2008 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Games of the XXIX Olympiad
Official logo of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games

The "Dancing Beijing" emblem, depicting
a Chinese seal inscribed with the
character "Jīng" (京, from the name of the
host city in the form of a dancing figure.

Host city Beijing, China
Motto 同一个世界 同一个梦想
(One World, One Dream)
Nations participating 204 NOCs
Athletes participating 11,028[1]
Events 302 in 28 sports
Opening ceremony August 8
Closing ceremony August 24
Officially opened by President Hu Jintao
Athlete's Oath Zhang Yining
Judge's Oath Huang Liping
Olympic Torch Li Ning
Stadium Beijing National Stadium
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 (except football, which started on August 6) to August 24, 2008. A total of 10,500 athletes competed in 302 events in 28 sports, one event more than was on the schedule of the 2004 Games.[2] The 2008 Beijing Olympics marked the first occasion that either the Summer or Winter Games were hosted in China, making it the 22nd nation to do so. It also became the third time that Olympic events have been held in the territories of two different National Olympic Committees (NOC), as the equestrian events were being held in Hong Kong.[3]

The Olympic Games were awarded to Beijing after an exhaustive ballot of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. The official logo of the Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", features a stylised calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital), referring to the host city. Several new NOCs have also been recognised by the IOC. It was the third time that the Summer Olympic Games were held in Asia and the first since 1988, when the Summer Games were in Seoul. The first Summer Olympics to be held in Asia was in Tokyo in 1964.

The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems.[4][5] A total of 37 venues were used to host the events including 12 newly constructed venues. At the closing ceremony IOC president Jacques Rogge declared the event a "truly exceptional Games" after earlier asserting that the IOC had "absolutely no regrets" in choosing Beijing to host the 2008 Games.[6] The choice of China as a host country was the subject of criticism by some politicians and NGOs concerned about China's human rights record.[7][8] China and others, meanwhile, warned against politicizing the Olympics.[9][10]

The Games saw 43 new world records and 132 new Olympic records set.[11] A record 87 countries won a medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won 51 gold medals and 100 medals altogether, and the United States won 36 gold medals and 110 total medals.[12][13] Michael Phelps broke the records for most golds in one Olympics and for most career gold medals for an Olympian, and equaled the record for most individual golds at a single Games. Usain Bolt secured the traditional title "World's Fastest Man" by setting new world records in the 100m and 200m sprints.


[edit] Bid

2008 Summer Olympics bidding results
City NOC Round 1 Round 2
Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China China 44 56
Toronto Flag of Canada Canada 20 22
Paris Flag of France France 15 18
Istanbul Flag of Turkey Turkey 17 9
Osaka Flag of Japan Japan 6

Beijing was elected the host city on July 13, 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (Bangkok, Cairo, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and Seville) submitted bids to the IOC but failed to make the short list in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by an absolute majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds.[14]

After winning the bid, Li Lanqing, the vice premier of China, declared "The winning of the 2008 Olympic bid is an example of the international recognition of China's social stability, economic progress and the healthy life of the Chinese people." Eight years earlier, Beijing led every round of voting for the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, but lost in the final round to Sydney by just two votes.

[edit] Development and preparation

2008 Summer Olympics

On March 6, 2009 the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", which was about $15 billion, and that surplus revenues from the Olympic Games would exceed the original target of 16 million USD. [15] Other sources, however, estimated that approximately US$40 billion had been spent on the games, which would make it the most expensive Olympic Games by a wide margin. [16][17]

[edit] Venues

By May 2007, construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun.[18] The Chinese government has also invested in the renovation and construction of six venues outside Beijing as well as 59 training centres. Its largest architectural pieces are the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Indoor Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Green, and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by US$2.1 billion (RMB¥17.4 billion) in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the 2008 Summer Olympics. Some venues will be owned and governed by the State General Administration of Sports, which will use them after the Olympics as facilities for all future national sports teams and events. The 2008 Beijing Olympics are the most expensive Games in history with a total of $40.9 billion spent between 2001 and 2007 on infrastructure, energy, transportation and water supply projects.[19]

Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin; sailing in Qingdao; and, because of "uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone", equestrian in Hong Kong.[20] The British Olympic Association has announced that no more than US$19 billion will be spent on the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, while the 2000 Sydney Olympics and 2004 Athens Olympics cost US$7 billion and US$15 billion respectively. [21]

[edit] Beijing National Stadium

The Beijing National Stadium, dubbed "The Bird's Nest".

The centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics is the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed the Bird's Nest because of its nest-like skeletal structure.[22] Construction of the venue began on December 24, 2003. The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing.[23][24] Government officials engaged architects worldwide in a design competition. A Swiss firm, Herzog & de Meuron Architekten AG, collaborated with China Architecture Design & Research Group to win the competition. The stadium features a lattice-like steel outer skeleton around the concrete stadium bowl and has a seating capacity of over 90,000 people. Architects originally described the overall design as resembling a bird nest with an immense ocular opening with a retractable roof over the stadium. However, in 2004, the idea of the retractable roof was abandoned for economic and safety reasons. The Beijing National Stadium was the site of the opening and closing ceremonies, as well as the athletics events and soccer finals.

The Beijing Olympic Village opened on July 16, 2008 and to the public on July 26, 2008.

[edit] Transport

A map of the Olympic venues in Beijing. Several expressways encircle the center of the city, providing for quick transportation around the city and between venues.

To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing's transportation infrastructure was expanded significantly. Beijing's airport underwent a major expansion, adding the new Terminal 3, the world's largest airport terminal, designed by renowned architect Norman Foster.[25] On August 1, Beijing south railway station was reopened after two years of construction. The 120-km long Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Rail, which opened on the same day, connects the new railway station with Olympic co-host city Tianjin with the world's fastest scheduled train service at 350 km/h.

Within the city itself, Beijing's subway expanded to more than double its capacity and overall size, adding an additional 7 lines and 80 stations to the previously existing 4 lines and 64 stations, including a new link connecting directly to the city's airport. Also, a fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses and official cars transported spectators, athletes and officials between venues.[26][27]

A temporary road space rationing based on plate numbers was in effect during the Games in an effort to improve air quality.[28] In addition, 300,000 heavy-polluting vehicles have been banned from operating within the city, and entry into Beijing by vehicles has been strictly limited. These restrictions are enforced from July 20 to September 20.[29][dead link] Passenger vehicle restrictions are placed on alternate days depending on the plates ending in odd or even numbers. This measure is expected to take 45% of Beijing's 3.3 million cars off the streets. The boosted public transport network is expected to absorb the demand created by these restrictions and the influx of visitors, which is estimated at more than 4 million extra passengers per day.[29][30]

[edit] Marketing

The 2008 Summer Olympics emblem is known as Dancing Beijing (simplified Chinese: 舞动的北京). The emblem combines a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of the calligraphic character jīng (, "national capital", also the second character of Beijing's Chinese name) with athletic features. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolises the invitation of China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people."[31]

The slogan for the 2008 Olympics is "One World, One Dream" (simplified Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想; traditional Chinese: 同一個世界 同一個夢想; pinyin: Tóng Yíge Shìjiè Tóng Yíge Mèngxiǎng.)[32] The slogan calls upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity. It was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world.[22]

The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa,[33] each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture.

[edit] Broadcasting

The 2008 Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition television by the host broadcaster. In comparison, American broadcaster NBC broadcasted only half of the Turin Winter Games produced in HD.[34][35] In their bid for the Olympic Games in 2001, Beijing confirmed to the Olympic Evaluation Commission "that there will be no restrictions on media reporting and movement of journalists up to and including the Olympic Games" [36], but according to a report in The New York Times, "these promises were contradicted by strict visa rules, lengthy application processes and worries about censorship."[37]

According to Nielsen Media Research, 4.7 billion viewers worldwide tuned in to some of the television coverage, one-fifth larger than the 3.9 billion who watched the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. The 2008 Olympics was the most-viewed event in American television history.[38]

[edit] Online coverage

American broadcaster NBC produced only 2 hours of online streaming video for the 2006 Winter Games but produced approximately 2,200 hours of coverage for the 2008 Summer Games. For the first time "live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall 'broadcast rights,'"; these new media of the digital economy are growing "nine times faster than the rest of the advertising market."[39]

Globally, however, the 2008 Olympics is subject to extensive copyright restriction –which amounts to territorial restrictions– whilst still being covered extensively online within various exclusive copyright autarkies. Thus despite the international nature of the event and the global reach of the Internet, the coverage world wide of assorted nation-states and television networks is not readily accessible; there is no global or supranational media coverage as such. The international European Broadcasting Union (EBU), for example, provides live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain of its own territories[40] on their website eurovisionsports.tv.[41] Many national broadcasters likewise restrict online events to their domestic audiences.[42]

Despite the contractual obligations of the digital economy, some of the same technologies used to circumvent the Great Firewall of China (such as UltraSurf) can be used to subvert the Olympic media autarkies on the Internet as well.

YouTube has removed a video of a regional German network's (NDR) coverage of the opening ceremonies as "This video is no longer available due to a copyright claim by a third party.[43][44]; a video from Australia's Seven Network has been removed "for violation of terms of service". Furthermore, the General National Copyright Administration of China has announced that "individual (sic) and websites will face fines as high as 100,000 yuan for uploading recordings of Olympic Games video to the internet,"[45] part of an extensive campaign to protect the pertinent intellectual property rights.[46][47][48]

[edit] Torch relay

2008 Olympic Torch

The design of the Olympic Torch is based on traditional scrolls and uses a traditional Chinese design known as the "Propitious Clouds" (祥云). The torch is designed to remain lit in 65 km/h (40 mph) winds, temperatures as low as -40°C and in rain of up to 50 mm (2 in) per hour.

The relay, with the theme Journey of Harmony, lasted 130 days and carried the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi)—the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the tradition began at the 1936 Berlin Games.[49][50] The torch relay was called a "public relations disaster" for China by The Times,[51] with protests of China's human rights record, particularly about Tibet. The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays.[52]

Route of the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay

The relay began March 24, 2008, in Olympia, Greece. From there, it traveled across Greece to Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on March 31. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. A total of 21,880 torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities.[53]

The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour saw wide-scale protests to China's human rights abuses and recent crackdown in Tibet. After trouble in London saw several attempts to put out the flame, the flame was extinguished in Paris the following day.[54] The American leg in San Francisco on April 9 was altered without prior warning to avoid such scenes, although there were still demonstrations along the original route.[55] The relay was further delayed and simplified after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake affecting western China.

The flame was carried to the top of Mount Everest[53] on a 108 km (67 mi) long "highway" scaling the Tibetan side of the mountain especially built for the relay. The $19.7 million blacktop project spanned from Tingri County of Xigazê Prefecture to the Everest Base Camp.[56] In 2008 March, China banned mountaineers from climbing its side of Mount Everest and later persuaded the Nepalese government to close their side as well, officially citing environmental concerns.[57] It also reflected concerns by the Chinese government that Tibet activists may try to disrupt its plans to carry the Olympic torch up the world's tallest peak.[58]

The originally proposed route would have seen the torch carried through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong. Taiwan authorities (then led by the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party), however, objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch's domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route.[59] This dispute as well as demands that the flag of the Republic of China and the National Anthem of the Republic of China be banned along the route[60] led the Taiwan authorities to reject the proposal that it be part of the relay route, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait subsequently blamed each other for injecting politics into the event.[61]

[edit] The Games

[edit] Opening ceremony

A scene from the opening ceremony.

The opening ceremony was held in the Beijing National Stadium. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on August 8, 2008.[62][63][64] The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture, and here it was a triple eight for the date and one extra for time (close to 08:08:08 pm).[65] The ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang Jigang.[66] It featured a cast of over 15,000 performers, and was dubbed beforehand as "the most spectacular Olympics Opening Ceremony ever produced".[67]

A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony. It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show's centerpiece. The official song of the 2008 Olympics, titled You and Me, was performed by Britain's Sarah Brightman and China's Liu Huan, on a large spinning rendition of the globe.[68] The last recipient in the Olympic Torch relay, former Chinese gymnast Li Ning ignited the cauldron, after being suspended into the air by wires and completing a lap of the National Stadium at Stadium roof height in the air.

The entry parade of the competing athletes differed in order from previous Olympic ceremonies, as the national teams did not enter in alphabetical order by the host nation's alphabet. Since Chinese does not have an alphabet, teams entered the stadium in order (lowest first) of the number of strokes in their Simplified Chinese character transcriptions; this is a common collation method for the Chinese language, such as the surname stroke order system. As a result, Australia (normally one of the first teams to enter the stadium) became one of the final teams to arrive, as the first character of the Chinese name of Australia (澳大利亚) has 16 strokes. The Olympic traditions of Greece entering first and the host nation (China) entering last were still observed.

The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as spectacular and spellbinding.[69] Hein Verbruggen, chairman of the IOC Coordination Commission for the XXIX Olympiad, called the ceremony "a grand, unprecedented success."[70] A review of the opening ceremony from around the world called it "spectacular and devoid of politics".[71] It was deemed that the real fireworks were too dangerous to film from a helicopter; as such, some footage were generated to provide simulated aerial shots of the scene. Another cosmetic enhancement in China's quest for a "perfect" Summer Games was using 9-year-old Lin Miaoke to lip-sync over the singing voice of Yang Peiyi for the opening ceremony song Ode to the Motherland. Miss Yang, 7, had reportedly won a "grueling" competition to be chosen as the performer, but was considered to be insufficiently photogenic, and a member of the Politburo who oversaw the final preparations ordered that Miss Lin appear in Miss Yang's place. [72] Another portion of the ceremony featured 56 children carrying a large Chinese flag, with 55 of them dressed in traditional costumes of the officially recognized ethnic minorities of China. The children wearing the ethnic minority costumes were described in the official program as members of these minorities, but it was later revealed that they were actually Han Chinese. [73]

More than 100 sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as 170 Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games.[74]

[edit] Closing ceremony

The 2008 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games on August 24, 2008. It began at 8:00pm China Standard Time (UTC+8), and took place at the Beijing National Stadium.

The Ceremony included the handover of the Games from Beijing to London. Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, followed by a performance organized by the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (LOCOG).

[edit] Participating NOCs

Participating nations

All but one (Brunei) of the 205 National Olympic Committees (NOCs)[75] participated. China and the United States had the largest teams, with 639 and 596[76][77] competitors respectively.

Three countries participated for their first time: the Marshall Islands, Montenegro and Tuvalu.

South African swimmer Natalie du Toit, five time gold medalist at the Athens Paralympics in 2004, qualified to compete at the Beijing Olympics, thus making history by becoming the first amputee to qualify for the Olympic Games since Olivér Halassy in 1936.[78][79] Natalia Partyka (who was born without a right forearm) competed in Table Tennis for Poland.[80]

As in the previous Games since 1984, athletes from the Republic of China (Taiwan) are competing at the Olympics as Chinese Taipei (TPE)[81] under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag and using the National Banner Song as their official anthem. The participation of Taiwan had been in doubt due to disagreements over the designation of the team in the Chinese language, and concerns that Taiwan would march in the Opening Ceremony next to the Chinese Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong.[82] Unlike in previous games, supporters were not able to legally display the flag of the Republic of China even outside the venues.[83]

List of Participating NOCs

Below is a list of all the participating NOCs (the number of competitors per delegation is indicated in parentheses)

[edit] Participation changes

The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and participated in the Games.[85][86]

The states of Serbia and Montenegro, which participated at the 2004 Games jointly as Serbia and Montenegro, are now competing separately. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was accepted as a new National Olympic Committee in 2007.[86] After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, IOC specified the requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognised by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognised as independent by the United Nations.[87]

North Korea and South Korea held meetings to discuss the possibility of sending a united team to the 2008 Olympics,[88][89] but the proposal failed, due to disagreements between the two NOCs on the proportion of athletes from the two countries within the team.[citation needed]

On July 24, 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Iraq from competing in the 2008 Olympic Summer Games due to "political interference by the government in sports."[90][91] On July 29, the IOC reversed its decision and allowed the nation to compete after a pledge by Iraq to ensure "the independence of its national Olympics panel" by instituting fair elections before the end of November. Until then, Iraq's Olympic Organisation will be run by "an interim committee proposed by its national sports federations and approved by the IOC."[92]

Brunei Darussalam were due to take part in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. However, they were disqualified on August 8, having failed to register either of their athletes.[93] The IOC spokeswoman Emmanuelle Moreau said in a statement that "it is a great shame and very sad for the athletes who lose out because of the decision by their team not to register them. The IOC tried up until the last minute, midday Friday August 8, 2008, the day of the official opening, to have them register, but to no avail."[94] Brunei's Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports submitted a Press release on why Brunei decided not to participate in Beijing, stated that "one athlete competing in the shot putt event Mohd Yazid Yatimi Yusof (who) has undergone intensive training since March ... injured himself in June (right liotibial strain with mild lateral ministrial knee injury), when he was competing in the Pesta Sukan Kebangsaan (National Sports Festival)". The Brunei Darussalam Olympic Council (BNOC) issued a Press release stating that "it had to wait for approval from the Youth and Sports Department under the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports as to whether Brunei Darussalam could be represented at the Olympic Games".[95] It is also noted that the withdrawal can lead Brunei to being sanctioned and appropriate action will be taken after the closing of the Olympics on August 24.[96]

Georgia announced on August 9, 2008 that it was considering withdrawing from the Beijing Olympic Games due to the military conflict in South Ossetia[97] but it went on to compete while the conflict was still ongoing.

[edit] Sports

Inside Beijing National Stadium during the Games. Olympic torch in background.

The program for the Beijing 2008 Games was quite similar to that of the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. The 2008 Olympics saw the return of 28 sports (some of which, such as aquatics, gymnastics and cycling, were divided into multiple disciplines), and held 302 events (165 men's events, 127 women's events, and 10 mixed events), one event more in total than in Athens.

Overall, 9 new events were held, which included 2 from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Women competed in the 3000 m steeplechase for the first time. In addition, marathon open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of 10 kilometres, were added to the swimming discipline. Team events (men and women) in table tennis replaced the doubles events. In fencing, women's team foil and women's team sabre replaced men's team foil and women's team épée.[98][99][100][101]

In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released).[102][103] This set of sport icons is named the beauty of seal characters, due to each pictogram's likeness to Chinese seal script.

The following were the 28 sports to be contested at these Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses (in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC[104], these are also specified).

  • Canoeing (16)
    • Slalom (4)
    • Flatwater (12)
  • Cycling (18)
    • BMX (2)
    • Road (4)
    • Track (10)
    • Mountain Bike (2)
  • Equestrian (6)
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)

In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 saw 128 athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the 2008 Olympic Games.[105]

[edit] Calendar

In the following calendar for the 2008 Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport are held. Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that was contested on that day.[106]

 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals     Exhibition gala  ●  Closing ceremony
August 2008 6th
Archery       4
Athletics 47
Badminton             5
Baseball                 1
Basketball                             2
Boxing                           11
Canoeing 16
Cycling   18
Diving           8
Equestrian 6
Fencing 10
Field hockey                         2
Football (soccer)                       2
Gymnastics 18
Handball                             2
Judo 14
Modern pentathlon 2
Rowing             14
Sailing               11
Shooting 15
Softball                 1
Swimming   34
Synchronized swimming 2
Table tennis               4
Taekwondo 8
Tennis             4
Triathlon 2
Volleyball                         4
Water polo                         2
Weightlifting 15
Wrestling 18
Total gold medals 7 14 13 19 17 15 18 27 37 18 20 11 21 21 32 12 302
Cumulative Total 7 21 34 53 70 85 103 130 167 185 205 216 237 258 290 302
August 2008 6th

[edit] Medal table

The reverse side of the medals of the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver (left), gold (center), bronze (right). Each medal has a ring of jade.

The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below. (Host nation is highlighted)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 China China (CHN) 51 21 28 100
2 United States United States (USA) 36 38 36 110
3 Russia Russia (RUS) 23 21 28 72
4 Great Britain Great Britain (GBR) 19 13 15 47
5 Germany Germany (GER) 16 10 15 41
6 Australia Australia (AUS) 14 15 17 46
7 South Korea South Korea (KOR) 13 10 8 31
8 Japan Japan (JPN) 9 6 10 25
9 Italy Italy (ITA) 8 10 10 28
10 France France (FRA) 7 16 17 40

[edit] Concerns and controversies

The banner reads: "Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics", picture taken during the opening of the Human Rights Torch Relay event

A variety of concerns over the Games, or China's hosting of the Games, have been expressed by various entities; including allegations that China violated its pledge to allow open media access,[107] various alleged human rights violations,[108][109][110] air pollution in both the city of Beijing and in neighbouring areas,[111][112] proposed boycotts,[113][114] warnings of the possibility that the Beijing Olympics could be targeted by terrorist groups,[115] potentially violent disruption from pro-Tibetan protesters,[116] religious persecutions,[117] the banning of ethnic Tibetans from working in Beijing for the duration of the Games,[118] criticisms of policies mandating the electronic surveillance of internationally owned hotels,[119][120][121] displacement of residents,[122] ticket adversities,[123] manhandling of foreign journalists,[124][125] dubious protest zones,[126] as well as alleged harassment, house arrests, forced disappearances, imprisonment, and torture of dissidents and protest applicants.[124][127][128][129][130][131][132]

Furthermore, there are allegations that some members of China's women's gymnastics team were too young to compete under the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique's rules for Olympic eligibility.[133] On August 21, the IOC ordered a probe into the legal ages of double gold medal winning gymnast He Kexin and her fellow teammates.[134] After a five and a half week investigation, the Chinese gymnasts were deemed eligible to compete and the original results were allowed to stand.[135]

In the lead-up to the Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for their reporting during the Games: most political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed; topics such as Pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements were not to be reported on, as were food safety issues such as "cancer-causing mineral water."[136] As the 2008 baby milk scandal broke in September 2008, there was widespread speculation that China's desire for a perfect games may have been a factor contributing towards the delayed recall of contaminated infant formula.[137][138]

[edit] Legacy

In the short term, the 2008 Olympic Games have been generally accepted by the world's media as a logistical success.[139] [140] Contrary to fears before the game, no terrorists struck Beijing; no athlete protested at the podium; and thanks largely to favorable weather conditions the city had the best air quality in ten years.[141][142]

For the Chinese government, the Olympic events, as well as the medals won by Chinese athletes, were a great source of national pride. The Olympics seem to have also bolstered some domestic support for the Chinese government, and support for the policies of the Communist Party of China, giving rise to concerns that the state will possibly have more leverage to disperse dissent, at least momentarily.[140]

The long-term economic impact is not yet clear, but it is generally expected that there will be no lasting effect on the city due to the games.[143]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ International Olympic Committee (2008-08-01). NOC entry forms received. Press release. http://en.beijing2008.cn/news/official/preparation/n214496035.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. "(...) confirmed the qualification of 11,028 athletes, including 363 supplement athletes holding a P card." 
  2. ^ "6th Coordination Commission Visit To Begin Tomorrow". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/beijing/full_story_uk.asp?id=1805. Retrieved on 2006-05-20. 
  3. ^ The other two instances were the 1956 games, where the equestrian events were hosted in Stockholm, Sweden, due to strict Australian quarantine rules, and the other events were hosted in Melbourne, Australia; and the 1920 games which were hosted in Antwerp, Belgium, but the final two races of the 12ft dinghy event in sailing were held in The Netherlands.
  4. ^ "China's coming out party". Toronto Star. August 2007. http://www.thestar.com/Sports/Olympics/article/242172. 
  5. ^ "2008-The Year of China?". BusinessCenter.TV. 2007-08-07. http://www.webcastr.com/videos/travel_leisure/2008-the-year-of-china.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  6. ^ Abrahamson, Alan (2008-08-02). ""Absolutely no regrets" in coming to China, IOC president says". NBC. http://www.nbcolympics.com/blogs/blog=alanabrahamsonsblog/postid=163687.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-02. 
  7. ^ Ian Traynor and Jonathan Watts: Merkel says she will not attend opening of Beijing Olympics. Guardian on-line. March 29, 2008
  8. ^ Amnesty International: China: The two faces of the Beijing Olympics. June 1, 2008.
  9. ^ "Do not politicize Olympic Games, warns BOCOG official". Xinhua. 2007-10-19. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-10/19/content_6906706.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-24. 
  10. ^ "Pakistan's Musharraf criticizes efforts to politicize Olympics". International Herald Tribune. 2008-04-14. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/14/asia/AS-GEN-China-Pakistan.php. Retrieved on 2008-08-24. 
  11. ^ Mixed legacy likely as China's Olympics conclude, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080825/ap_on_sp_ol/oly_closing_ceremony;_ylt=AgjrQQDt0S88wMxFEm2g83us0NUE, David Crary, AP, August 25, 2008
  12. ^ http://www.boston.com/sports/articles/2008/08/25/closing_statement/
  13. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-08/25/content_9706148.htm
  14. ^ "Beijing 2008: Election". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/beijing/election_uk.asp. Retrieved on 2006-12-18. 
  15. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90884/6608035.html
  16. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSPEK25823820080805
  17. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/jul/28/olympicgames2008.china1
  18. ^ "All Beijing-based Olympic venues under construction". BOCOG. 2007-05-11. http://en.beijing2008.cn/01/32/article214073201.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  19. ^ The Most Expensive Games In History, Beijing 2008. Retrieved on August 5, 2008.
  20. ^ Olympic Venues, Beijing 2008. Retrieved on May 15, 2006.
  21. ^ SBS World News Australia, broadcast August 23, 2008
  22. ^ a b "The Olympic Games en route for Beijing". International Olympic Committee. 2007-07-13. http://olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2244. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. 
  23. ^ ArchitectureWeek - Design - China's Banner Stadium - 2002.0501
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Jo Baker. "Beijing Terminal 3 by Foster". ArchitectureWeek.com. http://www.architectureweek.com/2008/0730/design_1-1.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-16. 
  26. ^ "38 public transit routes to the Olympic venues". BOCOG. 2007-01-22. http://en.beijing2008.cn/05/25/article214012505.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-01-29. 
  27. ^ AUSmotive.com (2008-08-02). "Volkswagen claims ‘Green’ medal at 2008 Olympic Games". http://www.ausmotive.com/2008/08/02/volkswagen-claims-green-medal-at-2008-olympic-games-in-beijing.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-02. 
  28. ^ Andrew Jacobs (2008-04-14). "Traffic Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/15/world/asia/15china.html?hp. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 
  29. ^ a b Stephen Wade (2008-06-20). "Beijing sets restrictions on cars during Olympics". National Examiner. http://www.examiner.com/a-1451114~Beijing_sets_restrictions_on_cars_during_Olympics.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. 
  30. ^ Reuters (2008-06-23). "Beijing to launch Olympic 'odd-even' car ban". ABC news. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/06/23/2282484.htm?site=olympics/2008. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. 
  31. ^ "Rogge's Message for Beijing Olympics Emblem Unveiling". People's Daily Online. 2003-08-03. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200308/03/eng20030803_121618.shtml. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. 
  32. ^ "'One World One Dream' selected as the Theme Slogan for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games". BOCOG. 2005-12-25. http://en.beijing2008.cn/75/66/article211996675.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  33. ^ "Fuwa Fact Sheet". http://watch-olympics-online.co.cc/about.php. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. 
  34. ^ Dickson, Glen (2008-08-04). "Network goes to great lengths to pump Beijing Olympic Games action to myriad pipes.". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6584303.html?desc=topstory. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. 
  35. ^ "Seeing clearly: Panasonic ushers in first HDTV Game". China Daily. 2007-07-06. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/2008/2007-07/06/content_911825.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  36. ^ Report of the IOC Evaluation Commission for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in 2008, pg.73
  37. ^ Stelter, Brian (2008-07-21). "Networks Fight Shorter Olympic Leash". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/21/sports/olympics/21nbc.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved on 2008-07-21. 
  38. ^ http://www.cinemablend.com/television/2008-Beijing-Olympics-Most-Viewed-Event-In-US-TV-History-11888.html
  39. ^ "Olympics enter the '2.0' era - CNN.com". http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/07/09/oly.media/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 
  40. ^ "Beijing LIVE". http://www.eurovisionsports.tv/olympics/geoerror/geoerror.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 
  41. ^ Beijing Live, Beijing 2008. Retrieved on August 9, 2008.
  42. ^ "BBC SPORT $#124; Olympics $#124; Cycling $#124; Video — Delighted Cooke gets gold medal". Page last updated at 13:07 GMT, Sunday, August 10, 2008 14:07 UK. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympics/cycling/7552544.stm. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 
  43. ^ http://community.livejournal.com/olympicgames08/28771.html
  44. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1nmR8Ndj7g
  45. ^ http://www.danwei.org/2008_beijing_olympic_games/china_copywrites_the_olympics.php
  46. ^ http://olympics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/06/16/for-olympics-china-ramps-up-copyright-infringement-campaign/
  47. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/newmedia/2008-06/13/content_8359170.htm
  48. ^ http://english.ipr.gov.cn/ipr/en/info/Article.jsp?a_no=142611&col_no=926&dir=200711
  49. ^ "Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route". International Olympic Committee. 2007-04-26. http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2147. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 
  50. ^ "Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route". http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/world/09torch.html?_r=1&ex=1365393600&en=2c75ea71d3f9215b&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin. 
  51. ^ "Britain sends mandarins to China on subtle mission". The Times. 2008-04-25. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article3811649.ece. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. 
  52. ^ Zinser, Lynn (2009-03-27). "I.O.C. Bars International Torch Relays". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/28/sports/othersports/28torch.html?ref=sports. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. 
  53. ^ a b "Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled". BOCOG. 2007-04-26. http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/news/headlines/n214042288.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 
  54. ^ Bremner, Charles (2008-04-07). "Tibet protests force organisers to snuff out Olympic flame in Paris". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article3697392.ece. 
  55. ^ "Confusion strikes US torch relay". BBC News. 2008-04-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7339380.stm?. 
  56. ^ "China to build highway on Mt Everest for 2008 Olympics". The Hindu. 2007-06-20. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/007200706200340.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  57. ^ "Climbers banned from Everest as China seeks to stop protests on summit". The Independent. 2008-03-17. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/climbers-banned-from-everest-as-china-seeks-to-stop-protests-on-summit-796782.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. 
  58. ^ "China closes its side of Everest to climbers". CNN. 2008-03-12. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/12/china.everest.ap/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. 
  59. ^ "Taiwan rejects 'domestic' Olympic torch route". Taiwan Journal. 2007-05-04. http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=24170&CtNode=122. Retrieved on 2007-08-15. 
  60. ^ BBC NEWS Asia-Pacific | Olympic torch will bypass Taiwan
  61. ^ "China blames Taiwan for scuttling Olympic torch relay through Taipei, labels 'vile precedent'". Yahoo! Canada Sports. 2007-09-21. http://sports.yahoo.com/top/news?slug=ap-china-torchrelay&prov=ap&type=lgns. Retrieved on 2007-09-24. 
  62. ^ "Tickets Information — The official ticketing website of the BEIJING 2008 Olympic Games". http://www.tickets.beijing2008.cn/browse?category=8224&major_category=8224&game_type=olympic. 
  63. ^ "Beijing Confirms the Opening Ceremony Time for 2008 Olympics", Travel China Guide. Retrieved on August 2, 2008
  64. ^ "Opening Ceremony plan released". Official website. 2008-08-06. http://en.beijing2008.cn/ceremonies/n214508163.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. 
  65. ^ "The Number Eight And The Chinese". http://afgen.com/china8.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  66. ^ http://en.beijing2008.cn/culture/ceremonies/n214143744.shtml
  67. ^ Olympics opening ceremony to have 15,000 performers -- The Live Feed
  68. ^ FACTBOX: Fears, foul-ups and triumphs at past Olympic openings
  69. ^ "Press hails 'greatest ever' Olympic opening show". Agence France-Presse. 2008-08-09. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5ibNAUAq-kZNOy3LmO9HAI2cN-smg. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  70. ^ Verbruggen: Opening Ceremony a grand success
  71. ^ Olympics opening ceremony reviews -- The Live Feed
  72. ^ "Chinese defend Olympic ceremony lip-synch". Associated Press. 2008-08-13. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/08/12/international/i024134D13.DTL&feed=rss.sports. Retrieved on 2008-09-12. 
  73. ^ By Richard Spencer in Beijing Last Updated: 11:04 am BST 15 Aug 2008. "Beijing Olympics: 'Ethnic' children exposed as fakes in opening ceremony — Telegraph". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/olympics/2561979/Beijing-Olympics-Ethnic-children-exposed-as-fakes-in-opening-ceremony.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 
  74. ^ IOC President to meet with world leaders
  75. ^ "National Olympic Committees". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/noc/index_uk.asp. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. 
  76. ^ 2008 United States Olympic Team Entered Into XXVIV Olympic Games in Beijing, China, USOC, July 24, 2008
  77. ^ Asian Americans Going for the Gold in.... AsianWeek. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  78. ^ "Dreams carry Natalie Du Toit to Beijing", The Telegraph, May 4, 2008
  79. ^ Du Toit, who lost leg in scooter accident, will swim in Beijing Games, Reuters, May 3, 2008
  80. ^ "Natalia: Paralympic AND Olympic athlete". http://www.london2012.com/blog/2008/06/18/natalia-paralympic-and-olympic-athlete.php. Retrieved on 2008-07-15. 
  81. ^ Reinstatement in the Olympic Movement, Chinese Olympic Committee, March 27, 2004
  82. ^ "Taiwan clears Games hurdle", The Australian, August 4, 2008
  83. ^ "Taiwanese plan to skirt Olympics flag ban", International Herald Tribune - Asia-Pacific, August 12, 2008
  84. ^ "Ukraine to send its largest-ever Olympic delegation to Beijing". Xinhua. 2008-07-17. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-07/17/content_8558154.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  85. ^ "Robert Meets IOC President". ONOC. 2005-04-02. http://www.oceaniasport.com/tuvalu/. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
  86. ^ a b "Two new National Olympic Committees on board!". International Olympic Committee. 2007-07-06. http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2237. Retrieved on 2007-07-08. 
  87. ^ "IOC: Kosovo Olympic Team 'Unlikely'". Associated Press. 2008-02-18. http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/wireStory?id=4306795. Retrieved on 2008-02-20. 
  88. ^ "Koreas 'to unify Olympics teams'". BBC. 2006-05-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4396170.stm. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
  89. ^ "Two Koreas Make Progress in Creation of Unified Team". International Olympic Committee. 2006-09-05. http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=1893. Retrieved on 2006-09-10. 
  90. ^ "Iraq banned from Summer Olympics". CNN. 2008-07-24. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/07/24/iraq.olympics/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-24. 
  91. ^ "Iraq banned from Beijing Olympics". BBC Sport. 2008-07-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/7523708.stm. Retrieved on 2008-07-24. 
  92. ^ IOC lifts Iraq's Olympic suspension
  93. ^ "Brunei Darussalam excluded from Beijing Olympic Games". Xinhua. 2008-08-08. http://www.china.org.cn/olympics/news/2008-08/08/content_16167337.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. 
  94. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSPEK32791920080808 Brunei excluded from Beijing Games
  95. ^ http://www.bt.com.bn/en/sport/2008/08/10/brunei_not_in_china_because
  96. ^ http://www.ranoadidas.com/?p=1576
  97. ^ "24.com - Olympics 2008 - Georgia poised to leave Beijing". 2008-09-08. http://www.news24.com/News24/Sport/Olympics2008/0,,2-9-2370_2372929,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 
  98. ^ The fencing programme again included all six individual events and four team events, though the team events were a different set than were held in 2004. The International Fencing Federation's rules call for events not held in the previous Games to receive automatic selection and for at least one team event in each weapon to be held. Voting is conducted to determine the fourth event. In 2004, the three men's team events and the women's épée were held. Thus, in 2008, the women's foil and sabre events and men's épée were automatically selected. Men's sabre was chosen over foil by a 45–20 vote.
  99. ^ "List of decisions of the 2006 General Assembly" (PDF). Federation Internationale d'Escrime. 2006-04-08. http://www.fie.ch/download/letters/2006/urgent/09/en/decisions%20ANG.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  100. ^ "Beijing 2008: Games Programme Finalised". International Olympic Committee. 2006-04-27. http://olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=1797. Retrieved on 2006-05-10. 
  101. ^ Programme of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008, International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on May 15, 2006.
  102. ^ "Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games". BOCOG. 2006. http://en.beijing2008.cn/spirit/beijing2008/graphic/pictograms/. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. 
  103. ^ "Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games unveiled". BOCOG. 2006-08-07. http://en.beijing2008.com/37/34/article212033437.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. 
  104. ^ IOC Sport PagesThe list of Olympic Sports is provided at www.olympic.org. The link for each sport provides further links the disciplines of the sport, if applicable.
  105. ^ Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 to begin August 21 - Beijing 2008, 05/08/08
  106. ^ "Olympic Games Competition Schedule". BOCOG. http://en.beijing2008.cn/cptvenues/schedule/. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. 
  107. ^ Two Concerns for Olympics - Air and Access - NYTimes.com
  108. ^ "Protestors Rally in Europe on Eve of China Olympics". Deutsche Welle. 2008-08-07. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3545274,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  109. ^ "China's un-Olympic human rights record". Calgary Herald. 2008-08-09. http://www.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/theeditorialpage/story.html?id=c06e4f24-ea77-467c-960e-abc94721e094. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  110. ^ "Canadian protests over China's human-rights record continue prior to Games". Haaretz. 2008-08-08. http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5iM4HoqRxdb5TWSCC16uQuHn2_q7g. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  111. ^ "Ji Xinpeng: Beijing welcomes you with its blue sky". China Daily. 2008-08-07. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/2008-08/07/content_6912755.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. 
  112. ^ "Beijing failing to clear the air". The Daily Yomiuri. 2008-07-27. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/world/20080727dy01.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  113. ^ Kosyrev, Dmitry (2008-08-06). "Beijing Olympics as a diplomatic convention". RIA Novosti. http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20080806/115849259.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  114. ^ Newman, Saul. "Why Grandpa boycotted the Olympics". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1009630.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  115. ^ Interpol says Olympic terror attack 'real possibility'. The Globe and Mail. Accessed: April 25, 2008
  116. ^ Interpol chief warns of Olympic terror threat. Yahoo! Eurosport UK. Accessed: August 8, 2008
  117. ^ O'Sullivan, Mike (2008-08-10). "Bush Olympic Visit Highlights Religion in China". Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-08-10-voa26.cfm. 
  118. ^ Seattle Times article
  119. ^ AFP: China plans to spy on Olympic hotel guests: US senator
  120. ^ Sen. Brownback says China monitoring Internet access in hotels - Los Angeles Times
  121. ^ The Associated Press: Senator: China spying on Internet use in hotels
  122. ^ Fan, Maureen; Jie, Zhang (2008-02-20). "China Defends Relocation Policy". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/19/AR2008021901612.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. 
  123. ^ "British fraud ran Beijing ticket scam". theage.com.au. 2008-08-06. http://www.theage.com.au/news/web/british-fraud-ran-beijing-ticket-scam/2008/08/06/1217702097417.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-12. 
  124. ^ a b "After Friend Disappears, Ji Sizun Confronts Police and is Detained Himself". The Washington Post. 2008-08-12. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/livecoverage/2008/08/protest_zone_iii_purple_bamboo.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-16. 
  125. ^ "Chinese police rough up British TV crew at Olympics". Associated Press (Google News). 2008-08-13. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5irvrCdaocfBP2v4d714WFuK3cyZA. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. 
  126. ^ "No Permits, No Protests In Beijing's Special 'Pens'". The Washington Post. 2008-08-15. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/14/AR2008081403420.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved on 2008-08-16. 
  127. ^ "Zeng Jinyan - The TIME 100," TIME Magazine, May 14, 2007
  128. ^ "Blogger put in prison for criticizing the Olympic Games" The Observers by France, August 15, 2008
  129. ^ "Chinese rights activist Zeng Jinyan disappears" International Herald Tribune, August 9, 2008
  130. ^ "Blogger put under house arrest to prevent him going to Beijing". Reporters Without Borders. http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=28185. 
  131. ^ "Police Detain Would-Be Olympic Protesters". Human Rights Watch. 2008-08-13. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2008/08/12/china19601.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-16. 
  132. ^ Dáša Van Der Horst (2008-08-06). "Censored!". The Prague Post. http://www.praguepost.com/articles/2008/08/06/censored.php. 
  133. ^ "Most Memorable Moments of the 2008 Beijing Olympics". AsianWeek. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  134. ^ Olympic probe into age-fixing of Chinese gymnasts
  135. ^ "2008 Chinese gymnasts cleared, but 2000 team eyed". Associated Press. ESPN. 2008-10-01. http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/gymnastics/news/story?id=3619325&campaign=rss&source=ESPNHeadlines. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. 
  136. ^ Stephen Hutcheon, Was China's milk scandal hushed up?, "The full list of edicts", New Zealand Herald (15 September 2008)
  137. ^ China accused over contaminated baby milk, The Daily Telegraph (15 September 2008)
  138. ^ China Says Complaints About Milk Began in 2007, The New York Times (23 September 2008) "
  139. ^ "Top events of 2008 - After the Games: China's Olympic legacy". http://www.radio86.co.uk/china-insight/world-viewpoints/9348/top-events-of-2008-after-the-games-chinas-olympic-legacy. 
  140. ^ a b Skalij, Wally. "Beijing Olympics were logistically successful and sneaky, too". http://articles.latimes.com/2008/aug/24/sports/sp-olyplaschke24. Retrieved on 2008-08-29. 
  141. ^ "China Launches Olympic-Size Headache". 2008-08-20. http://www.nysun.com/foreign/china-launches-olympic-size-headache/84259/. Retrieved on 2008-08-31. 
  142. ^ "The Future of Beijing's Cleaner Air". 2008-09-02. http://time-blog.com/china_blog/2008/09/the_future_of_beijings_cleaner.html?xid=rss-china. 
  143. ^ "Beijing's economy - Going for gold". 2008-08-25. http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11920899. Retrieved on 2008-08-29. 

[edit] External links

Preceded by
Summer Olympic Games
Host City

XXIX Olympiad (2008)
Succeeded by

Personal tools