Dark matter

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In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is hypothetical matter that is undetectable by its emitted radiation, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. Dark matter is postulated to explain the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and other evidence of "missing mass" in the universe. According to present observations of structures larger than galaxies, as well as Big Bang cosmology, dark matter and dark energy account for the vast majority of the mass in the observable universe. The observed phenomena which imply the presence of dark matter include the rotational speeds of galaxies, orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters, gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster, and the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Dark matter also plays a central role in structure formation and galaxy evolution, and has measurable effects on the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. All these lines of evidence suggest that galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the universe as a whole contain far more matter than that which interacts with electromagnetic radiation: the remainder is frequently called the "dark matter component," even though there is a small amount of baryonic dark matter.

The dark matter component has much more mass than the "visible" component of the universe.[1] At present, the density of ordinary baryons and radiation in the universe is estimated to be equivalent to about one hydrogen atom per cubic meter of space. Only about 4% of the total energy density in the universe (as inferred from gravitational effects) can be seen directly. About 22% is thought to be composed of dark matter. The remaining 74% is thought to consist of dark energy, an even stranger component, distributed diffusely in space.[2] Some hard-to-detect baryonic matter is believed to make a contribution to dark matter but would constitute only a small portion.[3][4] Determining the nature of this missing mass is one of the most important problems in modern cosmology and particle physics. It has been noted that the names "dark matter" and "dark energy" serve mainly as expressions of human ignorance, much like the marking of early maps with "terra incognita."[2]

The vast majority of the dark matter in the universe is believed to be nonbaryonic, which means that it contains no atoms and that it does not interact with ordinary matter via electromagnetic forces. The nonbaryonic dark matter includes neutrinos, which were discovered to have mass in recent years, and may also include hypothetical entities such as axions, or supersymmetric particles. Unlike baryonic dark matter, nonbaryonic dark matter does not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe ("big bang nucleosynthesis") and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational attraction. In addition, if the particles of which it is composed are supersymmetric, they can undergo annihilation interactions with themselves resulting in observable by-products such as photons and neutrinos ("indirect detection").[5]

Nonbaryonic dark matter is classified in terms of the mass of the particle(s) that is assumed to make it up, and/or the typical velocity dispersion of those particles (since more massive particles move more slowly). There are three prominent hypotheses on nonbaryonic dark matter, called Hot Dark Matter (HDM), Warm Dark Matter (WDM), and Cold Dark Matter (CDM); some combination of these is also possible. The most widely discussed models for nonbaryonic dark matter are based on the Cold Dark Matter hypothesis, and the corresponding particle is most commonly assumed to be a neutralino. Hot dark matter might consist of (massive) neutrinos. Cold dark matter leads to a "bottom-up" formation of structure in the universe while hot dark matter results in a "top-down" formation scenario.[6]


[edit] Observational evidence

Composite image of the Bullet cluster shows distribution of ordinary matter, inferred from X-ray emissions, in red and total mass, inferred from gravitational lensing, in blue.[7]

The first person to provide evidence and infer the existence of a phenomenon that has come to be called "dark matter" was Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky, of the California Institute of Technology in 1933.[8] He applied the virial theorem to the Coma cluster of galaxies and obtained evidence of unseen mass. Zwicky estimated the cluster's total mass based on the motions of galaxies near its edge. When he compared this mass estimate to one based on the number of galaxies and total brightness of the cluster, he found that there was about 400 times more mass than expected. The gravity of the visible galaxies in the cluster would be far too small for such fast orbits, so something extra was required. This is known as the "missing mass problem". Based on these conclusions, Zwicky inferred that there must be some non-visible form of matter which would provide enough of the mass and gravity to hold the cluster together.

Much of the evidence for dark matter comes from the study of the motions of galaxies.[9] Many of these appear to be fairly uniform, so by the virial theorem the total kinetic energy should be half the total gravitational binding energy of the galaxies. Experimentally, however, the total kinetic energy is found to be much greater: in particular, assuming the gravitational mass is due to only the visible matter of the galaxy, stars far from the center of galaxies have much higher velocities than predicted by the virial theorem. Galactic rotation curves, which illustrate the velocity of rotation versus the distance from the galactic center, cannot be explained by only the visible matter. Assuming that the visible material makes up only a small part of the cluster is the most straightforward way of accounting for this. Galaxies show signs of being composed largely of a roughly spherically symmetric, centrally concentrated halo of dark matter with the visible matter concentrated in a disc at the center. Low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are important sources of information for studying dark matter, as they have an uncommonly low ratio of visible matter to dark matter, and have few bright stars at the center which would otherwise impair observations of the rotation curve of outlying stars.

Gravitational lensing observations of galaxy clusters allow direct estimates of the gravitational mass based on its effect on light from background galaxies. In clusters such as Abell 1689, lensing observations confirm the presence of considerably more mass than is indicated by the clusters' light alone. In the Bullet Cluster, lensing observations show that much of the lensing mass is separated from the X-ray-emitting baryonic mass.

[edit] Galactic rotation curves

Rotation curve of a typical spiral galaxy: predicted (A) and observed (B). Dark matter can explain the velocity curve having a 'flat' appearance out to a large radius

For 40 years after Zwicky's initial observations, no other corroborating observations indicated that the mass to light ratio was anything other than unity (a high mass-to-light ratio indicates the presence of dark matter). Then, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Vera Rubin, a young astronomer at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington presented findings based on a new sensitive spectrograph that could measure the velocity curve of edge-on spiral galaxies to a greater degree of accuracy than had ever before been achieved. Together with fellow staff-member Kent Ford, Rubin announced at a 1975 meeting of the American Astronomical Society the astonishing discovery that most stars in spiral galaxies orbit at roughly the same speed, which implied that their mass densities were uniform well beyond the locations with most of the stars (the galactic bulge). This result suggests that either Newtonian gravity does not apply universally or that, conservatively, upwards of 50% of the mass of galaxies was contained in the relatively dark galactic halo. Met with skepticism, Rubin insisted that the observations were correct. Eventually other astronomers began to corroborate her work and it soon became well-established that most galaxies were in fact dominated by "dark matter"; exceptions appeared to be galaxies with mass-to-light ratios close to that of stars. Subsequent to this, numerous observations have been made that do indicate the presence of dark matter in various parts of the cosmos. Together with Rubin's findings for spiral galaxies and Zwicky's work on galaxy clusters, the observational evidence for dark matter has been collecting over the decades to the point that today most astrophysicists accept its existence. As a unifying concept, dark matter is one of the dominant features considered in the analysis of structures on the order of galactic scale and larger.

[edit] Velocity dispersions of galaxies

Rubin's pioneering work has stood the test of time. Measurements of velocity curves in spiral galaxies were soon followed up with velocity dispersions of elliptical galaxies. While sometimes appearing with lower mass-to-light ratios, measurements of ellipticals still indicate a relatively high dark matter content. Likewise, measurements of the diffuse interstellar gas found at the edge of galaxies indicate not only dark matter distributions that extend beyond the visible limit of the galaxies, but also that the galaxies are virialized up to ten times their visible radii. This has the effect of pushing up the dark matter as a fraction of the total amount of gravitating matter from 50% measured by Rubin to the now accepted value of nearly 95%.

There are places where dark matter seems to be a small component or totally absent. Globular clusters show no evidence that they contain dark matter, though their orbital interactions with galaxies do show evidence for galactic dark matter. For some time, measurements of the velocity profile of stars seemed to indicate concentration of dark matter in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy, however, now it seems that the high concentration of baryonic matter in the disk of the galaxy (especially in the interstellar medium) can account for this motion. Galaxy mass profiles are thought to look very different from the light profiles. The typical model for dark matter galaxies is a smooth, spherical distribution in virialized halos. Such would have to be the case to avoid small-scale (stellar) dynamical effects. Recent research reported in January 2006 from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst would explain the previously mysterious warp in the disk of the Milky Way by the interaction of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the predicted 20 fold increase in mass of the Milky Way taking into account dark matter.

In 2005, astronomers from Cardiff University claimed to discover a galaxy made almost entirely of dark matter, 50 million light years away in the Virgo Cluster, which was named VIRGOHI21.[10] Unusually, VIRGOHI21 does not appear to contain any visible stars: it was seen with radio frequency observations of hydrogen. Based on rotation profiles, the scientists estimate that this object contains approximately 1000 times more dark matter than hydrogen and has a total mass of about 1/10th that of the Milky Way Galaxy we live in. For comparison, the Milky Way is believed to have roughly 10 times as much dark matter as ordinary matter. Models of the Big Bang and structure formation have suggested that such dark galaxies should be very common in the universe, but none had previously been detected. If the existence of this dark galaxy is confirmed, it provides strong evidence for the theory of galaxy formation and poses problems for alternative explanations of dark matter.

Recently too there is evidence that there are 10 to 100 times fewer small galaxies than permitted by what the dark matter theory of galaxy formation predicts. There are also a small number of galaxies, like NGC 3379 whose measured orbital velocity of its gas clouds, show that it contains almost no dark matter at all.[11]

[edit] Galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing

Strong gravitational lensing as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in Abell 1689 indicates the presence of dark matter - Enlarge the image to see the lensing arcs. Credits: NASA/ESA

Dark matter affects galaxy clusters as well. X-ray measurements of hot intracluster gas correspond closely to Zwicky's observations of mass-to-light ratios for large clusters of nearly 10 to 1. Many of the experiments of the Chandra X-ray Observatory use this technique to independently determine the mass of clusters.

The galaxy cluster Abell 2029 is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a cloud of hot gas, and an amount of dark matter equivalent to more than 1014 Suns. At the center of this cluster is an enormous, elliptically shaped galaxy that is thought to have been formed from the mergers of many smaller galaxies.[12] The measured orbital velocities of galaxies within galactic clusters have been found to be consistent with dark matter observations.

Another important tool for future dark matter observations is gravitational lensing. Lensing relies on the effects of general relativity to predict masses without relying on dynamics, and so is a completely independent means of measuring the dark matter. Strong lensing, the observed distortion of background galaxies into arcs when the light passes through a gravitational lens, has been observed around a few distant clusters including Abell 1689 (pictured right). By measuring the distortion geometry, the mass of the cluster causing the phenomena can be obtained. In the dozens of cases where this has been done, the mass-to-light ratios obtained correspond to the dynamical dark matter measurements of clusters.

A technique has been developed over the last 10 years called weak gravitational lensing, which looks at minute distortions of galaxies observed in vast galaxy surveys due to foreground objects through statistical analyses. By examining the apparent shear deformation of the adjacent background galaxies, astrophysicists can characterize the mean distribution of dark matter by statistical means and have found mass-to-light ratios that correspond to dark matter densities predicted by other large-scale structure measurements.[13] The correspondence of the two gravitational lens techniques to other dark matter measurements has convinced almost all astrophysicists that dark matter actually exists as a major component of the universe's composition.

The most direct observational evidence to date for dark matter is in a system known as the Bullet Cluster. In most regions of the universe, dark matter and visible material are found together,[14] as expected because of their mutual gravitational attraction. In the Bullet Cluster, a collision between two galaxy clusters appears to have caused a separation of dark matter and baryonic matter. X-ray observations show that much of the baryonic matter (in the form of 107–108 Kelvin[15] gas, or plasma) in the system is concentrated in the center of the system. Electromagnetic interactions between passing gas particles caused them to slow down and settle near the point of impact. However, weak gravitational lensing observations of the same system show that much of the mass resides outside of the central region of baryonic gas. Because dark matter does not interact by electromagnetic forces, it would not have been slowed in the same way as the X-ray visible gas, so the dark matter components of the two clusters passed through each other without slowing down substantially. This accounts for the separation. Unlike the galactic rotation curves, this evidence for dark matter is independent of the details of Newtonian gravity, so it is held as direct evidence of the existence of dark matter.[15][16][17]

[edit] Structure formation

Dark matter is crucial to the Big Bang model of cosmology as a component which corresponds directly to measurements of the parameters associated with Friedmann cosmology solutions to general relativity. In particular, measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies correspond to a cosmology where much of the matter interacts with photons more weakly than the known forces that couple light interactions to baryonic matter. Likewise, a significant amount of non-baryonic, cold matter is necessary to explain the large-scale structure of the universe.

Observations suggest that structure formation in the universe proceeds hierarchically, with the smallest structures collapsing first and followed by galaxies and then clusters of galaxies. As the structures collapse in the evolving universe, they begin to "light up" as the baryonic matter heats up through gravitational contraction and the object approaches hydrostatic pressure balance. Ordinary baryonic matter had too high a temperature, and too much pressure left over from the Big Bang to collapse and form smaller structures, such as stars, via the Jeans instability. Dark matter acts as a compactor of structure. This model not only corresponds with statistical surveying of the visible structure in the universe but also corresponds precisely to the dark matter predictions of the cosmic microwave background.

This bottom up model of structure formation requires something like cold dark matter to succeed. Large computer simulations of billions of dark matter particles have been used to confirm that the cold dark matter model of structure formation is consistent with the structures observed in the universe through galaxy surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, as well as observations of the Lyman-alpha forest. These studies have been crucial in constructing the Lambda-CDM model which measures the cosmological parameters, including the fraction of the universe made up of baryons and dark matter.

[edit] Dark matter composition

Unsolved problems in physics: What is dark matter? How is it generated? Is it related to supersymmetry?

Although dark matter was detected by its gravitational lensing in August 2006,[15][16][17] many aspects of dark matter remain speculative. The DAMA/NaI experiment and its successor DAMA/LIBRA have claimed to directly detect dark matter passing through the Earth, though most scientists remain skeptical since negative results of other experiments are (almost) incompatible with the DAMA results if dark matter consists of neutralinos.

Data from a number of lines of evidence, including galaxy rotation curves, gravitational lensing, structure formation, and the fraction of baryons in clusters and the cluster abundance combined with independent evidence for the baryon density, indicate that 85-90% of the mass in the universe does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This "nonbaryonic dark matter" is evident through its gravitational effect. Historically, three categories of nonbaryonic dark matter have been postulated[18]:

Davis et al. wrote in 1985:

Candidate particles can be grouped into three categories on the basis of their effect on the fluctuation spectrum (Bond et al 1983). If the dark matter is composed of abundant light particles which remain relativistic until shortly before recombination, then it may be termed "hot". The best candidate for hot dark matter is a neutrino [..] A second possibility is for the dark matter particles to interact more weakly than neutrinos, to be less abundant, and to have a mass of order 1eV. Such particles are termed "warm dark matter", because they have lower thermal velocities than massive neutrinos [..] there are at present few candidate particles which fit this description. Gravitinos and photinos have been suggested (Pagels and Primack 1982; Bond, Szalay and Turner 1982) [..] Any particles which became nonrelativistic very early, and so were able to diffuse a negligible distance, are termed "cold" dark matter (CDM). There are many candidates for CDM including supersymmetric particles[21]

Hot dark matter consists of particles that travel with relativistic velocities. One kind of hot dark matter is known, the neutrino. Neutrinos have a very small mass, do not interact via either the electromagnetic or the strong nuclear force and are therefore very difficult to detect. This is what makes them appealing as dark matter. However, bounds on neutrinos indicate that ordinary neutrinos make only a small contribution to the density of dark matter.

Hot dark matter cannot explain how individual galaxies formed from the Big Bang. The microwave background radiation as measured by the COBE and WMAP satellites, while incredibly smooth, indicates that matter has clumped on very small scales. Fast moving particles, however, cannot clump together on such small scales and, in fact, suppress the clumping of other matter. Hot dark matter, while it certainly exists in our universe in the form of neutrinos, is therefore only part of the story.

Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe

The Concordance Model requires that, to explain structure in the universe, it is necessary to invoke cold (non-relativistic) dark matter. Large masses, like galaxy-sized black holes can be ruled out on the basis of gravitational lensing data. However, tiny black holes are a possibility.[22] Other possibilities involving normal baryonic matter include brown dwarfs or perhaps small, dense chunks of heavy elements; such objects are known as massive compact halo objects, or "MACHOs". However, studies of big bang nucleosynthesis have convinced most scientists that baryonic matter such as MACHOs cannot be more than a small fraction of the total dark matter.

At present, the most common view is that dark matter is primarily non-baryonic, made of one or more elementary particles other than the usual electrons, protons, neutrons, and known neutrinos. The most commonly proposed particles are axions, sterile neutrinos, and WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, including neutralinos). None of these are part of the standard model of particle physics, but they can arise in extensions to the standard model. Many supersymmetric models naturally give rise to stable dark matter candidates in the form of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP). Heavy, sterile neutrinos exist in extensions to the standard model that explain the small neutrino mass through the seesaw mechanism.

[edit] Detection of dark matter

These cosmological models predict that if WIMPs are what make up dark matter, trillions must pass through the Earth each second. Despite a number of attempts to find these WIMPs, none have yet been found.

Experimental searches for these dark matter candidates have been conducted and are ongoing. These efforts can be divided into two broad classes: direct detection, in which the dark matter particles are observed in a detector; and indirect detection,[23] which looks for the products of dark matter annihilations. Dark matter detection experiments have ruled out some WIMP and axion models. There are also several experiments claiming positive evidence for dark matter detection, such as DAMA/NaI, DAMA/LIBRA[24] and EGRET, but these are so far unconfirmed and difficult to reconcile with the negative results of other experiments. Several searches for dark matter are currently underway, including the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan mine, the PICASSO experiment in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at Sudbury, Ontario (Canada), XENON, DAMA/LIBRA and CRESST experiments at Gran Sasso (Italy) and the ZEPLIN and DRIFT projects at the Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK), and many new technologies are under development, such as the ArDM or MIMAC experiments.

One possible alternative approach to the detection of WIMPs in nature is to produce them in the laboratory. Experiments with the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva may be able to detect the WIMPs. Because a WIMP only has negligible interactions with matter, it can be detected as missing energy and momentum. It is also possible that dark matter consists of very heavy hidden sector particles which only interact with ordinary matter via gravity.

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota aims to detect the heat generated when ultracold germanium and silicon crystals are struck by a WIMP. The Gran Sasso National Laboratory at L'Aquila, in Italy, use xenon to measure the flash of light that occurs on those rare occasions when a WIMP strikes a xenon nucleus. The results from April 2007, using 15 kg of liquid and gaseous xenon, detected several events consistent with backgrounds, setting a new exclusion limit. The larger XENON100 detector, with 150 kg of liquid xenon, began taking calibration data in March 2008.[25]

The PAMELA payload (launched 2006) may find evidence of dark matter annihilation.

The Fermi space telescope, launched June 11, 2008, searching gammawave events, may also detect WIMPs. WIMP supersymmetric particle and antiparticle collisions should release a pair of detectable gamma waves. The number of events detected will show to what extent WIMPs comprise dark matter.

With all these experiments together, scientists are becoming confident that WIMPs will be discovered in the near future. But some scientists are beginning to think that dark matter is composed of many different candidates.[26] WIMPs may thus only be a part of the solution.

In 2014 the LSST will be operational, one of the main goals of the telescope is to discover and learn more about dark matter.

[edit] Alternative explanations

[edit] Modifications of gravity

A proposed alternative to physical dark matter particles has been to suppose that the observed inconsistencies are due to an incomplete understanding of gravitation. To explain the observations, the gravitational force has to become stronger than the Newtonian approximation at great distances or in weak fields. One of the proposed models is Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which adjusts Newton's laws at small acceleration. However, constructing a relativistic MOND theory has been troublesome, and it is not clear how the theory can be reconciled with gravitational lensing measurements of the deflection of light around galaxies. The leading relativistic MOND theory, proposed by Jacob Bekenstein in 2004 is called TeVeS for Tensor-Vector-Scalar and solves many of the problems of earlier attempts. However, a study in August 2006 reported an observation of a pair of colliding galaxy clusters whose behavior, it was claimed, was not compatible with any current modified gravity theories.[27]

In 2007, John W. Moffatt proposed a theory of modified gravity (MOG) based on the Nonsymmetric Gravitational Theory (NGT) that claims to account for the behavior of colliding galaxies.[28]

[edit] Quantum mechanical explanations

In another class of theories one attempts to reconcile gravitation with quantum mechanics and obtains corrections to the conventional gravitational interaction. In scalar-tensor theories, scalar fields like the Higgs field couple to the curvature given through the Riemann tensor or its traces. In many of such theories, the scalar field equals the inflaton field, which is needed to explain the inflation of the universe after the Big Bang, as the dominating factor of the quintessence or Dark Energy. Using an approach based on the exact renormalization group, M. Reuter and H. Weyer have shown[29] that Newton's constant and the cosmological constant can be scalar functions on spacetime if one associates renormalization scales to the points of spacetime. Some M-Theory cosmologists also propose that multi-dimensional forces from outside the visible universe have gravitational effects on the visible universe meaning that dark matter is not necessary for a unified theory of cosmology.

[edit] Dark matter in popular culture

Mentions of dark matter occur in some video games and other works of fiction. In such cases, it is usually attributed extraordinary physical or magical properties. Such descriptions are often inconsistent with the properties of dark matter proposed in physics and cosmology.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Some Theories Win, Some Lose". NASA. http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm/mr_limits.html. , using the WMAP dataset
  2. ^ a b Cline, David B. (March 2003). "The Search for Dark Matter". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-search-for-dark-matte. 
  3. ^ Freese, Katherine; Brian Fields, David Graff. Death of Stellar Baryonic Dark Matter Candidates. arΧiv:astro-ph/0007444. 
  4. ^ Freese, Katherine; Brian D. Field, David S. Graff. Death of Stellar Baryonic Dark Matter. arΧiv:astro-ph/0002058. 
  5. ^ Fornasa, Mattia and Bertone, Gianfranco (2008), Black Holes as Dark Matter Annihilation Boosters, International Journal of Modern Physics D, 17, 1125-1157.
  6. ^ Bertone, Gianfranco, Hooper, Dan and Silk, Joseph (2005), Particle dark matter: evidence, candidates and constraints, Physics Reports, 405, 279-390.
  7. ^ Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.
    "1E 0657-56: NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter". Chandra Photo Album. 2006-08-21. http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/1e0657/. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. 
  8. ^ Zwicky, F. (1933). "Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln". Helvetica Physica Acta 6: 110–127. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1933AcHPh...6..110Z. \ See also Zwicky, F. (1937). "On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae". Astrophysical Journal 86: 217. doi:10.1086/143864. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1937ApJ....86..217Z. 
  9. ^ Ken Freeman, Geoff McNamara (2006). In Search of Dark Matter. Birkhäuser. p. 37. ISBN 0387276165. http://books.google.com/books?id=C2OS1kmQ8JIC&pg=PA37&dq=%22rotation+curves+of+galaxies+%22+date:2000-2010&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES. 
  10. ^ "Astronomers claim first 'dark galaxy' find". New Scientist. 2005-02-23. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7056.  See also: Wikinews:Dark matter galaxy discovered
  11. ^ New Scientist (2008), "Cosmic Enlightenment" (March 8, 2008) No.2646) p.29
  12. ^ "Abell 2029: Hot News for Cold Dark Matter". Chandra X-ray Observatory collaboration. 11 June 2003. http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2003/abell2029/. 
  13. ^ Refregier, A. (September 2003). "Weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 41: 645–668. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.41.111302.102207. 
  14. ^ Massey, R.; et al. (January 18, 2007). "Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding". Nature 445: 286–290. doi:10.1038/nature05497. 
  15. ^ a b c Clowe, D.; Bradac, M., et al. (September 2006). "A direct empirical proof of the existence of dark matter". Astrophysical Journal Letters 648: 109–113. doi:10.1086/508162. arΧiv:astro-ph/0608407. 
  16. ^ a b Tuttle, Kelen (August 22, 2006). "Dark Matter Observed". SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) Today. http://today.slac.stanford.edu/feature/darkmatter.asp. 
  17. ^ a b NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory (August 21, 2006). NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter. Press release. http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2006/aug/HQ_06297_CHANDRA_Dark_Matter.html. 
  18. ^ Silk, Joseph. The Big Bang (1989 ed.). chapter ix, page 182. 
  19. ^ Umemura, Masayuki; Satoru Ikeuchi (1985). "Formation of Subgalactic Objects within Two-Component Dark Matter". Astrophysical Journal 299: 583–592. doi:10.1086/163726. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985ApJ...299..583U. 
  20. ^ Vittorio, N.; J. Silk (1984). "Fine-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background in a universe dominated by cold dark matter". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 285: L39–L43. doi:10.1086/184361. 
  21. ^ Davis, M.; Efstathiou, G., Frenk, C. S., & White, S. D. M. (May 15, 1985). "The evolution of large-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold dark matter". Astrophysical Journal 292: 371–394. doi:10.1086/163168. 
  22. ^ Goddard Space Flight Center (May 14, 2004). "Dark Matter may be Black Hole Pinpoints". NASA's Imagine the Universe. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/features/news/14may04.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-13. 
  23. ^ Merritt, David and Bertone, Gianfranco (2005), Dark Matter Dynamics and Indirect Detection
  24. ^ In April 2008, researchers announced at a physics conference in Venice that dark matter had been detected in the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. Sample, Ian (April 2008). "Italian researchers claim they are first to have found dark matter". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/24/physics.sciencenews. 
  25. ^ Aprile, Elena (April 12, 2008). "The XENON100 Dark Matter Experiment: Initial Performance and Projected Sensitivity" in APS April Meeting 2008.. Retrieved on 2008-12-12. 
  26. ^ J. L. Rosner, Dark Matter in Many Forms, Presented at 2005 ALCPG & ILC Workshops, Snowmass, CO, 14-27 August 2005. preprint
  27. ^ NASA (2006-08-21). NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter. Press release. http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2006/aug/HQ_06297_CHANDRA_Dark_Matter.html. 
  28. ^ "Scientists Say Dark Matter Doesn't Exist". http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/071029-mm-mog-theory.html. 
  29. ^ Reuter, M.; H. Weyer (2004). "Running Newton Constant, Improved Gravitational Actions, and Galaxy Rotation Curves". Physical Review D 70: 124028. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.70.124028. arΧiv:hep-th/0410117. 

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