Freeman Dyson

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Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
Born December 15, 1923 (1923-12-15) (age 85)
Crowthorne, Berkshire, England
Residence United States
Nationality UK
Fields Physicist
Institutions Royal Air Force
Institute for Advanced Study
Duke University
Cornell University
Alma mater University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor None
Known for Dyson sphere
Dyson operator
Advocacy against nuclear weapons
Notable awards Templeton Prize (2000)
Religious stance Christian
He is notably the son of George Dyson (composer), and father of Esther Dyson, Dorthy Dyson, Mia Dyson, Rebecca Dyson, Emily Dyson, and George Dyson (science historian).

Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is a British-born[1] American[2] theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum field theory, solid-state physics, and nuclear engineering. Dyson is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.[3] Dyson lives in Princeton, New Jersey, where he has been for over fifty years.[4]


[edit] Biography

[edit] Personal

Dyson's father was the English composer George Dyson. Despite sharing a last name, he is not related to early 20th century astronomer Frank Watson Dyson. However, as a small boy, Freeman Dyson was aware of Frank Watson Dyson; Freeman credits the popularity of someone with the same last name with inadvertently helping to spark his interest in science. Dyson received an honorary Sc.D. from Bates College in 1990.

Dyson's mother was trained as a lawyer but worked, after Dyson was born, as a social worker.[5]

Dyson has six children, two of them (Esther and George) with his first wife, mathematician Verena Huber-Dyson, and the other four with his second wife, Imme Dyson, a masters runner who married him in 1958.”[4]

His eldest daughter is Esther Dyson, the noted digital technology consultant. His son is digital technology historian George Dyson.[6]; one of whose books is Project Orion: The Atomic Spaceship 1957–1965.

Friends and colleagues describe him as shy and self-effacing with a contrarian streak that his friends find refreshing but his intellectual opponents find exasperating. "I have the sense that when consensus is forming like ice hardening on a lake, Dyson will do his best to chip at the ice," Nobel physics laureate Steven Weinberg said of him. His friend, the neurologist and author Oliver Sacks, said: "A favorite word of Freeman's about doing science and being creative is the word 'subversive.' He feels it's rather important not only to be not orthodox, but to be subversive, and he's done that all his life."[4]

[edit] Career

Although Dyson has won numerous scientific awards, he has never won a Nobel Prize, which has led Nobel physics laureate Steven Weinberg to state that the Nobel committee has "fleeced" Dyson. Dyson has said that “I think it’s almost true without exception if you want to win a Nobel Prize, you should have a long attention span, get hold of some deep and important problem and stay with it for 10 years. That wasn’t my style.”[4]

Dyson worked as an analyst for RAF Bomber Command at RAF Wyton during World War II, where he would come to create what would be later known as operational research.[7]

After the war, he obtained a BA in mathematics from Cambridge University (1945) and was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge from 1946 to 1949. In 1947 he moved to the US, on a fellowship at Cornell University and thence joined the faculty there as a physics professor in 1951 without a PhD. He was elected a FRS in 1952[8] In 1953, he took up a post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ. In 1957, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

Dyson is best known for demonstrating in 1949 the equivalence of the formulations of quantum electrodynamics that existed by that time — Richard Feynman's diagrammatic path integral formulation and the operator method developed by Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. A by-product of that demonstration was the invention of the Dyson series.[9]

Dyson also did work in a variety of topics in mathematics, such as topology, analysis, number theory and random matrices.[10]

From 1957 to 1961 he worked on the Orion Project, which proposed the possibility of space-flight using nuclear pulse propulsion. A prototype was demonstrated using conventional explosives, but a treaty which he was involved in and supported, banned the testing of nuclear weapons other than underground, and this caused the project to be abandoned.

In 1958 he led the design team for the TRIGA, a small, inherently safe nuclear reactor used throughout the world in hospitals and universities for the production of isotopes.

A seminal work by Dyson came in 1966 when, together with A. Lenard and independently of Elliott H. Lieb and Walter Thirring, he proved rigorously that the exclusion principle plays the main role in the stability of bulk matter [11]. Hence, it is not the electromagnetic repulsion between electrons and nuclei that is responsible for two wood blocks that are left on top of each other not coalescing into a single piece, but rather it is the exclusion principle applied to electrons and protons that generates the classical macroscopic normal force. In condensed matter physics, Dyson also did studies in the phase transition of the Ising model in 1 dimension and spin waves[10]

Dyson was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1966 and Max Planck medal in 1969.

In 1977, Dyson supervised Princeton undergraduate John Aristotle Phillips in a term paper that outlined a credible design for a nuclear weapon. This earned Phillips the nickname The A-Bomb Kid.

In the 1984–85 academic year he gave the Gifford lectures at Aberdeen, which resulted in the book Infinite In All Directions.

In 1989, Dyson taught at Duke University as a Fritz London Memorial Lecturer. In the same year, he was elected as an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, University of Cambridge.

Dyson has published a number of collections of speculations and observations about technology, science, and the future. In 1996 he was awarded the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science.

In 1998, Dyson joined the board of the Solar Electric Light Fund

In 2000, Dyson was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion.

As of 2003, Dyson is the president of the Space Studies Institute, the space research organization founded by Gerard K. O'Neill.

In 2003, Dyson was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology in Telluride, Colorado.

Dyson is a long-time member of the JASON defense advisory group.

[edit] Concepts

[edit] Biotechnology and genetic engineering

My book The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet (1999) describes a vision of green technology enriching villages all over the world and halting the migration from villages to megacities. The three components of the vision are all essential: the sun to provide energy where it is needed, the genome to provide plants that can convert sunlight into chemical fuels cheaply and efficiently, the Internet to end the intellectual and economic isolation of rural populations. With all three components in place, every village in Africa could enjoy its fair share of the blessings of civilisation.[12]

Dyson cheerfully admits his record as a prophet is mixed, but "it is better to be wrong than to be vague."[13]

To answer the world's material needs, technology has to be not only beautiful but also cheap.[14]

[edit] Dyson sphere

One should expect that, within a few thousand years of its entering the stage of industrial development, any intelligent species should be found occupying an artificial biosphere which completely surrounds its parent star.[15]

In 1960 Dyson wrote a short paper for the journal Science, entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation".[16] In it, he theorized that a technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization might completely surround its native star with artificial structures in order to maximize the capture of the star's available energy. Eventually, the civilization would completely enclose the star, intercepting electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from visible light downwards and radiating waste heat outwards as infrared radiation. Therefore, one method of searching for extraterrestrial civilizations would be to look for large objects radiating in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Dyson conceived that such structures would be clouds of asteroid-sized space habitats, though science fiction writers have preferred a solid structure: either way, such an artifact is often referred to as a Dyson sphere, although Dyson himself used the term "shell". Dyson says that he used the word "artificial biosphere" in the article meaning a habitat, not a shape.[17]

[edit] Dyson tree

Dyson has also proposed the creation of a Dyson tree, a genetically-engineered plant capable of growing on a comet. He suggested that comets could be engineered to contain hollow spaces filled with a breathable atmosphere, thus providing self-sustaining habitats for humanity in the outer solar system.

Plants could grow greenhouses…just as turtles grow shells and polar bears grow fur and polyps build coral reefs in tropical seas. These plants could keep warm by the light from a distant Sun and conserve the oxygen that they produce by photosynthesis. The greenhouse would consist of a thick skin providing thermal insulation, with small transparent windows to admit sunlight. Outside the skin would be an array of simple lenses, focusing sunlight through the windows into the interior… Groups of greenhouses could grow together to form extended habitats for other species of plants and animals.[18]

[edit] Space colonies

I've done some historical research on the costs of the Mayflower's voyage, and on the Mormons' emigration to Utah, and I think it's possible to go into space on a much smaller scale. A cost on the order of $40,000 per person [1978 dollars] would be the target to shoot for; in terms of real wages, that would make it comparable to the colonization of America. Unless it's brought down to that level it's not really interesting to me, because otherwise it would be a luxury that only governments could afford.[15]

Freeman Dyson has been interested in space travel since he was a child, reading such science fiction classics as Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker. As a young man, he worked for General Atomics on the nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft. He hoped Project Orion would put men on Mars by 1965, Saturn by 1970. He's been unhappy for a quarter-century on how the government conducts space travel:

The problem is, of course, that they can't afford to fail. The rules of the game are that you don't take a chance, because if you fail, then probably your whole program gets wiped out.[15]

He still hopes for cheap space travel, but is resigned to waiting for private entrepreneurs to develop something new—and cheap.

No law of physics or biology forbids cheap travel and settlement all over the solar system and beyond. But it is impossible to predict how long this will take. Predictions of the dates of future achievements are notoriously fallible. My guess is that the era of cheap unmanned missions will be the next fifty years, and the era of cheap manned missions will start sometime late in the twenty-first century.

Any affordable program of manned exploration must be centered in biology, and its time frame tied to the time frame of biotechnology; a hundred years, roughly the time it will take us to learn to grow warm-blooded plants, is probably reasonable.[18]

[edit] Space exploration

A direct search for life in Europa's ocean would today be prohibitively expensive. Impacts on Europa give us an easier way to look for evidence of life there. Every time a major impact occurs on Europa, a vast quantity of water is splashed from the ocean into the space around Jupiter. Some of the water evaporates, and some condenses into snow. Creatures living in the water far enough from the impact have a chance of being splashed intact into space and quickly freeze-dried. Therefore, an easy way to look for evidence of life in Europa's ocean is to look for freeze-dried fish in the ring of space debris orbiting Jupiter.[18]

[edit] Dyson's transform

Dyson also has some credits in pure mathematics. His concept "Dyson's transform" led to one of the most important lemmas of Olivier Ramaré's theorem that every even integer can be written as a sum of no more than six primes.

[edit] Views

[edit] Global warming

Dyson agrees that anthropogenic global warming exists, and has written

One of the main causes of warming is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from our burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal and natural gas.[19]

However, he has argued that existing simulation models of climate fail to account for some important factors, and hence the results will contain too much error to reliably predict future trends.

The models solve the equations of fluid dynamics, and they do a very good job of describing the fluid motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. They do a very poor job of describing the clouds, the dust, the chemistry and the biology of fields and farms and forests. They do not begin to describe the real world we live in...[19]
As a scientist I do not have much faith in predictions. Science is organized unpredictability. The best scientists like to arrange things in an experiment to be as unpredictable as possible, and then they do the experiment to see what will happen. You might say that if something is predictable then it is not science. When I make predictions, I am not speaking as a scientist. I am speaking as a story-teller, and my predictions are science-fiction rather than science.[19]

He is among signatories of a letter to the UN criticizing the IPCC [1]. The letter includes the statements "The average rate of warming of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees Celsius per decade recorded by satellites during the late 20th century falls within known natural rates of warming and cooling over the last 10,000 years" and "there has been no net global warming since 1998". Both statements have been criticized as inconsistent with the data.[20][21]

He has also argued against the ostracization of scientists whose views depart from the acknowledged mainstream of scientific opinion on climate change, stating that heretics have historically been an important force in driving scientific progress.

heretics who question the dogmas are needed... I am proud to be a heretic. The world always needs heretics to challenge the prevailing orthodoxies.[19]

He also believes that directing money towards fighting global poverty and providing medical aid will bring greater benefits to society than attempting to combat climate change.

They take away money and attention from other problems that are much more urgent and important. Poverty, infectious diseases,...[22]

Dyson was an early proponent of Carbon sequestration by plants by planting gigantic areas of trees as long ago as 1976.[23] He revisited this subject in 2007 where he asserted that the "fuss about global warming is grossly exaggerated", having calculated that "the problem of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a problem of land management, not a problem of meteorology." The failure of climate scientists to understand this, Dyson argued, was because, "No computer model of atmosphere and ocean can hope to predict the way we shall manage our land."[19]

Dyson has questioned the predictive value of current computational models of climate change, urging instead more extensive use of local observations.

The good news is that we are at last putting serious effort and money into local observations. Local observations are laborious and slow, but they are essential if we are ever to have an accurate picture of climate. The bad news is that the climate models on which so much effort is expended are unreliable because they still use fudge-factors rather than physics to represent important things like evaporation and convection, clouds and rainfall. Besides the general prevalence of fudge-factors, the latest and biggest climate models have other defects that make them unreliable. With one exception, they do not predict the existence of El Niño. Since El Niño is a major feature of the observed climate, any model that fails to predict it is clearly deficient. The bad news does not mean that climate models are worthless. They are, as Manabe said thirty years ago, essential tools for understanding climate. They are not yet adequate tools for predicting climate.[24]

Dyson regards the term "global warming" as a misnomer when taken literally, pointing out that warming will not occur uniformly throughout the world, but will instead be subject to regional variations:

As a result of the burning of coal and oil, the driving of cars, and other human activities, the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate of about half a percent per year. … The physical effects of carbon dioxide are seen in changes of rainfall, cloudiness, wind strength, and temperature, which are customarily lumped together in the misleading phrase "global warming." This phrase is misleading because the warming caused by the greenhouse effect of increased carbon dioxide is not evenly distributed. In humid air, the effect of carbon dioxide on the transport of heat by radiation is less important, because it is outweighed by the much larger greenhouse effect of water vapor. The effect of carbon dioxide is more important where the air is dry, and air is usually dry only where it is cold. The warming mainly occurs where air is cold and dry, mainly in the arctic rather than in the tropics, mainly in winter rather than in summer, and mainly at night rather than in daytime. The warming is real, but it is mostly making cold places warmer rather than making hot places hotter. To represent this local warming by a global average is misleading, because the global average is only a fraction of a degree while the local warming at high latitudes is much larger.[25]

More recently, he has endorsed the now common usage of "global warming" as synonymous with global anthropogenic climate change, referring to recent

measurements that transformed global warming from a vague theoretical speculation into a precise observational science.[26]

Regarding political efforts to reduce the causes of climate change, Dyson argues that other global problems should take priority.

I'm not saying the warming doesn't cause problems, obviously it does. Obviously we should be trying to understand it. I'm saying that the problems are being grossly exaggerated. They take away money and attention from other problems that are much more urgent and important. Poverty, infectious diseases, public education and public health. Not to mention the preservation of living creatures on land and in the oceans.[22]

[edit] Bureaucracy

At the British Bomber Command, Dyson and colleagues proposed ripping out two gun turrets from the RAF Lancaster bombers, to cut the catastrophic losses to German fighters in the Battle of Berlin. A Lancaster without turrets could fly 50 mph (80 km/h) faster and be much more maneuverable.

All our advice to the commander in chief [went] through the chief of our section, who was a career civil servant. His guiding principle was to tell the commander in chief things that the commander in chief liked to hear… To push the idea of ripping out gun turrets, against the official mythology of the gallant gunner defending his crew mates…was not the kind of suggestion the commander in chief liked to hear.[27]

[edit] Warfare and weapons

On hearing the news of the bombing of Hiroshima:

I agreed emphatically with Henry Stimson. Once we had got ourselves into the business of bombing cities, we might as well do the job competently and get it over with. I felt better that morning than I had felt for years… Those fellows who had built the atomic bombs obviously knew their stuff… Later, much later, I would remember [the downside].[28]
I am convinced that to avoid nuclear war it is not sufficient to be afraid of it. It is necessary to be afraid, but it is equally necessary to understand. And the first step in understanding is to recognize that the problem of nuclear war is basically not technical but human and historical. If we are to avoid destruction we must first of all understand the human and historical context out of which destruction arises.[29]

Dyson opposes the Vietnam war, the Gulf War, and the invasion of Iraq. He supported Barack Obama during the election and The New York Times has described him as a political liberal.[4]

[edit] The role of failure

You can't possibly get a good technology going without an enormous number of failures. It's a universal rule. If you look at bicycles, there were thousands of weird models built and tried before they found the one that really worked. You could never design a bicycle theoretically. Even now, after we've been building them for 100 years, it's very difficult to understand just why a bicycle works - it's even difficult to formulate it as a mathematical problem. But just by trial and error, we found out how to do it, and the error was essential.[30]

[edit] On English academics

My view of the prevalence of doom-and-gloom in Cambridge is that it is a result of the English class system. In England there were always two sharply opposed middle classes, the academic middle class and the commercial middle class. In the nineteenth century, the academic middle class won the battle for power and status. As a child of the academic middle class, I learned to look on the commercial middle class with loathing and contempt. Then came the triumph of Margaret Thatcher, which was also the revenge of the commercial middle class. The academics lost their power and prestige and the business people took over. The academics never forgave Thatcher and have been gloomy ever since.[31]

[edit] Science and religion

Dyson strongly opposes reductionism. He is a non-denominational Christian and has attended various churches from Presbyterian to Roman Catholic. Regarding doctrinal or christological issues, he has said "I am neither a saint nor a theologian. To me, good works are more important than theology."[32]

Science and religion are two windows that people look through, trying to understand the big universe outside, trying to understand why we are here. The two windows give different views, but they look out at the same universe. Both views are one-sided, neither is complete. Both leave out essential features of the real world. And both are worthy of respect.

Trouble arises when either science or religion claims universal jurisdiction, when either religious or scientific dogma claims to be infallible. Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring both science and religion into disrepute. The media exaggerate their numbers and importance. The media rarely mention the fact that the great majority of religious people belong to moderate denominations that treat science with respect, or the fact that the great majority of scientists treat religion with respect so long as religion does not claim jurisdiction over scientific questions.[32]

Dyson disagrees with the famous remark by his fellow-physicist Steven Weinberg that "Good people will do good things, and bad people will do bad things. But for good people to do bad things—that takes religion."[33]

Weinberg's statement is true as far as it goes, but it is not the whole truth. To make it the whole truth, we must add an additional clause: "And for bad people to do good things—that takes religion." The main point of Christianity is that it is a religion for sinners. Jesus made that very clear. When the Pharisees asked his disciples, "Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners?" he said, "I come to call not the righteous but sinners to repentance." Only a small fraction of sinners repent and do good things, but only a small fraction of good people are led by their religion to do bad things.[33]

[edit] Popular culture

As noted above, the Dyson sphere is a favorite of science-fiction authors. See Dyson spheres in fiction.

The protagonist in the Half-Life video game series, Gordon Freeman, is named after Dyson.[34]

[edit] Criticism

Dyson's views on global warming have been criticized as failing to understand the amount of carbon sequestration needed.[35] Dyson has proposed that whatever inflammations the climate was experiencing might be a good thing because carbon dioxide helps plants of all kinds grow. His caveat is that if CO2 levels soar too high, they could be soothed by the mass cultivation of specially bred “carbon-eating trees". He calculates that it would take a trillion trees to remove all carbon from the atmosphere, which he believes in principle is quite feasible.[36]

[edit] See also

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] By Dyson

  • Symmetry Groups in Nuclear and Particle Physics, 1966 (Academic-oriented text)
  • Disturbing the Universe, 1979. Review
  • Weapons and Hope, 1984 (Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award).[4] Review
  • Origins of Life, 1986. Second edition, 1999. Review
  • Infinite in All Directions, 1988. Review
  • From Eros to Gaia, 1992
  • Selected Papers of Freeman Dyson, 1996
  • Imagined Worlds, Harvard University Press 1997, ISBN 978-0-674-53908-2. Review
  • The Sun, The Genome and The Internet, 1999. Review
  • L'mportanza di essere imprevedibile, Di Renzo Editore, 2003
  • The Scientist as Rebel, 2006. Review
  • Advanced Quantum Mechanics, World Scientific, 2007. Dyson's 1951 Cornell lecture notes transcribed by David Derbes.
  • A Many-Colored Glass: Reflections on the Place of Life in the Universe, University of Virginia Press, 2007. Review

[edit] About Dyson

  • Brower, Kenneth, 1978. The Starship and the Canoe, Holt Rinehart and Winston.
  • Schweber, Sylvan S., 1994. QED and the men who made it : Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Princeton Univ. Press.

[edit] References

  1. ^ BBC News | SCI/TECH | Scientist wins $1m religion prize
  2. ^ Freeman Dyson: Disturbing the universe, pg 131, "I had finally become an American...The decision to abjure my allegiance to Queen Elizabeth might have been a difficult one, but the Queen's ministers made it easy for me."
  3. ^ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
  4. ^ a b c d e f Dawidoff, Nicholas. The Civil Heretic. The New York Times. March 25, 2009
  5. ^ Wild River Review Interview by Joy E. Stocke
  6. ^ See excerpt from Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite by John Brockman (HardWired Books, 1996)
  7. ^ "A Failure of Intelligence", Essay in Technology Review (Nov–Dec 2006)
  8. ^ Royal Society directory entry
  9. ^ F. J. Dyson, Phys. Rev. 75, 486, 1736 (1949)
  10. ^ a b See F. J. Dyson, E. H. Lieb, Selected papers by Freeman Dyson, AMS (1996).
  11. ^ F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard, J. Math. Phys. 8, 3, 423-434 (1967); F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard, J. Math. Phys., 9, 5, 698-711 (1968); E. H. Lieb, W. Thirring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 687-689 (1975).
  12. ^ Our Bio tech Future
  13. ^ Dyson, 1999, The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet
  14. ^ Dyson, FJ, "The Greening of the Galaxy" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  15. ^ a b c Interview by Monte Davis, October 1978
  16. ^ Dyson, Freeman J. (3 June 1960). "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation". Science 131 (3414): 1667–1668. doi:10.1126/science.131.3414.1667. PMID 17780673. 
  17. ^ 20 minutes into a video
  18. ^ a b c Dyson, FJ, "Warm-blooded plants and freeze-dried fish: the future of space exploration." The Atlantic Monthly, Nov 1997 Subscribers only
  19. ^ a b c d e Freeman Dyson (8 August 2007). "heretical Thoughts about Science and Society". Edge. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. 
  20. ^ Wiggles, Open Mind, 16 December, 2007
  21. ^ GISS Surface Temperature Analysis, Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, Goddard Institute for Space Studies
  22. ^ a b "University of Michigan 2005 Winter Commencement Address". University of Michigan. 
  23. ^ Larry Lohmann (July 1999). "The Dyson Effect: Carbon 'Offset' Forestry and The Privatization of the Atmosphere". The Cornerhouse. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. 
  24. ^ American Physical Society newsletter, May 1999
  25. ^ Dyson in a review in The New York Review of Books, 15 March 2003
  26. ^ Dyson tin The New York Review of Book, 12 June 2008]
  27. ^ FJ Dyson, "The Children's Crusade" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  28. ^ FJ Dyson, "The Blood of a Poet" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  29. ^ FJ Dyson, Weapons and Hope, 1984
  30. ^ Interview by Stewart Brand, February 1998
  31. ^ Benny Peiser (14 March 2007). "The Scientist as a Rebel: An interview with Freeman Dyson". CCNet. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. 
  32. ^ a b Templeton Prize Lecture
  33. ^ a b NYRB June 22, 2006
  34. ^ GameSpy: Half-Life 10th Anniversary Interview
  35. ^ David Archer (24 May 2008). "Freeman Dyson’s selective vision". RealClimate. Retrieved on 2009-03-30. 
  36. ^ Dawidoff, Nicholas (2009-03-29). "The Civil Heretic". The New York Times. 

[edit] External links

[edit] By Dyson

[edit] About Dyson

NAME Dyson, Freeman John
SHORT DESCRIPTION Physicist and mathematician
DATE OF BIRTH December 15, 1923 (1923-12-15) (age 85)
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