee or black tea, are served for breakfast. In addition to these, natural juice or yoghurt are always taken in as an option.
  • Switzerland. Swiss breakfasts are often similar to those eaten in neighboring countries. A notable breakfast food of Swiss origin, now found throughout Europe, is muesli (Birchermüesli in Swiss German), introduced in 1900 by Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital.

[edit] Southern Europe

Typical Italian drink for breakfast.
Typical breakfast from Balkans
  • France. In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of cups of coffee, often café au lait, or hot chocolate, usually served in big bowls, accompanied by a glass of orange or grapefruit juice. The main food consists of sweet products such as tartines (slices of baguette or other breads spread with butter, jam or chocolate paste), sometimes dunked in the hot drink. Brioches and other pastries such as croissants, pains au chocolat and pains aux raisins are also traditional. Other products such as breakfast cereals, fruit compote, fromage blanc, and yogurt are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. A typical French breakfast does not include any savory product.
  • Greece. Various kinds of pastry constitute the traditional Greek breakfast. Tyropita, spanakopita, and bougatsa (particularly in Northern Greece) are eaten, usually accompanied with Greek coffee. Simpler breakfasts include honey, marmalade or nutella cream (as well a Greek variation thereof, Merenda) spread over slices of bread. Children typically drink chocolate or plain milk.
  • Serbia, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, parts of Croatia. Breakfast usually consists of various kinds of savory or sweet pastry, with cheese, meat or jam filling. The most typical breakfast consists of two slices of burek and a glass of yogurt. Breakfast also often consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as prosciutto and yellow cheese.
  • Italy. The traditional breakfast in Italy is simply Caffè e latte (hot coffee with milk) with bread or rolls, butter, and jam — known as prima colazione or just colazione. Fette biscottate (a cookie-like hard bread often eaten with Nutella) and biscotti (cookies) are commonly eaten. Children drink hot chocolate, plain milk, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino e brioche (frothed hot milk with coffee, and a pastry). It is very common for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a panino, or bread roll).
  • Spain. In Central Spain the traditional breakfast is chocolate con churros — hot chocolate with Spanish-style fritters, which are extruded sticks of doughnut-like dough with a star-shaped profile covered in sugar. The chocolate drink is made very thick and sweet. In Madrid, churros are somewhat smaller and shaped like a charity ribbon. This meal is normally served in cafeterias. In the South and West it is more common to have a cup of coffee (usually with milk) and a toast with a choice of olive oil and salt, tomato and olive oil, butter, jam, pâté, jamón serrano (cured ham), and other options like sobrasada (a raw cured spiced sausage that is easy to spread), and in Andalucia, pringá. Freshly squeezed orange juice is widely available in most places as an alternative for coffee. The breakfast is not often larger than these two items, because usually in late morning there is a break known as almuerzo when there is a snack. Sometimes, toast is replaced with galletas (a type of cookies made with flour, sugar, oil and vanilla flavour), magdalenas (a Spanish version of the French madeleine made with oil instead of butter) or buns.
  • Portugal. A Portuguese pequeno-almoço comes in two varieties: one eaten running to work and another, more time-consuming one, more common on the weekends. When rushed in the morning, a cup of yogurt, milk, coffee or both and some bread with butter, cheese or jam suffices. Given the time, additions include orange juice, croissants, different kinds of pastry, and/or cereal.

[edit] Latin America

Latin American breakfasts feature many items seen in North American and Continental European breakfasts in regional variations, according to their own culture.

In northern South America, maize-based breads, such as tortillas or arepas, may dominate or be augmented with wheat breads or pastries. Caffè, caffè e latte, chocolate, and tea are common beverages.

[edit] Argentina

In Argentina and Uruguay, breakfast consists mainly of espresso coffee, café con leche, or yerba mate. There are also croissants, brioches, or facturas with dulce de leche, filled churros, French bread with jam and butter, grilled sandwiches of ham and cheese known as tostados, and sweet cookies or crackers.

[edit] Brazil

Brazilians use the term "café-da-manhã" (morning coffee) or "desjejum" (des-, apart + jejum, fast, fasting) to refer to breakfast. Morning meals are different in the various regions of Brazil. Black coffee, cow milk, yogurt and white cheese are quite popular, and so are fruit juices (especially orange, guava, mango, cashew and passion fruit). The coffee or juice accompanies croissants, different kinds of pastry, French bread with jam or butter, grilled sandwiches of ham, cheese and tomatoes called misto-quente, slices of cake such as corn cake, orange cake and carrot cake. As for children, the most popular are sweet cookies or crackers with jam, toasts with fruit compote called tostadinha or torrada com geléia/compota accompanying chocolate milk or hot chocolate, as well as cornflakes with milk. "Sucrilhos" is the equivalent for the term "Frosties", a registered trademark that goes under many different names in different countries. In the Southern States, adults use to drink a steaming yerba mate infusion in a typical gourd, called chimarrão. The cold version is called tereré.

[edit] Chile

In Chile, breakfast is a light meal consisting of coffee or tea and 2 types of bread, called "Marraqueta" and "Hallulla" which are accompanied with jam, butter, cheese or jelly.

[edit] Costa Rica

In Costa Rica breakfast is traditionally Gallo Pinto which is pinto beans and rice. A preferred alternative is to substitute black beans for the pinto beans. Some people may add "natilla" (sour cream), and a corn "tortilla". Black coffee or coffee with milk are the preferred beverages.

[edit] Cuba

In Cuba breakfast has evolved since the Communist Revolution. Before the revolution, breakfast in urban areas consisted of café con leche (espresso coffee with scalded milk) that was sweetened and included a pinch of salt. Toasted buttered Cuban bread, cut into lengths, was dunked in the café con leche. In rural Cuba, farmers ate roasted pork, beans and white rice, café con leche and cuajada, a type of cottage cheese sweetened with caramel.[4] Since the revolution, due to irregular availability, breakfasts consist of sopa de chicharo (salted green pea soup), coffee when available, and perhaps saltine crackers. Meats are rarely if ever consumed in Cuban urban areas.[verification needed]

[edit] Colombia

In Colombia there are various breakfast staples. In the Cundinamarca region people eat changua: a milk, scallion, and cheese soup. In the Tolima region, a tamal tolimense is eaten in the company of hot chocolate and arepas. Tamales tolimenses are made with rice, dry legumes, beef, chicken and pork, egg, potato, and seasonings, covered with a maize dough, cooked while wrapped in a banana leaf.

[edit] Ecuador

In Ecuador breakfast depends on the region it is served. Along the Pacific Coast (Litoral) breakfast mainly consists of strong black coffee brewed in a special little aluminium pot (café de olla), fried plantain and white hard cheese made locally. It can include also an omelette and fresh fruit juices. In the highlands (Sierra) breakfast may include some black coffee or herbal teas (infusiones) with some fresh bread rolls, scramble eggs and even a kind of corn called mote.

[edit] Dominican Republic

In Dominican Republic the main dish for breakfast is called mangu (mashing boiled plantains). It is prepared with ground plantain mixed with butter and is usually eaten with salami, fried cheese, eggs (fried eggs or scrambled eggs). This dish is usually accompanied by cafe con leche, hot chocolate, or juice. Another main breakfast dish is the sandwich, prepared with cheese, ham, salami, or scrambled eggs. This is often accompanied with coffee, hot chocolate or juice. To make this particular sandwich the Dominican people use a bread called pan de agua (water bread—a simple bread made with water, flour, yeast, and salt). Other kinds of bread are also used to make this simple meal.

[edit] Mexico

In the past, when Mexico's population was predominantly rural and agricultural, breakfast tradition included a light desayuno of hot beverages and breads at dawn and a heavier almuerzo mid-morning, with egg dishes such as huevos rancheros,chilaquiles, meats, beans, tortillas, pastries, and fruits. Commercial cereals are widely spread now, and consumed in the belief of nutrition factors, regarding of it being a product of marketing. Today, almuerzo generally means "lunch," and the Mexican breakfast may be the lighter or heavier version, depending on the person or occasion. Menudo, a tripe stew considered a folk remedy for a hangover, has become a breakfast dish as well as one eaten at other meals. As in other countries, breakfast in Mexico differs according to the region. In the north it is usual to eat "güin con huevo" (scrambled eggs with wieners) or "machaca con huevo" (scrambled eggs with beef jerky, in some places also called machacado), these with wheat tortillas. In the central and southern regions of the country corn tortillas are used. Most breakfast dishes in the state of Veracruz are called "Antojitos" (this word can be used for other meals, which consist of pastries made with corn flour) and are very fatty. The most common ones are "picadas" (or pellizcadas, a tortilla with a sauce, onion and fresh cheese topping) and "empanadas" (tortillas filled with an ingredient like cheese, chicken or huitlacoche).

[edit] Middle East

  • Turkey. Turkish breakfast consists of fresh white sourdough bread, white cheese (feta), yellow cheese (kaşar), fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, black and/or green olives, butter, honey, clotted water buffalo cream (kaymak) preserves, soujouk, salami, pastirma and a boiled egg — all accompanied by hot black tea in small tulip-shaped glasses. Breakfasts can be very elaborate for company or on weekends, and may include a variety of breads, pastries, and spreads, and several fresh fruits and vegetables in season, but the essential breakfast ingredients for almost every Turk on a daily basis are bread, cheese, olives, and tea.
  • Jordan. Breakfast in Jordan varies greatly according to taste, but a typical Jordanian breakfast consists of tea or instant coffee, juice, a morning salad (cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, mint and olive oil), pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar. Hummus, Ful medames and Falafel are more common on the weekends. Other breakfast items include a variety of olives, cheeses, especially Goat Cheese, variety of vegetables, cereals, jams and pastries.

In most Arab areas, the most popular breakfast by far is pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar (a common Middle-Eastern spice mix). Other popular breakfast foods in the Mashriq include boiled eggs, olives, cheese and fava beans.

In Iran, varieties of Iranian flatbreads (naan), Iranian feta cheese (panir-e irani) or Persian Feta, butter (kareh), a variety of traditional marmelades (morabba) or jams, honey (angebin or asal), Cream sar sheer and hot tea are essential breakfast foods. Other foods, such as heavy cream, walnuts, hard and soft boiled eggs, and omelettes are also popular for breakfast. Traditionally, a choice of butter and cheese, butter and marmalade, heavy cream and honey, butter and honey, or cheese and walnuts are rubbed on fresh bread and folded into bite-sized sandwiches and are to be consumed with hot tea. The tea is preferably sweetened with sugar. Another breakfast food, which is usually consumed between the hours of three to five in the morning, in winter, is called halim. Halim is a combination of wheat, cinnamon, butter and sugar cooked with either shredded turkey/chicken or shredded lamb in huge pots. It is served hot and cold, but preferably hot. On special occasions in winter months or in cooler regions of the country (served as lunch or breakfast), a lamb head stew kale pache is consumed, ordinarily on early hours of cold Friday mornings.

In Lebanon, there are several types of breakfasts. Breakfasts include labneh, makoucheh, lahm bi ajin, and knefeh.

In Egypt the traditional breakfast is ful medames: slow cooked fava beans (sometimes with lentils) dressed in olive oil, lemon juice and garlic.

An Israeli breakfast typically consists of coffee, orange juice, fresh vegetables salad, goats/cows cream cheese, fresh bread or toast, olives, butter, fried eggs of your choice, and some small cookies or slices of cake. For an even fuller breakfast it might include hard-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, quark cheese, and Israeli salad. Another type of breakfast would be fried dough, malawach served with sweet fruits or something spicier. Hotels with continental breakfasts, in addition to the aforementioned items, will usually serve many different kinds of fish and yogurts, as well as an egg and spicy tomato dish known as shakshuka.

In Afghanistan a typical breakfast would be omelette, boiled eggs, cake or biscuits, butter toast, rice with kofta (meat) or sabzi (spinach), and for drinks they usually drink tea, khuemok chai (which has milk with black tea and flavour of rose).

[edit] United States and Canada

[edit] Traditional

Traditional breakfasts in the United States and Canada derive from the full English breakfast and other European breakfast traditions[citation needed] and feature predominantly sweet or mild-flavored foods, mostly hot. Typical items include hot oatmeal porridge, grits (in the South), other hot grain, porridges, eggs, bacon, ham, breakfast sausage or small link sausages, pan-fried potatoes (hash browns), biscuits, toast, pancakes, waffles, bagels, French toast, cornbread, English muffins, pastries (such as croissants, doughnuts, and muffins), and fresh or stewed fruits of various types (stone, citrus, etc.). Steak may be served with eggs on the traditional menu. Cold cereal has become nearly ubiquitous in recent decades, and yogurt is widely popular. Coffee, tea, milk and fruit juices are standard breakfast beverages.

Grits are usually part of a Southern breakfast in the United States

Many regions of the U.S.A. have local breakfast specialties that are less popular nationally. In the South, homemade biscuits served with country-style gravy (also called sawmill gravy), country ham and red eye gravy and grits are one traditional breakfast menu; the Southwest has huevos rancheros and spicy breakfast burritos; scrapple is a favorite in the Mid-Atlantic states; Salmon bagels are popular in the Northwest and pork roll is rarely available outside New Jersey and Philadelphia; and New Englanders still occasionally indulge in fried salt-pork, and pie. Fried eggs with bacon or sausage and American cheese on a seeded kaiser roll is a popular breakfast sandwich in parts of New York. Many Soul food breakfast menus across the country include fried chicken wings, catfish, pork chops and salmon croquettes [3]. Specialty items also vary in popularity regionally, such as linguiça sausage and Spam in Hawaii, crab cakes in southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic regions, andouille sausage, chicory coffee, Chisesi ham and beignets in Louisiana, chorizo in the Southwest, lox and smoked salmon in the Northwest, goetta in Greater Cincinnati.

Some regions of Canada especially Quebec, New Brunswick and Parts of Eastern Ontario will commonly include maple syrup with crêpes, French toast, pancakes, or waffles.

Hotels now often serve breakfast buffets for a fixed price, or offer sweet rolls, cereal, and coffee as a free "continental" breakfast. Traditionally, hotel breakfasts were made to order at a restaurant or by rooms service.

[edit] Contemporary

Scrambled eggs and pre-made pastries

Today, most Americans and Canadians eat a reduced breakfast most days, but may still enjoy a traditional hearty breakfast on weekends, holidays, and vacations. Having only coffee or skipping breakfast entirely is also common. Eating out for breakfast or brunch is common on weekends and holidays.

Eggs are strongly associated with breakfast, to the extent that many Americans and Canadians consider egg dishes out of place later in the day.

Waffles with fruit and sausage patties are a contemporary hearty breakfast, and would likely be enjoyed on a weekend or special occasion.

A typical contemporary combination of food for a hearty breakfast consists of eggs (fried or scrambled), one type of meat, and one or two starchy dishes; commonly hash browns and toast. A more basic breakfast combination would be a starchy food (such as toast, pastry, breakfast cereal, oatmeal, pancakes, or waffles) either alone or served with fruit and yogurt. This second option, similar to the Continental breakfasts served in Europe, is especially common in institutional situations where serving hot food is difficult, expensive, or impractical.

Restaurants that serve breakfast typically base their menus around egg dishes and meats such as sausage and bacon. Pancakes and waffles are also popular. An assemblage commonly known as a country breakfast in restaurants consists of eggs or omelette, sausage or bacon, hash browns, sausage gravy, coffee, biscuits or toast with jam or jelly, and fruit juice.

A typical breakfast for those that eat ordinary breakfast as a home meal is instant oatmeal or a cold breakfast cereal with milk. Leftovers from the previous day's meals may also be eaten, such as cold pizza.

A worker's breakfast often consists only of coffee and prepared food purchased on the way to work or brought from home, eaten during the morning commute or at the workplace just before clocking in. Food items that fit this eat-on-the-go strategy include various sweet breakfast breads and pastries, bagels (often with cream cheese), sweetened flavored yogurt cups, smoothies and milkshakes, fresh fruit, granola or "energy" bars, toaster pastries, and fast food. Many fast food restaurants sell breakfast versions of their typical offerings that include eggs and are usually sweeter and less spicy. Examples of such breakfasts-to-go are: egg-filled sandwiches on croissants, biscuits or muffins, and breakfast burritos filled with eggs, cheese and sometimes sausage.

Healthier breakfasts are gaining in popularity in some parts of the country such as California, featuring yogurt, whole-grain cereal, fresh fruit or egg-white omelets.

Coffee is the most common breakfast beverage. In the United States, 65% of coffee drunk during the day is with breakfast.[5]. Also common are tea, milk, hot chocolate, orange juice, and other fruit juices (grapefruit, tomato, etc). Occasionally, caffeinated carbonated beverages may be substituted for the more traditional coffee or tea. Espresso drinks such as cappuccino and latte have become increasingly popular since the 1990s. In Washington State and British Columbia, the cappuccino and latte are the default way of buying coffee for breakfast.

The modern options typical of the U.S.A. and Canada are representative of Western-style breakfasts that have become common worldwide, especially in industrialized nations.

Breakfast is thought as the foods typically eaten during morning hours, that are distinct from other foods even if eaten outside of the morning. In this sense, some serve breakfast for dinner. There are several fast food and casual dining chains in North America that specialize in hearty breakfast-style foods, such as pancakes and country breakfasts, that offer these all day long.[6] Like greasy spoons in the UK, American coffeeshops and diners typically serve breakfast foods all day.

[edit] Drinks

As the preceding regional descriptions show, beverage choices at breakfast are fairly uniform worldwide, comprising

  • Fruit juices (orange juice is the most popular),
  • Milk (hot, cold, possibly cultured), milk analogue or hot soya bean milk in Vietnam and China,
  • Hot caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee, and chocolate). (Caffeine is a stimulant.)

Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast. (Alcohol is a depressant and a psychoactive drug, and so its effects might not be desired during working hours.) Notable exceptions would be the Mimosa cocktail: champagne and orange juice (known as buck's fizz in the UK); Bloody Mary cocktail: vodka and spiced tomato juice; and Liqueur coffee: a coffee brew with a 25ml shot of liqueur, which generally has a lower alcohol content than spirits (~15-30%). Still, a Mimosa is normally served at brunch, and rarely consumed before 10:00 in the morning at breakfast proper.

[edit] Restaurants

Some restaurants devote themselves to breakfast or have special breakfast menus. The field is dominated on one hand by greasy spoons, diners, cafés, cafeterias, and fast food places, and by hotels. However, some breakfast places resemble standard restaurants in procedure, selection, and price.

[edit] Special occasions

Breakfast is occasionally served as an entertainment meal.

The serving of a pancake breakfast is traditional on Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday), and some celebrate a festive breakfast on Christmas morning.

During Ramadan, Muslims describe the meal after sunset that "breaks the fast" as Iftar.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

Rampersaud G.C., Pereira M.A., Girard B.L., Adams J. and Metzl J.D.; Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., May; 105(5):743-60, 2005. Abstract in PubMed

[edit] External links

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