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A Traceur performs an équilibre de chat (cat balance).

Parkour (sometimes also abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement[1] (English: the art of movement) is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently and quickly as possible, using principally the abilities of the human body.[2] It is meant to help one overcome obstacles, which can be anything in the surrounding environment—from branches and rocks to rails and concrete walls—and can be practiced in both rural and urban areas. Injuries, sometimes permenant, from jumping, twisting and falling are common.[3] Parkour practitioners are referred to as traceurs, or traceuses for females.[4]


[edit] Overview

A traceur performing a passe muraille.

Parkour is a physical activity that is difficult to categorize. It is often mis-categorized as a sport or an extreme sport; however, parkour has no set of rules, team work, formal hierarchy, or competitiveness.[5][6] Most experienced traceurs think of parkour as a discipline closer to martial arts.[7][8] According to David Belle, "the physical aspect of parkour is getting over all the obstacles in your path as you would in an emergency. You want to move in such a way, with any movement, as to help you gain the most ground on someone or something, whether escaping from it or chasing toward it."[9] Thus, when faced with a hostile confrontation with a person, one will be able to speak, fight, or flee. As martial arts are a form of training for the fight, parkour is a form of training for the flight.[8] Because of its unique nature, it is often said that parkour is in its own category.

A characteristic of parkour is efficiency. Practitioners move not only as rapidly as they can, but also in the most direct and efficient way possible. This characteristic distinguishes it from the similar practice of freerunning, which places more emphasis on freedom of movement and creativity. Although, it is not certain whether freerunning was initially intended to be similar to Parkour[10] Efficiency also involves avoiding injuries, short and long-term, part of why parkour's unofficial motto is être et durer (to be and to last). Those who are skilled at this activity normally have an extremely keen spatial awareness.[citation needed]

Traceurs say that parkour also influences one's thought process by enhancing self-confidence and critical-thinking skills that allow one to overcome everyday physical and mental obstacles.[5][11][12] A study by Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence in France reflects that traceurs seek more sensation and leadership than gymnastic practitioners.[13]

[edit] Terminology

The first terms used to describe this form of training were l'art du déplacement and le parcours.[14]

The term parkour IPA[paʁˈkuʁ] was defined by David Belle and his friend Hubert Koundé. It derives from parcours du combattant, the classic obstacle course method of military training proposed by Georges Hébert.[15][16][17]

Traceur [tʁasœʁ] and traceuse [tʁasøz] are substantives derived from the French verb tracer which normally means "to trace",[18] or "to draw", but also translates as "to go fast".[19]

[edit] History

[edit] Hébert's legacy

Before World War I, former French naval officer Georges Hébert traveled throughout the world. During a visit to Africa, he was impressed by the physical development and skills of indigenous tribes that he met:[20]

Their bodies were splendid, flexible, nimble, skillful, enduring, resistant and yet they had no other tutor in gymnastics but their lives in nature.

Georges Hébert, [20]

On May 8, 1902 the town of Saint-Pierre, Martinique, where he was stationed, suffered a volcanic eruption. Hébert coordinated the escape and rescue of some 700 people. This experience had a profound effect on him, and reinforced his belief that athletic skill must be combined with courage and altruism. He eventually developed this ethos into his motto: "être fort pour être utile" (be strong to be useful).[20]

Inspired by indigenous tribes, Hébert became a physical education tutor at the college of Reims in France. He began to define the principles of his own system of physical education and to create apparatus and exercises to teach his méthode naturelle,[20] which he defined as:

Methodical, progressive and continuous action, from childhood to adulthood, that has as its objective: assuring integrated physical development; increasing organic resistances; emphasizing aptitudes across all genres of natural exercise and indispensable utilities (walking, running, jumping, quadrupedal movement, climbing, equilibrium (balancing), throwing, lifting, defending and swimming); developing one's energy and all other facets of action or virility such that all assets, both physical and virile, are mastered; one dominant moral idea: altruism.

Georges Hébert, [21]

Hébert set up a méthode naturelle session consisting of ten fundamental groups: walking, running, jumping, quadrupedal movement, climbing, balancing, throwing, lifting, self-defense, swimming, which are part of three main forces:[21]

  • Energetic or virile sense: energy, willpower, courage, coolness and firmness
  • Moral sense: benevolence, assistance, honor and honesty
  • Physical sense: muscles and breath

During World War I and World War II, Hébert's teaching continued to expand, becoming the standard system of French military education and training. Thus, Hébert was one of the proponents of parcours — an obstacle course, developed by a Swiss architect,[22] which is standard in the military training and led to the development of civilian fitness trails and confidence courses.[20] Also, French soldiers and firefighters developed their obstacle courses known as parcours du combattant and parcours SP.[23]

[edit] Belle family

David Belle, parkour founder, at The New Yorker Festival.

Raymond Belle was born in French Indochina (now Vietnam). His father died during the First Indochina War and Raymond was separated from his mother during the division of Vietnam in 1954. He was taken by the French Army in Da Lat and received a military education and training that shaped his character.[24]

After the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Raymond was repatriated to France and completed his military education in 1958. Although trained to kill, he would go on to save lives. At age 19, his dedication to fitness and willingness helped him to serve in Paris's regiment of sapeurs-pompiers (the French fire service).[24]

With his athletic ability, Raymond became the regiment's champion rope-climber and joined the regiment's elite team, composed of the unit's fittest and most agile firefighters. Its members were the ones called for the most difficult and dangerous rescue missions.[24]

Lauded for his coolness, courage, and spirit of self-sacrifice, Raymond was to have a key role in the Parisian firefighters' first ever helicopter-borne operation. His many rescues, medals and exploits gave him a reputation of being an exceptional pompier and inspired the next young generation,[24] especially his son David Belle.[25]

Born in a firefighter's family, David was influenced by stories of heroism. At age 17, David left school to seek his love of freedom, action, and to develop his strength and dexterity to be useful in life, as Raymond had advised him.[23]

Raymond introduced his son David to obstacle course training and the méthode naturelle. David participated in activities such as martial arts and gymnastics, and sought to apply his athletic prowess for some practical purpose.[23]

[edit] Development in Lisses

It was the end of the day. I was just doing stuff with a bunch of kids. I fall all the time — I fall like the monkeys — but it never shows up on film, because they just want the spectacular stuff.

David Belle on his video, The New Yorker[22]

After moving to Lisses commune, David Belle continued his journey with others.[23] "From then on we developed," says Sébastien Foucan in Jump London, "And really the whole town was there for us; there for parkour. You just have to look, you just have to think, like children." This, as he describes, is "the vision of parkour."

In 1997, David Belle, Sébastien Foucan, Yann Hnautra, Charles Perrière, Malik Diouf, Guylain N'Guba-Boyeke, Châu Belle-Dinh, and Williams Belle created the group called Yamakasi,[26] whose name comes from the Lingala language of Congo, and means strong spirit, strong body, strong man, endurance. After the musical show Notre Dame de Paris, Belle and Foucan split up due to money and disagreements over the definition of l'art du déplacement,[25] resulting in the production of Yamakasi (film) in 2001 and the French documentary Génération Yamakasi without Belle and Foucan.

Over the years, as dedicated practitioners improved their skills, their moves grew. Building-to-building jumps and drops of over a story became common in media portrayals, often leaving people with a slanted view of parkour. Actually, ground-based movements are more common than anything involving rooftops, due to accessibility to find legal places to climb in an urban area. From the Parisian suburbs, parkour became a widely practiced activity outside France.

[edit] Philosophy and theories

According to Williams Belle, the philosophies and theories behind Parkour are an integral aspect of the art[citation needed], one that many non-practitioners have never been exposed to. In his own words:[12]

Why do I train people? I think it is important to preserve that. I think they will share this practical experience. And represent it is... I believe it is just share something. It should not be lost. It has to stay alive! I do not want to have this experience, and just write it in a book, it would become a dead experience! I want it to be alive! I want people to use it, to live it and to experience it.

Williams Belle, [12]

Another aspect of the philosophy is the freedom. Traceurs say that parkour can be practiced by anyone, at anytime, anywhere in the world. This freedom has made it a powerful cultural force in Europe, with its influence spreading around the world. Châu Belle Dinh states more behind philosophy than its definition:

L'art du déplacement is a type of freedom. It is a kind of expression, trust in you. I do not think there is a clear definition for it. When you explain it to people, you say: yes I climb, I jump, I keep moving! It is the definition! But no one understands. They need to see things. It is only a state of mind. It is when you trust yourself, earn an energy. A better knowledge of your body, be able to move, to overcome obstacles in real world, or in virtual world, thing of life. Everything that touch you in the head, everything that touch in your heart. Everything touching you physically.

Châu Belle Dinh, [12]

A recent convention of parkour philosophy has been the idea of "human reclamation[27]." This theory asserts that parkour is a means of stepping outside of the sedentary modern lifestyle and re-engaging with what it means to be human by moving in the same manner of primordial humans. Andy (Animus) of Parkour North America clarifies:

In a lot of ways, parkour is a means of reclaiming what it means to be a human being. It teaches us to move using the natural methods that we should have learned from infancy. It teaches us to touch the world and interact with it, instead of being sheltered by it.


It is as much as a part of truly learning this activity as well as being able to master the movements, it gives you the ability to "overcome your fears and pains and reapply this to life" as you must be able to control your mind in order to master the art of parkour."[citation needed]

Andreas Kalteis, a non-Yamakasi traceur, has stated in documentary Parkour Journeys:

To understand the philosophy of parkour takes quite a while, because you have to get used to it first. While you still have to try to actually do the movements, you will not feel much about the philosophy. But when you're able to move in your own way, then you start to see how parkour changes other things in your life; and you approach problems — for example in your job — differently, because you have been trained to overcome obstacles. This sudden realization comes at a different time to different people: some get it very early, some get it very late. You can't really say 'it takes two months to realize what parkour is'. So, now, I don't say 'I do parkour', but 'I live parkour', because its philosophy has become my life, my way to do everything.

Andreas Kalteis, [11]

[edit] Non-rivalry

A campaign was started on May 1, 2007 by Parkour.NET portal[28] to preserve parkour's philosophy against sport competition and rivalry.[29] In the words of Erwan (Hebertiste):

Competition pushes people to fight against others for the satisfaction of a crowd and/or the benefits of a few business people by changing its mindset. Parkour is unique and cannot be a competitive sport if it ignores its altruistic core to self development. If parkour becomes a sport, it will be hard to seriously teach and spread parkour as a non-competitive activity. And a new sport will be spread that may be called parkour, but that won't hold its philosophical essence anymore.


[edit] Movements

There are fewer predefined movements in parkour than gymnastics, as it does not have a list of appropriate "moves". Each obstacle a traceur faces presents a unique challenge on how they can overcome it effectively, which depends on their body type, speed and angle of approach, the physical make-up of the obstacle, etc. Parkour is about training the bodymind to react to those obstacles appropriately with a technique that works. Often that technique cannot and need not be classified and given a name. In many cases effective parkour techniques depend on fast redistribution of body weight and the use of momentum to perform seemingly impossible or difficult body manoeuvres at speed. Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor, such as body rolls when landing which reduce impact forces on the legs and spine, allowing a traceur to jump from greater heights than those often considered sensible in other forms of acrobatics and gymnastics.

According to David Belle, you want to move in such a way that will help you gain the most ground as if escaping or chasing something. Also, wherever you go, you must be able to get back, if you go from A to B, you need to be able to get back from B to A,[9] but not necessarily with the same movements or passements.

Despite this, there are many basic techniques that are emphasized to beginners for their versatility and effectiveness. Most important are good jumping and landing techniques. The roll, used to limit impact after a drop and to carry one's momentum onward, is often stressed as the most important technique to learn. Parkour has sometimes received concerns for its health issues due to large drops.[30][31][32] Communities in Great Britain have been warned by law enforcement or fire and rescue of the risk in jumping in the high buildings.[33][34] Although David Belle has never been seriously injured while practising parkour,[35] there is no careful study about the health issues of large drops and traceurs stress gradual progression to avoid any problems. Despite this, the American traceur Mark Toorock and Lanier Johnson, executive director of the American Sports Medicine Institute say that injuries are rare because parkour is based on the control of movements, not on what cannot be controlled.[36]

[edit] Basic movements

Some movements defined in parkour are:[2]

Synonym Description
French English
Atterrissage [ateʁisaʒ] or réception [ʁesɛpsjɔ̃] Landing Bending the knees when toes make contact with ground (never land flat footed; always land on toes and ball of your foot).
Équilibre [ekilibʁ] Balance Walking along the crest of an obstacle; literally "balance."
Équilibre de chat Cat balance Quadrupedal movement along the crest of an obstacle.
Franchissement [fʁɑ̃ʃismɑ̃] Underbar Jumping or swinging through a gap between obstacles; literally "to cross" or "to break through."
Lâché [laʃe] Lache, swing Hanging drop; lâcher literally meaning "to let go." To hang or swing (on a bar, on a wall, on a branch) and let go, dropping to the ground or to hang from another object. This can refer to almost all hanging/swinging type movements.
Passe muraille [pas myʁaj] Pop vault, wall hop, Wallpass, wallrun Overcoming a tall structure, usually by use of a step off the wall to transform forward momentum into upward momentum, then using the arms to climb onto and over the object.
Dyno This movement comes from climbing terminology, and encompasses leaping from a position similar to an armjump, then grabbing an obstacle usually higher than the initial starting place, often used for an overhang. This movement is used when a simpler movement is not possible.
Passement [pasmɑ̃] Vault , Pass To move over an object with one's hand(s) on an object to ease the movement.
Demitour [dəmi tuʁ] Turn vault, Turn Down A vault or dropping movement involving a 180° turn; literally "half turn." This move is often used to place yourself hanging from an object in order to shorten a drop or prepare for a jump.
Passement Speed vault To overcome an obstacle by jumping side-ways first, then placing one hand on the obstacle to self-right your body and continue running.
Lazy vault To overcome an obstacle by using a one-handed vault, then using the other hand at the end of the vault to push oneself forwards in order to finish the move.
Saut de chat [sod ʃa] Cat pass/jump, (king) kong vault, monkey vault The saut de chat involves diving forward over an obstacle so that the body becomes horizontal, pushing off with the hands and tucking the legs, such that the body is brought back to a vertical position, ready to land.
Dash vault This vault involves using the hands to move oneself forwards at the end of the vault. One uses both hands to overcome an obstacle by jumping feet first over the obstacle and pushing off with the hands at the end. Visually, this might seem similar to the saut de chat, but reversed. David Belle has officially rebuked this vault however,[citation needed] and thus its inclusion as a parkour movement is debatable.
Reverse vault A vault involving a 180° rotation such that the traceur's back faces forward as they pass the obstacle. The purpose of the rotation is ease of technique in the case of otherwise awkward body position or loss of momentum prior to the vault.
Planche [plɑ̃ʃ] Muscle-up or climb-up To get from a hanging position (wall, rail, branch, arm jump, etc) into a position where your upper body is above the obstacle, supported by the arms. This then allows for you to climb up onto the obstacle and continue.
Roulade [ʁulad] Roll A forward roll where the hands, arms and diagonal of the back contact the ground, often called breakfall. Used primarily to transfer the momentum/energy from jumps and to minimise impact preventing a painful landing. Identical to the basic Kaiten or Ukemi of martial arts such as Judo, Ninjutsu, Jujitsu, and Aikido.
Saut de bras [sodbra] Arm jump, cat leap To land on the side of an obstacle in a hanging/crouched position, the hands gripping the top edge, holding the body, ready to perform a muscle up.
Saut de fond [sodfɔ̃] Drop Literally 'jump to the ground' / 'jump to the floor'. To jump down, or drop down from something.
Saut de détente [sodə detɑ̃t] Gap jump, running jump To jump from one place/object to another, over a gap/distance. This technique is most often followed with a roll.
Saut de précision [so d presiziɔ̃] Precision Static or moving jump from one object to a precise spot on another object. This term can refer to any form of jumping however.
Tic tac [tik tak] Tic tac To step off a wall in order to overcome another obstacle or gain height to grab something.

It is notable how certain French terms will be used undiluted, commonly 'Lache' or 'Passe Muraille' and some will be used in English, usually with simple names such as 'Catpass' and 'Precision'. It is important to remember that movements are not single 'tricks' in Parkour, but more that technique names are categories to place movement types into—much like how martial arts use different kicking techniques, yet they are all still kicks.[citation needed]

[edit] Training places

Unlike many other activities, parkour is not currently practiced in dedicated public facilities (e.g., skateparks), although efforts are being made to create places for it.[37] Traceurs practice parkour in urban areas like gyms, parks, playgrounds and abandoned structures. Concerns have been raised regarding trespassing, damage of property,[38] and the practice in inappropriate places.[39]

There is also the concern that practitioners are needlessly risking damage to both themselves and rooftops by practicing at height, with police forces calling for practitioners to stay off the rooftops.[40][41] Figures within the parkour community, including parkour instructors and David Belle, agree that this sort of behaviour is not to be encouraged.[40][42][43][44]

These issues, however, do not appear to apply to the majority of practitioners whose relationship with authorities is generally a positive one.[45]

[edit] Accessories

There is no equipment required, although practitioners normally train wearing light casual clothing:[46][47]

The only gear really required is comfortable athletic shoes that are generally light, with good grip. British based company Inov-8 offers a parkour specific line. Some traceurs use sweat-bands for forearm protection, or even thin athletic gloves to protect the hands, but most traceurs advise against this as it reduces grip and feel.

However, since parkour is closely related to méthode naturelle, sometimes practitioners train barefooted to be able to move efficiently without depending on their gear. David Belle has said: "bare feet are the best shoes!"[48]

[edit] Outcome

[edit] Freerunning

Another saut de bras.

The term freerunning was coined during the filming of Jump London, as a way to present parkour to the English-speaking world. However, freerunning and parkour are separate, distinct concepts—a distinction which is often missed due to the aesthetic similarities. Parkour as a discipline comprises efficiency, whilst freerunning embodies complete freedom of movement—and often includes many acrobatic maneuvers. Although often the two are physically similar, the mindsets of each are vastly different.[49] Foucan defines freerunning as a discipline to self-development, following your own way.[50] While traceurs and traceuses practice parkour in order to improve their ability to overcome obstacles faster and in the most efficient manner, freerunners practice and employ a broader array of movements that are not always necessary in order to overcome obstacles. The meaning of the different philosophical approaches to movement can be summed up by the following two quotes:

The most important element is the harmony between you and the obstacle; the movement has to be elegant... If you manage to pass over the fence elegantly—that's beautiful, rather than saying I jumped the lot. What's the point in that?

Jerome Ben Aoues (experienced freerunner), Jump London[51]

David Belle or PAWA team, or both emphasized the division between parkour and freerunning by stating:

Understand that this art has been created by few soldiers in Vietnam to escape or reach: and this is the spirit I'd like parkour to keep. You have to make the difference between what is useful and what is not in emergency situations. Then you'll know what is parkour and what is not. So if you do acrobatics things on the street with no other goal than showing off, please don't say it's parkour. Acrobatics existed long time ago before parkour.

David Belle or PAWA team, or both., [15]

When questions are raised between the differences of parkour and freerunning, however, the Yamakasi group deny the differences and say: "parkour, l'art du deplacement, freerunning, the art of movement... they are all the same thing. They are all movement and they all came from the same place, the same nine guys originally. The only thing that differs is each individual's way of moving". Thus leading to what they view as separation of parkour community or wasting energy debating the differences when one should follow his/her own way and find why practice.[52]

[edit] Military training

- After the attention that was brought to Parkour from Casino Royale, militaries from different countries began looking for ways to incorporate Parkour into training. The British Royal Marines hired Parkour athletes to train their members [53]. Colorado Parkour began a project to introduce parkour into the U.S. military [54] and parkour is slowly being introduced into the USMC [55]

[edit] Popular culture

A traceuse vaults an obstacle.

Parkour has appeared in various television advertisements, news reports and entertainment pieces, often combined with other forms of acrobatics also called freerunning, street stunts and tricking.

The most notable appearances have been in narrative films:

Notable parkour documentaries include:

Parkour has also been featured in video games:

[edit] See also

  • Buildering - the act of climbing the outside of buildings and other urban structures. The word is a portmanteau combining the word "building" with the climbing term "bouldering".
  • Contact improvisation - a dance technique in which points of physical contact provide the starting point for movement improvisation and exploration.
  • Dérive - a French situationist philosophy of re-envisioning one's relation to urban spaces (psychogeography) and acting accordingly.
  • Free climbing - a style of climbing using no artificial aids to make progress.
  • Tricking - an art with roots in different forms of martial arts and gymnastics, often mistaken for parkour by the media and public.
  • Yamakasi - a group founded by Yann Hnautra, David Belle, Laurent Piemontesi and Chau Belle Dinh 3 years before parkour with emphasis on style, fluidity and freedom. It is also a 2001 movie.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Collectif Parkour France DB. "Avertissement mise en garde" (in French). Retrieved on 2007-02-27. 
  2. ^ a b Severine Souard. "Press - "The Tree" - L'Art en mouvement" (in French) (JPG). Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 
  3. ^ Naimi, Shahla. 26 March 2009, Fairfield County Weekly, "Blood In, Blood Out. Want to try parkour? Then get ready to sacrifice your body.". Accessed 6 April 2009.
  4. ^ Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English. "parkour". Retrieved on 2007-08-07. 
  5. ^ a b Jeffy Mai (2008-04-14). "Students on campus are mastering Parkour, an art of self-awareness and body control". Retrieved on 2008-04-19. 
  6. ^ Sam Ser (January 17, 2008). "Leap of faith". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-24. 
  7. ^ "What is Parkour?". 2008-05-12. Retrieved on 2009-31-19. "Most experienced traceurs think of parkour as a discipline closer to martial arts." 
  8. ^ a b Kerry Folan (August 31, 2007). "For Parkour Fans, All the World's a Gym". The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. "Parkour can be compared to some martial arts, but without the violence; in the fight-or-flight response, parkour is the flight." 
  9. ^ a b "Cali meets David Belle". 2005-07-15. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  10. ^ "Parour and Freerunning". 10 October 2008. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. "It is not certain whether freerunning was initially supposed to be different to Parkour" 
  11. ^ a b Andreas Kalteis. (2006). Parkour Journeys - Training with Andi [DVD]. London, UK: Catsnake Studios.
  12. ^ a b c d Châu Belle Dinh, Williams Belle, Yann Hnautra, Mark Daniels (Director). Generation Yamakasi [TV-Documentary]. France: France 2. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  13. ^ N. Cazenave (April 5, 2007). "La pratique du parkour chez les adolescents des banlieues : entre recherche de sensation et renforcement narcissique". Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence. doi:10.1016/j.neurenf.2007.02.001. Retrieved on 2008-04-19. 
  14. ^ Emmanuelle ACHARD (1 October 1998). "l'équipe 1998 Bercy" (in French) (JPG). JEUDI. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. 
  15. ^ a b David Belle or PAWA Team, or both. "English welcome - Parkour Worldwide Association". Archived from the original on 2005-05-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  16. ^ Jin (2006-02-23). "PAWA statement on Freerunning.". Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  17. ^ "the name parkour, simple question". Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  18. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary (v 1.1) (2006). "tracer - Definition by". Retrieved on 2007-08-28. 
  19. ^ "Portail lexical - Définition de tracer" (in French). Retrieved on 2007-08-28. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Artful Dodger. "George Hébert and the Natural Method of Physical Culture". Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 
  21. ^ a b "Georges Hébert - la methode naturalle" (in French) (JPG). INSEP - Musée de la Marine. Archived from the original on 2006-07-18. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 
  22. ^ a b Alec Wilkinson (April 16, 2007). "No Obstacles". The New Yorker. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
  23. ^ a b c d "David Belle's biography". French biography referenced to Jerome Lebret. 2005-12-16. Archived from the original on 2005-12-16. Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Raymond Belle's biography". Original French biography sourced from 'Allo Dix-Huit', the magazine of the Parisian pompiers.. Parkour.NET. 2006-02-17. Archived from the original on 2006-02-17. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. 
  25. ^ a b ez (2006). "Sébastien Foucan interview". Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
  26. ^ Sébastien Foucan (2002). "History - Creation of the groupe "YAMAKASI" 1997". Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 
  27. ^ a b "Two Theories on Parkour Philosophy". Parkour North America. September 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-16. 
  28. ^ a b "Keeping parkour rivalry-free : JOIN IN !". Parkour.NET. May 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  29. ^ Paul Bignell and Rob Sharp (April 22, 2007). "'Jumped-up' plan to stage world competition sees free runners falling out". The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  30. ^ Rooftop jumpers risking death Cambridge News Retrieved February 5, 2008
  31. ^ U. Illinois student dies after fall from broadcast tower The Daily Vidette Retrieved February 5, 2008
  32. ^ Student receives IUPD warning after IDS article about hobby Retrieved February 5, 2008
  33. ^ Wrexham police concerned as daredevil 'sport' craze grows Wrexham Leader (Retrieved March 15, 2008)
  34. ^ Rooftop-jumping youths arrested BBC (Retrieved March 15, 2008)
  35. ^ American Parkour Exclusive David Belle Interview American Parkour Retrieved February 5, 2008
  36. ^ Colin Bane (2008-01-08). "Jump First, Ask Questions Later". The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-19. 
  37. ^ "American Parkour HotSpots Contest". May 21, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-06-13. 
  38. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | England | Gloucestershire | Rooftop-jumping youths arrested
  39. ^ Caroline Gammell (2008-05-06). "Gravestone vaulting teenagers condemned over YouTube stunt". Retrieved on 2008-06-13. 
  40. ^ a b Youths On Roofs (from Your Local Guardian)
  41. ^ Don Branum (2008-06-02). "Parkour growing by leaps and bounds". Retrieved on 2008-06-27. 
  42. ^ "Terrible Representation of Parkour and Freerunning". 13 June 2008. Retrieved on 2008-06-13. 
  43. ^ Running Through Life the Parkour Way | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 06.09.2005
  44. ^
  45. ^ Julie Rawe (April 5, 2008). "Student Stuntmen". Time magazine.,9171,1607235,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-13. 
  46. ^ "What Should I Wear for Parkour?". 2005-11-06. Retrieved on 2007-04-21. 
  47. ^ "Is there any equipment cost, membership fee, or exclusive conditions required for my child to do Parkour?". Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  48. ^ "David Belle - Parkour simples". 2007-03-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. 
  49. ^ Urban Freeflow Team. "Sebastian Foucan interview". Archived from the original on 2006-05-08.,12,0,0,1,0. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  50. ^ Sébastien Foucan (10/06/06). "FREERUNNING". Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 
  51. ^ Jerome Ben Aoues. (2003). Jump London [TV-Documentary]. London, UK: Channel 4.
  52. ^ Dan Edwardes (2007). "Rendezvous II". Retrieved on 2008-08-07. 
  53. ^ Freerunning goes to war as marines take tips from EZ, Livewire and Sticky
  54. ^ [1]
  55. ^ Parkour: Getting over the wall
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