Carl Jung

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Carl Gustav Jung
A recent edition of Jung's partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
A recent edition of Jung's partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
Born 26 July 1875(1875-07-26)
Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland
Died 6 June 1961 (aged 85)
Zürich, Switzerland
Residence Switzerland
Citizenship Swiss
Fields Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Analytical psychology
Institutions Burghölzli
Doctoral advisor Eugen Bleuler, Sigmund Freud
Known for Analytical psychology

Carl Gustav Jung (IPA[ˈkarl ˈgʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]) (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of Analytical psychology. Jung's approach to psychology has been influential in the field of depth psychology and in countercultural movements across the globe. Jung is considered as the first modern psychologist to state that the human psyche is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth.[1] He emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring other areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable ideas include the concept of psychological archetypes, the collective unconscious and synchronicity.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. He considered the process of individuation necessary for a person to become whole. This is a psychological process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy.[2] Individuation was the central concept of Analytical Psychology.[3]


[edit] Early years

Carl Jung was born Karle Gustav II Jung [4] in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton (or county) of Thurgau, as the fourth but only surviving child of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk. His father was a poor rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church while his mother came from a wealthy and established Swiss family.

Jung at age six.

When Jung was six months old his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen. Meanwhile, the tension between his parents was growing. An eccentric and depressed woman, Emilie Jung spent much of the time in her own separate bedroom, enthralled by the spirits that she said visited her at night.[citation needed] Jung slept in his father's room. From his mother’s room he felt some frightening influences. At night his mother became strange and mysterious. One night he saw a faintly luminous, indefinite figure, coming from her room. The head was detached from the neck and floated in the air, in front of the body.[5]

His mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment. Young Carl Jung was taken by his father to live with Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but was later brought back to the pastor's residence. Emilie's continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her son's attitude towards women — one of "innate unreliability", a view that he later called the "handicap I started off with".[6] After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer and was called to Kleinhüningen in 1879. The relocation brought Emilie Jung in closer contact to her family and lifted her melancholy and despondent mood.

A solitary and introverted child, Jung was convinced from childhood that he had two personalities — a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more at home in the eighteenth century.[7] "Personality Number 1", as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time, while "Personality Number 2" was a dignified, authoritative and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents he was rather disappointed in his father's academic approach to faith.

A number of childhood memories had made a life-long impression on him. As a boy he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pupil's pencil case and placed it inside the case. He then added a stone which he had painted into upper and lower halves and hid the case in the attic. Periodically he would come back to the mannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language.[8] This ceremonial act, he later reflected, brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. In later years he discovered that similarities existed in this memory and the totems of native peoples like the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim, or the tjurungas of Australia. This, he concluded, was an unconscious ritual that he did not question or understand at the time, but which was practiced in a strikingly similar way in faraway locations that he as a young boy had no way of consciously knowing about.[9] His findings on psychological archetypes and the collective unconscious were inspired in part by this experience.

Shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, at age 12, he was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he was for a moment unconscious. The thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school any more".[10] From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking worriedly to a visitor of his future ability to support himself, as they suspected he had epilepsy. With little money in the family, this brought the boy to reality and he realized the need for academic excellence. He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is".[11]

Jung had no plans to study psychiatry, because it was held in contempt those days. But as he started studying his psychiatric textbook, he became very excited when he read that psychoses are personality diseases. Immediately he understood this was the field that interested him the most. It combined both biological and spiritual facts and this was what he was searching for. [12]

He later worked in the Burghölzli, a psychiatric hospital in Zürich.

Jung in 1910.

In 1906, he published Studies in Word Association and later sent a copy of this book to Sigmund Freud, after which a close friendship between these two men followed for some six years (see section on Relationship with Freud). In 1912 Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (known in English as The Psychology of the Unconscious) resulting in a theoretical divergence between him and Freud and consequently a break in their friendship, both stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong. After this falling-out, Jung went through a pivotal and difficult psychological transformation, which was exacerbated by news of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's experience a "creative illness" and compared it to Freud's period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.

During World War I Jung was drafted as an army doctor and soon made commandant of an internment camp for British officers and soldiers. (Swiss neutrality obliged the Swiss to intern personnel from either side of the conflict who crossed their frontier to evade capture.) Jung worked to improve the conditions for these soldiers stranded in neutral territory; he encouraged them to attend university courses.[13]

[edit] Later life

Following World War I, Jung became a worldwide traveler, facilitated by his wife's inherited fortune as well as the funds he received through psychiatric fees, book sales, and honoraria. He visited Northern Africa shortly after, and New Mexico and Kenya in the mid-1920s. In 1938, he delivered the Terry Lectures, Psychology and Religion, at Yale University. It was at about this stage in his life that Jung visited India. His experience in India led him to become fascinated and deeply involved with Hindu philosophy, helping him form key concepts, including integrating spirituality into daily life and appreciation of the unconscious. In 1903, Jung had married Emma Rauschenbach, who came from one of the richest families in Switzerland. They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955, but he had more-or-less open relationships with other women. The most well-known women with whom Jung is believed to have had extramarital relationships were patient and friend Sabina Spielrein[14] and Toni Wolff.[15] Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including a work showing his late interest in reports of flying saucers. He also enjoyed a friendship with an English Roman Catholic priest, Father Victor White, who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial Answer to Job.[16]

Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential to become the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation, is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.[17]

In 1944 Jung published “Psychology and Alchemy”, where he analyzed the alchemical symbols and showed a direct relationship to the psychoanalytical process. He argued that the alchemical process was the transformation of the impure soul (lead) to perfected soul (gold). [12]

Jung died in 1961 in Küsnacht, after a short illness.

[edit] Relationship with Freud

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.

Jung was thirty when he sent his Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna. The first conversation between Jung and Freud lasted over 13 hours. Six months later, the then 50 year-old Freud reciprocated by sending a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zürich, which marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted more than six years and ended in May 1910. At this time Jung resigned as the chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

Today Jung's and Freud's theories influence different schools of psychiatry, but, more important, they influenced each other during intellectually formative years of their lives. In 1906 psychoanalysis as an institution was still in its early developmental stages. Jung, who had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna, now worked as a doctor under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in the Burghölzli and became familiar with Freud's idea of the unconscious through Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) and was a proponent of the new "psycho-analysis". At the time, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. The Burghölzli was a renowned psychiatric clinic in Zürich at which Jung was an up-and-coming young doctor whose research had already given him a worldwide reputation.

In 1908, Jung became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research. The following year, Jung traveled with Freud and Sandor Ferenczi to the U.S. to spread the news of psychoanalysis and in 1910, Jung became Chairman for Life of the International Psychoanalytical Association. While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (Psychology of the Unconscious), tensions grew between Freud and Jung, due in a large part to their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion. In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zürich, an incident Jung referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the U.S.A. and gave the Fordham lectures, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis. While they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the nature of libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory Jung became famous for in the following decades.

In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meeting among prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals.[18]. At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch.

Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology. This constituted the introduction of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century.

In the following years Jung experienced considerable isolation in his professional life, exacerbated through World War I. His Seven Sermons to the Dead (1917) reprinted in his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections (see bibliography) can also be read as expression of the psychological conflicts which beset Jung around the age of 40 after the break with Freud.

Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. According to Jung (though not according to Freud), Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Jung agreed with Freud's model of the unconscious, what Jung called the 'personal unconscious,' but he also proposed the existence of a second, far deeper form of the unconscious underlying the personal one. This was the collective unconscious, where the archetypes themselves resided, represented in mythology by a lake or other body of water, and in some cases a jug or other container. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche.

[edit] Travels

Jung's first trip outside of Europe was the 1909 conference at Clark University. The event was planned by psychologist G. Stanley Hall and included 27 distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists and psychologists. It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. For Jung especially, the experience forged welcome links with influential Americans.[19] Jung returned to the United States the next year for a brief visit, and again for a six-week lecture series at Fordham University in 1912. He made a more extensive trip westward in the winter of 1924-5, financed and organized by Fowler McCormick and George Porter. Of particular value to Jung was a visit with chieftain Mountain Lake at the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico.[20]

Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914. His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long. She translated and published the first English volume of his collected writings [21] and arranged for him to give a seminar in Cornwall in 1920. Another seminar was held in 1923, this one organized by Helton Godwin Baynes (known as Peter), and another in 1925.[20]

In October 1925, Jung embarked on his most ambitious expedition, the "Bugishu Psychological Expedition" to East Africa. He was accompanied by Peter Baynes and an American associate, George Beckwith. They became acquainted with an Englishwoman named Ruth Bailey on the ship, and she joined their safari a few weeks later. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgon, where Jung hoped to increase his understanding of "primitive psychology" through conversations with the culturally-isolated residents of that area. He was later to conclude that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised.[22]

After Jung's 1925 trip to the United States he did not return there until 1936, when he gave lectures in New York and New England for his growing group of American followers. He came to America only once more, in 1937. He left Zurich again in December 1937 for an extensive tour of India with Fowler McCormick. In India he felt himself "under the direct influence of a foreign culture" for the first time. His conversations in Africa had been strictly limited by the language barrier, but in India he was able to converse extensively. Unfortunately, he became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital. After 1938 his travels were confined to Europe.[23]

[edit] Response to Nazism

Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish, and he maintained relations with them through the nineteen thirties, when anti-semitism in and around Germany was on the rise. However, until 1939 he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi régime, and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi sympathizer.

Jung's interest in Germanic collective psychology was serious enough for one biographer, Richard Noll to characterize his worldview as "Volkish". [24] Though Noll describes Jung as "perhaps anti-Semitic", he finds "no evidence that he was ever a Nazi." [25][26]

There are writings that show that Jung's sympathies were against, rather than for, Nazis.[27]In his 1936 essay "Wotan" Jung described Germany as "infected" by "one man who is obviously 'possessed,'...", and as "rolling towards perdition"[28], and wrote "...what a so-called Führer does with a mass movement can plainly be seen if we turn our eyes to the north or south of our country." [29] The essay does, however, speak in more positive terms of Jakob Wilhelm Hauer and his German Faith Movement [30] which was loyal to the Führer.

In 1934, when Jung presented his paper "A Review of the Complex Theory" in his presidential address, he did not discount the importance of Freud and gave as much credit as he possibly could to his old mentor.

In 1943 Jung aided the U.S. Office of Strategic Services by analyzing the psychology of Nazi leaders.[31]

In an interview with Carol Baumann in 1948, published in the Bulletin of Analytical Psychology Club of New York, December 1949, Jung emphatically denies rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying:

It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view. Nearly every one of these passages [referring to a list of quotations cited against him] has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism.

A full response from Jung discounting the rumors can be found in C.G Jung Speaking, Interviews and Encounters, Princeton University Press, 1977.

[edit] Jung and professional organizations: 1933 to 1939

In 1933, after the Nazis took power in Germany, Jung took part in restructuring of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy - (Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie), a German-based professional body with an international membership. The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies

  • A strictly German body, the Deutsche Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie, led by Matthias Heinrich Göring, an Adlerian psychotherapist [32]and a cousin of the prominent Nazi Hermann Göring;
  • An International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy, led by Jung. The German body was to be affiliated to the international society, as were new national societies being set up in Switzerland and elsewhere.[33]

The International Society's constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, rather than through one of the national affiliated societies, a provision to which Jung drew attention in a circular in 1934. [34] This implied that German Jewish doctors could maintain their professional status as individual members of the international body, even though they were excluded from the German affiliate (as from other German medical societies operating under the Nazis).[35]

As leader of the international body, Jung assumed overall responsibility for its publication, the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie. In 1933, this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi positions [36] and Hitler's book Mein Kampf. [37]In 1934 Jung wrote in a Swiss publication, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, that he experienced "great surprise and disappointment" [38] when the Zentralblatt associated his name with the pro-Nazi statement.

Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake". [39] He did not end his relationship with the Zentralblatt at this time, but he did arrange the appointment of a new managing editor, Carl Alfred Meier of Switzerland. For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy.[40]

In the face of energetic German attempts to Nazify the international body, Jung resigned its presidency in 1939,[40] the year the Second World War started.

[edit] Influence

Jung has had an enduring influence on psychology as well as wider society. He founded a new school of psychotherapy, called analytical psychology or Jungian psychology.

[edit] Spirituality as a cure for alcoholism

Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism and he is considered to have had an indirect role in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous.[42] Jung's influence can sometimes be found in more unexpected quarters. For example, Jung once treated an American patient (Rowland Hazard III), suffering from chronic alcoholism. After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that occasionally such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics where all else had failed.

Rowland took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal spiritual experience. He returned home to the United States and joined a Christian evangelical Re-Armament movement known as the Oxford Group. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. One of the alcoholics he told was Ebby Thacher, a long-time friend and drinking buddy of Bill Wilson, later co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Thacher told Wilson about Jung's ideas. Wilson, who was finding it impossible to maintain sobriety, was impressed and sought out his own spiritual experience. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program, and from there into the whole twelve-step recovery movement, although AA as a whole is not Jungian and Jung had no role in the formation of that approach or the twelve steps.

The above claims are documented in the letters of Carl Jung and Bill W., excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous.[43] Although the detail of this story is disputed by some historians, Jung himself made reference to its substance — including the Oxford Group participation of the individual in question — in a talk that was issued privately in 1954 as a transcript from shorthand taken by an attender (Jung reportedly approved the transcript), later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life ("For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus.'" Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Catholics.[44])

[edit] Art therapy

Jung proposed that Art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal.[45] In his work with patients and in his own personal explorations, Jung wrote that art expression and images found in dreams could be helpful in recovering from trauma and emotional distress. Jung often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions at times of emotional distress, which he recognized as recreational.[45]

[edit] Influences on culture

[edit] Literature

  • Jung had a 16-year-long friendship with the author Laurens van der Post from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life.[46]
  • Hermann Hesse, author of works such as Siddhartha and Der Steppenwolf, was treated by Dr. Joseph Lang, a student of Jung. This began for Hesse a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis, through which he came to know Jung personally.[47]
  • James Joyce in his Finnegans Wake, asks "Is the Co-education of Animus and Anima Wholly Desirable?" his answer perhaps being contained in his line "anama anamaba anamabapa." The book also ridicules Jung's analytical psychology and Freud's psychoanalysis by referring to "psoakoonaloose." Jung had been unable to help Joyce's daughter, Lucia, who Joyce claimed was a girl "yung and easily freudened."[citation needed] Lucia was diagnosed as schizophrenic and was eventually permanently institutionalized.[48]
  • Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be read as an ironic parody of Jung's "four stages of eroticism."[49]
  • Jung appears as a character in the novel Possessing the Secret of Joy by Alice Walker. He appears as the therapist of Tashi, the novel's protagonist. He is usually called "Mzee" but is identified by Alice Walker in the afterword.[50]
  • Morris West's 1983 novel "The World is Made of Glass" investigates Jung's relationships with a mysterious woman patient, Toni Wolf, and Emma.
  • Miguel Serrano had a long standing friendship with both Jung and Hesse, which he recalls in "El Circulo Hermetico" or "A Record of Two Friendships"
  • Jung is mentioned frequently throughout several books called "The Princess Diaries" by Meg Cabot. In which, the main character Amelia, named throughout the books as Mia, writes letters to him even though he is, as she puts it, dead. She writes several times about self-actualization and help over her current problems and affairs.

[edit] Art

[edit] Television and film

  • Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini, one of art cinema's most renowned filmmakers, brought to the screen an exuberant imagery shaped by his encounter with the ideas of Carl Jung, especially Jungian dream interpretation. Fellini preferred Jung to Freud because Jungian psychoanalysis defined the dream not as a symptom of a disease that required a cure but rather as a link to archetypal images shared by all of humanity.[52]
  • Dr. Niles Crane on the popular television sitcom Frasier is a devoted Jungian psychiatrist, while his brother Dr. Frasier Crane is a Freudian psychiatrist. This is mentioned a number of times in the series, and from time to time forms a point of argument between the two brothers. One memorable scene had Niles filling in for Frasier on Frasier's call-in radio program, in which Niles introduces himself as the temporary substitute saying, "...and while my brother is a Freudian, I am a Jungian, so there'll be no blaming mommy today." He has a bust of Jung in his office, placed directly above and behind his desk, as if to oversee his professional activity.
  • Jung and his ideas are mentioned often, and sometimes play an integral role, in the television series Northern Exposure. Jung even makes an appearance in one of the character's dreams.
  • Television programs have been devoted to Jung; for example, in 1984, an edition of the BBC documentary Sea of Faith was about Jung.
  • Stanley Kubrick's "Full Metal Jacket" makes a mention of Jungian beliefs when the protagonist, Joker, mentions the duality of man he was displaying by wearing a peace button with 'born to kill' written on his helmet.

[edit] Music

  • An opera, The Dream Healer, based on the book Pilgrim by Timothy Findley, centres on Jung's efforts to bridge the known and unknown aspects of the human mind.
  • Jung appears on the cover of The Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.[citation needed]
  • Peter Gabriel's song "Rhythm of the Heat" (Security, 1982), tells about Jung's visit to Africa, during which he joined a group of tribal drummers and dancers and became overwhelmed by the fear of losing control of himself. At the time Jung was exploring the concept of the collective unconscious and was afraid he would come under control of the music. Gabriel learned about Jung's journey to Africa from the essay Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams (ISBN 0-691-09968-5). In the song Gabriel tries to capture the powerful feelings the African tribal music evoked in Jung by means of intense use of tribal drumbeats. The original song title was Jung in Africa.[53]
  • On the cover of The Police's final album, Synchronicity, which was named after Carl Jung's theory, Sting is seen reading a book called "Synchronicity" by Carl Jung.
  • Tool's song "Forty-Six & 2" references changing through one's "shadow", a recurring theme in Jung's work that represents part of one's personality that one might hate or fear.
  • The British composer Michael Tippett was one of the first composers to use Jungian archetypes as the basis for characterisation in his operas, such as The Midsummer Marriage and The Knot Garden. The notion of the Jungian reconciliation of opposites pervades the whole of Tippett's output.

[edit] See also




[edit] Notes and references

  1. ^ Dunne, Clare (2002). "Prelude". Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography. pp. 3. 
  2. ^ Jung's Individuation process Retrieved on 2009-2-20
  3. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 209. 
  4. ^ As a university student Jung changed the modernized spelling of his name to the original family form. Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. pp. 7–8, 53. ISBN 0-316-15938-7. 
  5. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 18. 
  6. ^ Jung, C.G.; Aniela Jaffé (1965). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Random House. pp. 8. 
  7. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 33–34. 
  8. ^ Malchiodi, Cathy A.. The Art Therapy Sourcebook. pp. 134. 
  9. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 22–23. 
  10. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 30. 
  11. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 32. 
  12. ^ a b Carl Jung Retrieved on 2009-3-7
  13. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (1999). Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books. pp. 56. 
  14. ^ Hayman, Ronald (1999). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.. pp. 84–5, 92, 98–9, 102–7, 121, 123, 111, 134–7, 138–9, 145, 147, 152, 176, 177, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 213–4. ISBN 0393019675. 
  15. ^ A Life of Jung. pp. 184–8, 189, 244, 261, 262. 
  16. ^ In Psychology and Religion, v.11, Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Princeton. It was first published as "Antwort auf Hiob," Zürich, 1952 and translated into English in 1954, in London.
  17. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation:Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0835607827. 
  18. ^ Jonest, Ernest, ed. Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
  19. ^ Rosenzwieg, Saul (1992). Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. ISBN 0-88937-110-5. 
  20. ^ a b McGuire, William (1995). "Firm Affinities: Jung's relations with Britain and the United States". Journal of Analytical Psychology 40: 301-326. 
  21. ^ Jung, C.G. (1916). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. 
  22. ^ Burleson, Blake W. (2005). Jung in Africa. ISBN 0-8264-6921-3. 
  23. ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. p. 417-430. ISBN 0-316-07665-1. 
  24. ^ Noll, Richard (1997); The Aryan Christ – the Secret Life of Carl Jung; Random House, New York; ISBN 0 679 44945 0; p 273.
  25. ^ Noll, Robert (1997); The Aryan Christ – the Secret Life of Carl Jung; Random House, New York; ISBN 0 679 44945 0; p 273.
  26. ^ See also ongoing discussion in relation to "post-Jungian" interpretation. ArticleThe Recent Attacks on Jung: Answer to the Post-Jungians
  27. ^ C.GJung,‘ Die Beziehungen zwishen dem Ich und dem UnbewBten’, chapter one,second section, 1928. Also,C.G.Jung‘ Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte’, 1946. Speeches made in 1933,1937 are excerpted. He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob, and were under its strong influence. He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered, he was blacklisted by Nazis. They eliminated his writings.
  28. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 185.
  29. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 190.
  30. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 190-191.
  31. ^ Article Jung, Carl Gustav in Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
  32. ^ Lifton, Robert Jay (27 January 1985) "Psychotherapy in the Third Reich" New York Times
  33. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0 340 12515 2; pages 79 - 80.
  34. ^ An English translation of the circular is in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 545 – 546.
  35. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0 340 12515 2; page 82.
  36. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0 340 12515 2; page 80.
  37. ^ Mark Medweth.« Jung and the Nazis », in Psybernetika, Winter 1996.
  38. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 538.
  39. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 538. See also Stevens, Anthony, "Jung: a very short introduction", Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0192854585
  40. ^ a b Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0 340 12515 2; page 83.
  41. ^ Jung, C.G. and Wolfgang Pauli, The Interpretation of Nature and Psyche, New York: Pantheon Books, 1955
  42. ^ Levin, Jerome David (1995). "Other etiological theories of Alcoholism". Introduction to Alcoholism Counseling. Taylor & Francis. pp. 167. 
  43. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. (1984) Pass It On: The Story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. ISBN 0-916856-12-7, pp. 381-386
  44. ^ Jung, C. G.; Adler, G. and Hull, R. F. C., eds. (1977) Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09892-0, p. 272, as noted 2007-08-26 at
  45. ^ a b Malchiodi, Cathy A.. The Art Therapy Sourcebook. pp. 134. 
  46. ^ ""Laurens van der Post"" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
  47. ^ ""Hermann Hesse"" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
  48. ^ Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. 
  49. ^ Hiromi Yoshida, Joyce & Jung: The "Four Stages of Eroticism" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: Peter Lang, 2007).
  50. ^ ""Possessing the Secret of Joy"" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
  51. ^ Birkhäuser, Peter; Marie-Louise von Franz, Eva Wertanschlag and Kaspar Birkhäuser (1980-1991). Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhäuser. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 3764311908. 
  52. ^ Bondanella, Peter E.. The Films of Federico Fellini. p. 94. 
  53. ^ ""Rhythm Of The Heat by Peter Gabriel", Song Facts" (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-12-16. 

[edit] Further reading

Introductory texts include:

  • The Portable Jung, edited by Joseph Campbell (Viking Portable), ISBN 0-14-015070-6
  • Edward F Edinger, Ego and Archetype, (Shambala), ISBN 0-87773-576-X
  • Another recommended tool for navigating Jung's works is Robert Hopcke's book, A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung, ISBN 1-57062-405-4. He offers short, lucid summaries of all of Jung's major ideas and suggests readings from Jung's and others' work that best present that idea.
  • Edward C. Whitmont, The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1969, 1979, ISBN 0-691-02454-5
  • Anthony Stevens, Jung. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994, ISBN 0-19-285458-5
  • O'Connor, Peter A. (1985). Understanding Jung, understanding yourself. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0 809127997. 
  • The Cambridge Companion to Jung, second edition, edited by Polly Young-Eisendrath and Terence Dawson, published in 2008 by Cambridge University Press.

Texts in various areas of Jungian thought:

  • Robert Aziz, C.G. Jung’s Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (1990), currently in its 10th printing, is a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0166-9.
  • Robert Aziz, Synchronicity and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology in Carl B. Becker, ed. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. ISBN 0-313-30452-1.
  • Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm:The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 13:978-0-7914-6982-8.
  • Edward F. Edinger, The Mystery of The Coniunctio, ISBN 0-919123-67-8. A good explanation of Jung's foray into the symbolism of alchemy as it relates to individuation and individual religious experience. Many of the alchemical symbols recur in contemporary dreams (with creative additions from the unconscious e.g. space travel, internet, computers)
  • James A Hall M.D., Jungian Dream Interpretation, ISBN 0-919123-12-0. A brief, well structured overview of the use of dreams in therapy.
  • James Hillman, "Healing Fiction", ISBN 0-88214-363-8. Covers Jung, Adler, and Freud and their various contributions to understanding the soul.
  • Andrew Samuels, Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, ISBN 0-415-05910-0
  • June Singer, Boundaries of the Soul, ISBN 0-385-47529-2. On psychotherapy
  • Marion Woodman, The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation ISBN 0-919123-20-1. The recovery of feminine values in women (and men). There are many examples of clients' dreams, by an experienced analyst.
  • Frederic Fappani," Education and Archetypal Psychology ", Ed.Cursus, Paris.

Academic texts:

  • Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (Routledge), ISBN 0-415-08102-5.
  • Lucy Huskinson, Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites (Routledge), IBSN 1583918337 Excellent analysis of the highly significant anticipation and influence of the philosophy of Nietzsche on Jung.

Jung-Freud relationship:

  • Kerr, John. A Most Dangerous Method : The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. Knopf 1993. ISBN 0-679-40412-0.

Other people's recollections of Jung:

  • van der Post, Laurens, "Jung and the story of our time", New York : Pantheon Books, 1975. ISBN 0394492072

Critical scholarship on Jung by historians:

  • Richard Noll, The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton University Press, 1994); and
  • Richard Noll, The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung (Random House, 1997)[1]
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Cult Fictions, ISBN 0-415-18614-5. Critique of the above works by Noll.
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology : The Dream of a Science, ISBN 0-521-53909-9. A comprehensive study of the origins of Jung's psychology which places it in a historical and philosophical context. The author calls this a "Cubist history".
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung Stripped Bare, ISBN 1-85575-317-0. Critique of Jung biographies.
  • Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 2003.

[edit] Jung bibliography

  • Anthony Stevens. "Jung, A Very Short Introduction" (1994)

An early writing by Jung, dating from 1916, was his poetic work, The Seven Sermons To The Dead (Full Text). Written in the persona of the 2nd century religious teacher Basilides of Alexandria, it explores ancient religious and spiritual themes, including those of gnosticism. This work is included in some editions of Memories, Dreams, Reflections.

[edit] External links

NAME Jung, Carl Gustav
SHORT DESCRIPTION Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology
DATE OF BIRTH 26 July 1875
PLACE OF BIRTH Kesswil, in the Swiss canton (state) of Thurgau
DATE OF DEATH 6 June 1961
PLACE OF DEATH Zürich, Switzerland

Personal tools