Diego Garcia

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Diego Garcia

Airport type Naval Support Facility
Owner Legally purchased by the United Kingdom (sole legal owner)
Operator Royal Navy, Royal Marines, United States Navy
Location Diego Garcia, Chagos, Indian Ocean
Built 1980s
In use 1971 - present
Elevation AMSL 9 ft / 3 m
Coordinates 7°18′48″S 72°24′40″E / 7.31333°S 72.41111°E / -7.31333; 72.41111
Direction Length Surface
ft m
13/31 12,003 3,659 Concrete

Diego Garcia is the largest atoll, in terms of land area, in Chagos Archipelago, part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. The island is located in the Indian Ocean, about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) south of the southern coast of India.[1] Other countries in the vicinity of Diego Garcia include Sri Lanka and Maldives.

In the 1960s, the Chagos archipelago was leased to the United Kingdom and detached from Mauritius with the intention of setting up plantations. However, in 1971 the United Kingdom and United States entered an agreement under which the latter would set up a military base in Diego Garcia. Since then, United Kingdom enforced the highly controversial depopulation of Diego Garcia. It has one of the five monitoring stations assisting the operation of the Global Positioning System, the others being on Ascension Island, Hawaii, Kwajalein and Colorado Springs.

It is covered in luxuriant tropical vegetation, with little sign of the copra and coconut plantations that once covered it. It is 60 kilometres (37 mi) long, with a maximum elevation of 6.7 metres (22 ft), and nearly encloses a lagoon about 19 kilometres (12 mi) long and up to 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) wide. Depths in the lagoon extend to 30 metres (98 ft), and numerous coral heads form hazards to navigation. Shallow reefs surround the island on the ocean side. The channel and anchorage area are dredged, while the old turning basin can also be used.


[edit] Geography

Location map of Diego Garcia.

The atoll forms a nearly complete rim of land around a lagoon, enclosing 90 percent of its perimeter, with an opening only in the north. The main island is the largest of about sixty islands which form the Chagos Archipelago. Besides the main island, there are three small islets at the mouth of the lagoon in the north:

  1. West Island (3.4 ha/8.4 acres)
  2. Middle Island (6 ha/14.8 acres)
  3. East Island (11.75 ha/29 acres)

The total area of the atoll is 174 km2 (66 mi2) according to [1], of which 30 km2 (12 mi2) are land, 17 km2 (6.5 mi2) peripheral reef and 124 km2 (48 mi2) are lagoon.

[edit] Climate

Eclipse Point

Annual rainfall averages 260 cm (102 in), with the heaviest precipitation from October to February. August, the driest month, averages 100 mm (4.2 in). Temperatures are generally close to 30°C (86 °F) by day, falling to the low 20s °C (70 °F) by night. Humidity is high throughout the year. The almost constant breezes keep conditions reasonably comfortable.

Diego Garcia is at risk from tropical cyclones. The surrounding topography is low and does not provide an extensive wind break. Since the 1960s the island has not been seriously affected by a severe tropical cyclone, even though it has often been threatened. The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone in the period 1970-2000 was approximately 40 knots (75 km/h).

Sunset at Cannon Point

The island was somewhat affected by the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Service personnel on the western arm of the atoll island reported only a minor increase in wave activity. The island was protected to a large degree by its favourable ocean topography. About 80 km (50 mi) east of the atoll lies the 650 km (400-mile) long Chagos Trench, an underwater canyon plunging more than 4,900 m (16,000 ft). The depth of the trench and its grade to the atoll's slope and shelf shore makes it more difficult for substantial tsunami waves to build before passing the atoll from the east. In addition, near shore coral reefs and an algal platform may have dissipated much of the waves' impact.[2][3] A biological survey conducted in early 2005 indicated erosional effects of the tsunami wave on Diego Garcia and other islands of the Chagos Archipelago. One 200 to 300 m stretch of atoll shoreline was found to have been breached by the tsunami wave, representing approximately 10 percent of the eastern arm. A biological survey by the Chagos Conservation Trust reported that the resulting inundation additionally washed away shoreline shrubs and small to medium size coconut palms.[3]

On November 30, 1983 a magnitude 7 earthquake 55 km (34 mi) northwest of the island caused a small tsunami resulting in a 1.5 m (5 ft) rise in wave height in the lagoon, causing some damage to buildings, piers and the runway. Immediately following the earthquake, many of the military and civilian residents of the island gathered at the Naval Support Facility swimming pool. The hill built to enclose the swimming pool, at 22 feet above sea level, is the highest point on the island.

[edit] History

Coconut Plantation, East Point
(former main settlement)

Portuguese explorers discovered Diego Garcia at some time in the sixteenth century. It has been suggested that the island was discovered by the Portuguse navigator Pêro de Mascarenhas during his voyage of 1512-13, but there is little corroborative evidence for this, while cartographic analysis points to a subsequent date, possibly 1532 or later. In addition there is considerable uncertainty regarding the origin of the name of Diego Garcia, particularly as no navigator of this name can be traced in contemporary records for this part of the world. He might be the same Diego Garcia as sailed to the Río de la Plata in 1526, and possibly with Hernando de Soto's voyage, but as a Spaniard it seems unlikely that he was ever in the Indian Ocean. In fact there is good reason to believe that the Christian name, Diego, of the island's discoverer was a misnomer or misreading which came into use towards the end of the sixteenth century. Although the Cantino Planisphere (1504) and the Ruysch map (1507) clearly delineate the Maldives, giving them the same names, they show no islands to the south which can be identified as the Chagos group. The Sebastian Cabot map (Antwerp 1544) shows a number of islands well to the south, probably the Mascarene group. The first map which clearly identifies and names 'Los Chagos', in more or less the right position, is that of Pierre Descelier (Dieppe 1550), although Diego Garcia is not named. An island called 'Don Garcia' appears on the Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis of Abraham Ortelius (Antwerp 1564), together with 'Dos Compagnos', slightly to the north. There is a possibility that 'Don Garcia' was named after Garcia de Noronha, although there is no evidence for this supposition. The island is also shown as 'Don Garcia' on Mercator's Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Description (Duisburg 1569). However, on the Vera Totius Expeditionis Nauticae Description of Jodocus Hondius (London 1589), 'Don Garcia' mysteriously changes its name to 'I. de Dio Gratia', while the 'I. de Chagues' appears close by. In fact the first map to delineate the island under its present name, Diego Garcia, is the World Map of Edward Wright (London 1599), possibly as a result of misreading Dio (or simply 'D.') as Diego, and Gratia as Garcia. The Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica of Henricus Hondius (Antwerp 1630) repeats Wright's misreading of the name, which is then proliferated on all subsequent Dutch maps of the period, and so on to the present day.

The islands remained uninhabited until the 18th century when the French established copra plantations using slave labour. Diego Garcia became a possession of the United Kingdom after the Napoleonic wars, and from 1814 to 1965 it was a dependency of Mauritius.

In 1914, the island was visited by the German cruiser SMS Emden.

Barochois Maurice, Diego Garcia.

In 1965, the Chagos Islands, which include Diego Garcia, were detached from Mauritius to form part of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). In 1966 the crown bought the islands and plantations, which had been under private ownership and which had not been profitable with the introduction of new oils and lubricants. In 1971, the plantations were closed because of the agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States to make Diego Garcia available to the U.S. as a military base. No payment was made as part of this arrangement, although it has been claimed that the United Kingdom received a US$14 million discount on the acquisition of Polaris missiles from the United States.[4] The agreement forbids any other economic activity on the island.

Until 1971 Diego Garcia had a native population of 2,000 Chagossians or Ilois, descendants of Indian workers and African slaves who had been brought to the island in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to work on the coconut and copra plantations. They lived in three settlements: East Point, the main settlement on the eastern rim of the atoll; Minni Minni, 4.5 km (2.75 mi) north of East Point; and Pointe Marianne, on the western rim. The islanders were forcibly depopulated to the Seychelles and then to Mauritius using controversial techniques by the UK government[5]. Since their expulsion the Chagossians have continually asserted their right to return to Diego Garcia. In April 2006, 102 Chagossians were allowed to visit Diego Garcia for a week, to tend to graves and visit their birthplaces.[6][7] For a good general history of the Islands and what happened to the Ilois, refer to The Minority Rights Group Report No 54 - 'Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands.

Diego Garcia Police Station

Diego Garcia is home to a military base jointly operated by the United States and the United Kingdom. It is a naval refuelling and support station and the home of Maritime Prepositioning Ship Squadron Two, the naval unit responsible for the readiness of the ships in Military Sealift Command Prepositioning Program in the Indian Ocean, a vital strategic asset to the United States.[8] It has an air base that primarily supported land-based U.S. Navy P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft during the Cold War. Since 11 September 2001, in addition to P-3 aircraft, it has also supported some of the largest military aircraft. U.S. Air Force B-52s, B-1Bs and B-2s, as well as various aerial refueling tanker aircraft have been deployed to Diego Garcia to execute missions. During the 1991 Gulf War, Diego Garcia was home to the 4300th Bomb Wing (Provisional), made up of B-52G bombers from the former Loring AFB, Maine and other B-52G bases. It was also used in support of military missions in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom, and to Iraq again during the 2003 invasion. High-tech portable shelters to support the B-2 bomber were built on the island before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The B-52s, B-1s and B-2s deployed to Diego Garcia in anticipation of the second Iraq War carried out the initial aerial bombardment on Baghdad on March 22, 2003. Some of these bombers dropped GPS guided bombs and laser guided 1,905 kg (4,200 lb.) bunker busters in "decapitation strikes" intended to kill Saddam Hussein and other Baath Party officials.[9] Although they now primarily deploy to Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar, Diego Garcia still remains a regular deployment site for U.S. Navy P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft.

GEODSS at Diego Garcia

The base is part of the U.S. Space Surveillance Network,[10] with a three-telescope GEODSS station, and is a NASA Space Shuttle emergency landing site.[11]

Neither the U.S. nor the UK recognises Diego Garcia as being subject to the African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty, though the rest of the Chagos Archipelago is included, suggesting they wish to maintain the freedom to base nuclear weapons there.

The agreement between the UK and U.S. for the U.S. to use the island as a military base was made in 1966. It runs until 2036, but either government can opt out of the agreement in 2016.

Construction and maintenance of the base's communications equipment, fuel facilities and military hardware are done strictly by military contractors, and inventories of that weaponry are classified. No service-member family dependents are allowed. In 2001, the U.S. Department of Defense said that there were more buildings on Diego Garcia (654) than military personnel.[12]

[edit] Politics

Detailed map of Diego Garcia.

In 2000 the British High Court upheld the claims of the islanders that the Ordinance which had been enacted to ensure their removal (although it was never in fact invoked for that purpose) was unlawful. Robin Cook, the British Foreign Secretary at the time, did not appeal. In 2002, the UK Parliament enacted legislation which gave all Chagossians the right to obtain British citizenship, granted the islanders the right to return to the Archipelago and granted them UK citizenship. In 2002, the islanders and their descendants, now numbering 4,500, returned to court requesting compensation, after two years of delays by the British Foreign Office. The Chagossians began proceedings to seek additional compensation payments from the British Government (they had been granted £650,000 compensation on removal in the 1970s, and a further £4 million in the early 1980s). The High Court and Court of Appeal upheld the Government's position that the compensation already paid was fair and lawful, and struck down the Chagossians claims for additional payments. Subsequently, on June 10, 2004, the British government enacted two Orders-in-Council re-establishing immigration controls on the islands and effectively banning the islanders from returning home, reversing the 2000 court decision.[13] Some of the Chagossians are making return plans to turn Diego Garcia into a sugarcane and fishing enterprise as soon as the defence agreement expires, and there have been discussions about the development of a commercial tourism industry on the islands, which may raise environmental concerns. A few dozen other Chagossians are still fighting to be housed in the UK, although they have the same rights as all British citizens.[14]

On May 11, 2006, the High Court ruled that the 2004 Orders-in-Council were unlawful, and that the Chagossians were entitled to return to the Chagos Archipelago.[15] This judgment was upheld by the Court of Appeal on May 23, 2007.[16][17] The British Government then appealed to the House of Lords, which on 22 October 2008 overturned the earlier decision and ruled that the evicted islanders could not return to the archipelago.[18] The Chagossians may now take their legal battle to the European Court of Human Rights.[19]

[edit] Prison site allegation

Human rights groups claim that the military base is used by the U.S. government for the controversial extraordinary rendition of prisoners. This claim was supported by the Council of Europe in June 2007.[20] The British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw stated in Parliament that U.S. authorities have repeatedly assured him that no detainees have passed in transit through Diego Garcia or have disembarked there.[21] In October 2007 the all-party Foreign Affairs Committee of the British Parliament announced that it would launch an investigation of the claims, which it is reported were twice confirmed by General Barry McCaffrey.[22]

On October 19, 2007 The Guardian reported: "The all-party foreign affairs committee is to examine long-standing suspicions that the agency has operated one of its so-called 'black site' prisons on Diego Garcia..."[22] The Guardian quoted British Member of Parliament Andrew Tyrie, "Time and time again the UK government has relied on US assurances on this issue, refusing to examine the truth of these allegations for themselves. It is high time our government took its head out of the sand and looked into these allegations."

On July 31, 2008 Time Magazine reported that a former White House official stated that the U.S. had imprisoned and interrogated at least one suspect on Diego Garcia during 2002 and possibly 2003.[23]

[edit] Rendition admission by F.O.

On February 21, 2008, British Foreign Secretary David Miliband admitted that two US extraordinary rendition flights refuelled on Diego Garcia in 2002.[24] Further, it has been implied that these actions constituted a direct breach of the treaty between the US and the UK concerning Diego Garcia.[25][4]

[edit] Further allegations from U.N. Official

Manfred Novak, the United Nations' special rapporteur on torture, says that credible evidence exists supporting allegations about the use of Diego Garcia as a prison black site for alleged terrorists.

Clara Gutteridge, an investigator with human rights group Reprieve, states that US-operated ships moored outside the territorial waters of Diego Garcia were used to incarcerate and torture detainees.[26]

[edit] Arrests

On 12 March 2008, The Guardian reported that two British protesters had been arrested for "entering the waters [of Diego Garcia] illegally".[27]

[edit] Strategic importance

During the Cold War era, the United States was keen on establishing a military base in the Indian Ocean. Because of Diego Garcia's proximity to India, the United States saw the island as a strategically important one. U.S. military activities in Diego Garcia have caused friction between India and U.S. in the past.[28] Various political parties in India repeatedly demanded that the U.S. dismantle the military base as they saw U.S. naval presence in Diego Garcia as a potential threat to India's dominance of the Indian Ocean.[29]

B-1B Lancer Bombers on Diego Garcia.

After the end of the Cold War, relations between India and U.S. improved dramatically. Diego Garcia was the site of several naval exercises between the U.S. and Indian Navy held between 2001 and 2004.[30]

Diego Garcia is also located relatively close to the Middle East, and experienced rapid military build-ups during the beginnings of the Iranian revolution and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

Diego Garcia has several current missions. U.S. Air Force bombers and AWACS surveillance planes operate from the 3,650 m (12,000 ft) runway, and the USAF Space Command has built a satellite tracking station and communications facility.

The atoll shelters the 14 ships of Marine Prepositioning Squadron Two. These ships carry the equipment and supplies to support a major armed force with tanks, armored personnel carriers, munitions, fuel, spare parts and even a mobile field hospital. This equipment showed its necessity during the Persian Gulf War, when the Squadron quickly delivered its equipment to Saudi Arabia. There, soldiers flown on air transports from U.S. and European bases quickly unloaded and deployed the pre-positioned material.

Aircraft Parking Area, Diego Garcia.

[edit] Pre-positioned vessels

There are five cargo vessels that each carry Marine Corps supplies sufficient to support a Marine Air-Ground Task Force for 30 days.

The four combat force ships provide rapid-response delivery of U.S. Army equipment to ground troops. Three are Lighter aboard ships (LASH) which carry barges called Lighters that contain Army ammunition to be ferried ashore.

Five logistics vessels service the rapid delivery requirements of the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and Defense Logistics Agency. There are two Air Force container ships for munitions, missiles and spare parts; a 500-bed hospital ship, and two floating storage and offloading units assigned to Military Sealift Command supporting the Defense Logistics Agency, including an offshore petroleum discharge system (OPDS) tanker ship.

[edit] GPS

Diego Garcia is one of the five control bases for the Global Positioning System, operated by the US military. The US Air Force also has monitoring stations in Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. The stations synchronise and update the atomic clocks on the 24 orbiting satellites that emit the signals used by GPS receivers.

[edit] ETOPS Emergency Landing Site

Diego Garcia may be identified as an ETOPS (Extended Range Twin Engine Operations) emergency landing site (en route alternate) for flight planning purposes of commercial airliners. This allows twin engine commercial aircraft (such as the Airbus A330, Boeing 767 or Boeing 777) to make theoretical nonstop flights between city pairs such as Perth and Dubai (5,602 miles), Hong Kong and Johannesburg (6,624 miles) or Singapore and Sao Paolo (9,935 miles), all while maintaining a suitable diversion airport within 180 minutes flying time with one engine inoperable.[31]

[edit] Space Shuttle

The island is one of 33 emergency landing sites worldwide for the United States Space Shuttle.[32] None of these facilities have been used for a Shuttle landing.

[edit] Cargo service

MV Baffin Strait transits between Singapore and Diego Garcia once a month.

Since 2004 the MV Baffin Strait, often referred to as the "DGAR shuttle," has been chartered to deliver 250 containers each month from Singapore to Diego Garcia.[33] The ship carries everything from fresh food to building supplies to aircraft parts, delivering more than 200,000 tons of cargo to the island each year."[33] On the return trip to Singapore she carries recyclable metals.[34]

In 2004 TransAtlantic Lines outbid Sealift Incorporated for the transport contract between Singapore and Diego Garcia.[35] The route had previously been serviced by Sealift Inc.'s MV Sagamore, manned by members of American Maritime Officers and Seafarers' International Union.[35] TransAtlantic Lines reportedly won the contract by approximately 10 percent, representing a price difference of about US$2.7 million.[35]

The Baffin Strait's current charter runs from January 10, 2005 to September 30, 2008 at a daily rate of US$12,550.

[edit] Wildlife

Red Crab, Diego Garcia.

The island is a haven for several types of crab; hermit crabs overrun the jungle at night. The extremely large 4 kg coconut crab, or "robber crab" is found here. There is a large number of red crabs everywhere in the island though it is not known to which species they belong. They can be seen everywhere (tents, showers, laundry rooms, runway, etc.) The island hosts birds from many different regions, including Indian Barred Ground Dove (Geopelia striata), Turtle Dove (Streptopelia picturata), Indian Mynah (Acridotheres tristis), Madagascar Fody (Foudia madagascariensis), and imported chickens (Gallus gallus).[36]

All the flora and fauna are protected, and it is even unlawful to be in possession of a dead coconut crab. Hefty fines are levied against violators.

Diego Garcia was designated a Ramsar Site on July 4, 2001 (354 km2).

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=KC&p_theme=kc&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EF0639AC568EB36&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM
  2. ^ "Diego Garcia Navy base reports no damage from quake, tsunamis". Leo Shane III, Stars and Stripes. 28 December 2004. URL accessed 1 June 2006.
  3. ^ a b Sheppard, Charles (April 2005). "The Tsunami, Shore Erosion and Corals in the Chagos Islands" (PDF). Chagos News (Chagos Conservation Trust) 25: 2–7. ISSN 1355-6746. http://www.chagosconservationtrust.org/pages/Chagos%20News/ChagosNews25.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  4. ^ a b "Westminster Hall Debates for 7 July 2004" ([dead link]Scholar search). Hansard House of Commons Daily Debates vol. 423 (part 615). http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmhansrd/vo040707/halltext/40707h03.htm#40707h03_spnew7. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  5. ^ John Pilger: Paradise cleansed | Politics | The Guardian
  6. ^ "Emotional return for Chagossians". BBC News. 14 April 2006. URL accessed 1 June 2006.
  7. ^ "Out of Eden". John Pilger, The Guardian. 29 May 2006. URL accessed 1 June 2006
  8. ^ "Maritime Prepositioning Ship Squadron Two", URL Accessed 1 February 2007
  9. ^ Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, secrecy and the end of the republic (London: Verso, 2004) 221-2.
  10. ^ United State Strategic Command: "Re-entry Assessment and Space Surveillance". U.S. Strategic Command. March 2004. URL accessed 1 June 2006
  11. ^ "Space Shuttle Emergency Landing Sites". GlobalSecurity.org. URL accessed 1 June 2006.
  12. ^ Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, secrecy and the end of the republic (London: Verso, 2004) 221.
  13. ^ "Developments in the British Indian Ocean Territory". UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2004-06-15. http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029391629&a=KArticle&aid=1087553733971. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  14. ^ "Exiles protest in Downing Street". BBC News. 3 November 2004. URL accessed 1 June 2006
  15. ^ Neil Tweedie (2006-05-12). "Britain shamed as exiles of the Chagos Islands win the right to go home". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/05/12/wchag12.xml&sSheet=/news/2006/05/12/ixnews.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  16. ^ "Chagos families win legal battle". BBC News. 2007-05-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6683205.stm. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  17. ^ Secretary of State for the Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and The Queen on the Application Of Bancoult [2007] EWCA 498 (Civ) (2007-05-03)
  18. ^ "Chagos islanders lose battle to return", The Guardian, 22 October 2008
  19. ^ "House of Lords says Chagos exiles cannot return", Radio Netherlands, 22 October 2008
  20. ^ Dick Marty, Switzerland, ALDE (2007-06-07) (.PDF). Secret detentions and illegal transfers of detainees involving Council of Europe member states: second report. Section 70; page 13. Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. http://www.sacc.org.uk/sacc/docs/coe-rendition-second-marty-report.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  21. ^ "Written Answers to Questions 21 June 2004" ([dead link]Scholar search). Hansard House of Commons Daily Debates (UK Parliament) vol. 422 (part 605). http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmhansrd/vo040621/text/40621w13.htm#40621w13.html_wqn9. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  22. ^ a b Ian Cobain; Richard Norton-Taylor (2007-10-19). "Claims of secret CIA jail for terror suspects on British island to be investigated". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,,2194649,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-21. 
  23. ^ http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1828469,00.html
  24. ^ Staff writers (2008-02-21). "UK apology over rendition flights". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7256587.stm. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  25. ^ James Robbins (2008-02-21). "Miliband's apology over 'rendition'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7257574.stm. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  26. ^ Jamie Doward (2008-03-02). "British island 'used by US for rendition'". The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/02/ciarendition.unitednations. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  27. ^ Duncan Campbell (2008-03-12). "British campaigners arrested at sea in Diego Garcia protest". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/12/humanrights.military. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  28. ^ Patrick Martin (2004-12-30). "Bush's response to South Asia disaster: indifference compounded by political incompetence". World Socialist. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/dec2004/bush-d30.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  29. ^ Yechury, Sitaram (1 July 2001). "Access to Indian Military Bases: Making India an Appendage to US". People's Democracy (The Communist Party of India (Marxist)) XXV (26). http://pd.cpim.org/2001/july01/july012k1_indo_us.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  30. ^ http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-25566204_ITM
  31. ^ http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/faqs/etopseropsenroutealt.pdf
  32. ^ John Pike (2004-04-27). "Space Shuttle Landing Sites". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/facility/sts-els.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-20. 
  33. ^ a b Change at the helm for MSC's Diego Garcia office
  34. ^ Commander, Navy Installations Command (CNIC) (2007). "2006 Pollution Provention and Solid Waste Success Stories" (PDF). U.S. Department of the Navy. http://deparc.xservices.com/pdfs/stories/Navy/FY06_SW_Success_Stories.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  35. ^ a b c American Maritime Officers (2004-11). "Non-union operator wins charter held by Sagamore". AMO Currents. http://www.amo-union.org/newspaper/Morgue/11-2004/Sections/News/sagamore.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-26. 
  36. ^ Ted Morris (2007-04-04). "Herons and Land Birds of Diego Garcia". PROPEOPDEMREPDG. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/nature-birds-herons-and-landbirds.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 

[edit] External links

Coordinates: 7°18′S 72°24′E / 7.3°S 72.4°E / -7.3; 72.4

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