From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
—  Municipality  —
The Municipality of Curitiba
Curitiba from Barigüi Park
Curitiba from Barigüi Park
Flag of Curitiba
Official seal of Curitiba
Nickname(s): A cidade sorriso ("The smiling city")
Motto: 'A Cidade da Gente' (Our City)
Location in the State of Paraná
Location in the State of Paraná
Location of Curitiba
Coordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.25°W / -25.417; -49.25
Country  Brazil
Region South
State Paraná
Founded March 29, 1693
Incorporated 1842
 - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB)
 - Municipality 430.9 km2 (166.4 sq mi)
 - Metro 15,416.9 km2 (5,952.5 sq mi)
Elevation 934.6 m (3,066.3 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Municipality 1,797,408 (7th)
 - Density 4,159.4/km2 (10,748.5/sq mi)
 - Metro 3,261,168
 - Metro Density 210.9/km2 (546.2/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 - Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
CEP 80000-000 to 82999-999
Area code(s) 41
HDI (2000) 0.856 – high
Website Curitiba, Paraná

Curitiba (pron. IPA[kuɾi'tibɐ] or IPA[kuɾi'tʃibɐ]) is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city has the largest population and also the largest economy in Southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.8 million people (7th largest nationwide) and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$17 billion (ranking 4th nationwide) according to IBGE.[1]

Its metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities[2] with a total population of over 3.5 million (IBGE estimate in 2006).[3] Curitiba is an important cultural, political and economic center in the country. The city sits on a plateau at 932 metres (3,060 ft) above sea level. It is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) west of the sea port of Paranaguá and hosts the Afonso Pena International Airport.

Growth was based on the cattle trade, being half way between cattle breeding country to the South and markets to the North. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians contributing to the economic and cultural development of the city.[4]

Currently, only small numbers of foreigners migrate to Curitiba, and these are mainly immigrants from Middle Eastern[5] and South American countries, but there is a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other States of the country (it is estimated that nowadays about half the population of Curitiba was not born in the city).[6]

Curitiba hosts the Universidade Federal do Paraná (Federal University of Paraná), the first in Brazil, was established in Curitiba in 1913, the same year in which electric streetcars were first deployed.


[edit] Name

One theory about the name "Curitiba" comes from the Tupi words kurí tyba, "many pine" due to the large number of Parana pines (Araucaria angustifolia), in the region prior to its foundation.[7] The Portuguese who founded a village in 1693 gave it the name of "Vila da Nossa Senhora da Luz dos Pinhais" (Our Lady of the Light in the Pine Forest). The name was changed to "Curitiba" in 1721. Curitiba officially became a town in 1812, spelling its name as Curityba. An alternative spelling also came up: Coritiba. This spelling looked to become dominant for it was used in press and state documents, but a state decree in 1919 settled the dispute by spelling the city name Curitiba.[7]

[edit] Geography

[edit] Climate

Climate chart for Curitiba
average temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [1]SIMEPAR

Located in Southern Brazil, Curitiba is a somewhat humid city in a Subtropical zone.[8] It is located in a plateau and the flat terrain with flooded areas contribute to its mild and damp winter, with average temperatures of 13 °C (55 °F) in the coldest month, falling slightly below 0 °C (32 °F), on the coldest days. During summer, the average temperature is around 21 °C (70 °F), but gets above 32 °C (90 °F) on hot days. It received snowfall in 1928,1942 and 1975. The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 35.6 °C (96.1 °F). The all-time record lowest temperature was −8 °C (17.6 °F), but there is an unofficial record of −10.4 °C (13 °F).

In fact, of Brazil's twenty-six state capitals, Curitiba is the coldest due to altitude, despite being 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Porto Alegre, the southernmost state capital in Brazil, but located at sea level.[9]

Winter in Curitiba.

Heat waves during winter and cold waves during summer are not uncommon, and even within a single day there can be great variation, a typical feature of subtropical climates. Several factors contribute to the climate's variable nature:

The flat terrain surrounded by mountains in a rough circle with radius 40 kilometres (25 mi) helps block the winds, allowing the morning mist to cover the city on cold mornings.

The flatness of the terrain hinders quick water drainage after rain, therefore providing a good source of water vapor for the atmosphere. Cold fronts come often from Antarctica and Argentina all year round, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in winter. They can move very quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain.[10]

Curitiba's weather is also influenced by the dry air masses that dominate Brazil's midwest most of the year, bringing cold and dry weather, sometimes even in winter.[11]

[edit] Vegetation

Frost in the city.

Curitiba is located in the area of vegetation called Araucaria moist forests, composed of steppes, Araucaria forest and other formations. In the local vegetation still appear remnants of the Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia), which resisted the effects of modern civilization. The Parana pines are in private and public areas, now protected by environmental legislation which prevents them from being felled. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three green houses for the annual production of 150,000 seedlings of native and exotic tree species, 16,000 seedlings of fruit trees, 260,000 seedlings of flowers, foliage and underbrush, as well as the maintenance of 350,000 seedlings.[12]

The total green area of Curitiba is one of the largest in cities in Brazil. The vegetation of Curitiba is also characterized by the existence of a large quantity of purple and yellow ipês (tabebuias), making a beautiful sight during the flowering in the end of winter. Currently, the yellow ipê is the most common tree in the city.[13]

[edit] Hydrography and Pluviometry

Iguaçu River, passing in the south region of the city.

The catchment area of Curitiba consists of several rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. The main rivers that form the watershed of the city are: Atuba River, Belém River, Barigüi River, Passaúna River, Ribeirão dos Padilhas and the Iguaçu River, all with characteristics of dendritic drainage. Since the 1970s, Curitiba has been working on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example of this was the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which retain the water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods.[12]

Currently, after many studies of the local water flows, almost all the rivers are subject to a canalization process. Other alternatives developed to minimize the effects of urbanization are the implementation of the programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works.[12] The index reaches 1,500 millimetres (59 in) rainfall on average per year, because the rains are constant in the climate of the city. This happens, among other reasons, because of the deforestation of the Mountain Range of the Sea (Serra do Mar), a natural barrier to moisture.

[edit] Relief

The Mountain Range of the Sea, "Serra do Mar".

The city has surface of 432.17 km² in the First Plateau of Paraná. The relief of Curitiba is a little hilly. The average altitude of the city is 934.6 metres (3,066 ft) above sea level, ranging between minimum and maximum values of 900 metres (3,000 ft) and 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), approximately.

Curitiba has a topography of smooth rounded hills, giving a relatively regular shape. The municipality of Curitiba has an average altitude of 934.6 metres (3,066 ft) above sea level, where the highest point is to the north 1,021 metres (3,350 ft), and with lower asltitude 864 metres (2,830 ft) to the south. There are mountain ranges and sets of rocky hills practically all around the city, the most remarkable and impressive being the Serra do Mar (portuguese for "Mountain Range of the Sea"), located in the east that separates the plateau from the coast of Paraná.

[edit] History

Castle in Curitiba.

The first ten years of the 16th century marked the beginning of a war of conquest of Europeans (Portuguese colonists) against the indigenous peoples who inhabited the area of the city. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians. In 1853, the south and southwest of the province of São Paulo were separated, forming the new province of Paraná, and Curitiba became its capital.

During the 20th century, especially after 1950, the city rapidly increased in population and consolidated its position as regional hub for trade and services, becoming one of the richest cities in Brazil and a pioneer in urban solutions. In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce the first city plan. It emphasised a "star" of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed when possible, but was too expensive to complete.[14]

[edit] Demographics

Old Polish house, in a park in Curitiba.
Brazilians of Ukrainian descent celebrating Easter in Curitiba.
Arabian Memorial.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 3,305,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba. The population density was 4,159.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,773 /sq mi). The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 2,442,395 White people (73.9%), 707,270 Pardo (brown) people (21.4%), 122,285 Black people (3.7%), 36,355 Asian or Amerindian people (1.1%).[15]

As most of Southern Brazil's population, Curitiba is mostly inhabited by Brazilians of European descent. The first Europeans to arrive in the region were of Portuguese origin, during the 17th century. They intermarried with the native people and with the African slaves.[16]

In the 19th century, the influx of immigrants from Europe increased. In 1828, the first German immigrants settled in Paraná. However, large numbers of immigrants from Germany only arrived in Curitiba during the 1870s, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia.[17]

Immigrants from Poland first arrived in 1871, settling in rural areas close to Curitiba. They largely influenced the agriculture of the region. Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world, second only to Chicago.[16] The Memorial of Polish Immigration was inaugurated in 13th December 1980, after the visit of the Pope John Paul II to the city of Curitiba, in June, in the same year. Its area is 46 thousand square meters was part of the former Candles plant. The seven wooden log houses are parts of this memorial area, as a souvenir of the Polish immigrants, and their struggles and faith. Objects like the old wagon, the pipe of cabbage and the print of the black virgin of Czestochowa, who is the patron saint of Polish people, form parts of the memorial.[18]

Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875 and in Curitiba in 1878. They came mostly from the Veneto and Trento regions, in Northern Italy and settled mostly in the Santa Felicidade neighborhood, still today the center of the large Italian community of Curitiba.[19]

Large numbers of Ukrainian immigrants settled in Curitiba, mostly between 1895 and 1897, when some 20,000 arrived. They were peasants from Galicia, who emigrated to Brazil to become farmers. Nowadays there are around 300,000 Ukrainian-Brazilians living in Paraná.[20][21] The State of Paraná has the largest Ukrainian community and Slavic community of the country.[22]

Curitiba has a well established Jewish community[23] originally established in the 1870s.[24] Much of the early Jewish congregation has been assimilated.[25] In 1937 with the conquest of power by the Nazis in Germany, several notable German Jewish academics were allowed into Brazil, some of them settling in Curitiba.[26]

Physicist César Lattes and former mayors Jaime Lerner,[27] Saul Raiz and Nei Braga were Jewish. A monument in memory of the Holocaust has been erected in the city. There is also a Habad house in Curitiba[28] as well as at least two synagogues[29] and two Jewish cemeteries,[30] one of which was defiled by antisemites in 2004.[31]

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the region in 1915. Most Japanese settled in the State of São Paulo, but many settled in Northern Paraná, cities such as Maringá and Londrina. Curitiba also received significant numbers of immigrants from Japan. Nowadays, there are about 40,000 Japanese-Brazilians living in the city.[32]

Other immigrants, such as Lebanese, Syrians, Palestinians, Russians and other Eastern Europeans also settled in Curitiba.

[edit] Economy

Curitiba Trade Center.

According to IPEA data, the GDP is estimated at real 29 billion, without recording activities in the agriculture and livestock farming (0.03%) sectors. Industry represented 34.13% and the commerce and service sectors 65.84%.[33]

Cidade Industrial de Curitiba, the industrial district of Curitiba, is home to many multinational industries, such as Nissan, Renault, Volkswagen, Audi, Volvo, HSBC, Siemens, ExxonMobil, Electrolux and Kraft Foods, as well as many national industries, such as Sadia, O Boticário, Positivo Informática.

Curitiba's infrastructure makes bus travel fast and convenient, effectively creating demand for bus use in the same way that the infrastructure of traditional cities creates demand for private motor vehicles.

Estação Mall.

In July 2001, Curitiba has become the first city in the country to receive the prize "Pole of Information Technology", granted by InfoExame magazine, because the performance of their companies of technology. According to the magazine, the number of companies of "Technology and Information Technology" based in Curitiba submitted in 2001 a turnover of US$1.2 billion, representing a growth of 21% over the previous year.[34]

The GDP for the city is R$ 29,821,203,000 (2005).[35]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 16,964 (2005).[36]

[edit] Education

Federal University of Paraná in Curitiba.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions include

  • Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR);
  • Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR);
  • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR);
  • Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná (UTP);
  • Universidade Positivo (UP);
  • Centro Universitário Franciscano do Paraná (UNIFAE);
  • Escola de Música e Belas Artes do Paraná (EMBAP);
  • Faculdade de Artes do Paraná (FAP);
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC);
  • Faculdade Curitiba;
  • and many others.

[edit] Urban planning

Public Transport in Curitiba.
Bus in the city.
Largo da Ordem, Sunday Market in Curitiba.
November 15 Street, one of the major streets of Curitiba, is a pedestrian-only street since 1972.
November 15 Street.
The Curitiba Botanical Garden.
Modern Curitiba.

Curitiba has a master planned transportation system, which includes lanes on major streets devoted to a bus rapid transit system. The buses are long, split into three sections (bi-articulated), and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with disabled access. There is only one price no matter how far you travel and you pay at the bus stop.[37]

The system, used by 85% of Curitiba's population, is the source of inspiration for the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Colombia; Metrovia in Guayaquil, Ecuador; as well as the Orange Line of Los Angeles, U.S. State of California, and for a future transportation system in Panama City, Panama as well as Cebu City, Philippines.

The city has also paid careful attention to preserving and caring for its green areas, boasting 54 square metres (580 sq ft) of green space per inhabitant.[38]

In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, cofounder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce the first city plan. It emphasised a star of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed when possible, but was too expensive to complete.[39]

By the 1960s, Curitiba's population had ballooned to 430,000, and some residents feared that the growth in population threatened to drastically change the character of the city. In 1964, Mayor Ivo Arzua solicited proposals for urban design. Architect Jaime Lerner, who later became mayor, led a team from the Universidade Federal do Paraná that suggested strict controls on urban sprawl, a reduction of traffic in the downtown area, preservation of Curitiba's Historic Sector, and a convenient and affordable public transit system.[40]

This plan, known as the Curitiba Master Plan, was adopted in 1968. Lerner closed XV de Novembro St. to vehicles, because it had very high pedestrian traffic. The plan had a new road design to minimise traffic: the Trinary Road System. This uses two one-way streets moving in opposite directions which surround a smaller, two-lane street where the express buses have their exclusive lane. Five of these roads form a star that converges on the city centre. Land farther from these roads is zoned for lower density developments, to reduce traffic away from the main roads. In a number of areas subject to floods, buildings were condemned and the land became parks.[41]

Today, Curitiba is considered one of the best examples of urban planning worldwide.[42] In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul praised Curitiba as "the most innovative city in the country."[43]

Curitiba, including, recently recommended by UNESCO as one of the city-model for the reconstruction of the cities of Afghanistan,[44] after the U.S military intervention occurred in that country in 2001.

In the 1980s, the RIT (Rede Integrada de Transporte, Integrated Transport Network) was created, allowing transit between any points in the city by paying just one fare.[45] At the same time, the city began a project called the "Faróis de Saber" (Lighthouses of Knowledge). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. Job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city's amenities or services, as well as education and income.[46]

Curitiba is referred to as the ecological capital of Brazil, with a network of 28 parks and wooded areas. In 1970, there was less than 1 square meter of green space per person; now there are 52 square meters for each person. Residents planted 1.5 million trees along city streets. Builders get tax breaks if their projects include green space. Flood waters diverted into new lakes in parks solved the problem of dangerous flooding, while also protecting valley floors and riverbanks, acting as a barrier to illegal occupation, and providing aesthetic and recreational value to the thousands of people who use city parks.

In 2007 the city was the third place in a list of "15 Green Cities" in the world, according the American site "Grist". As a result, according to one survey, 99% of Curitibans are happy with their hometown.[47] The "green exchange" employment program focuses on social inclusion, benefiting both those in need and the environment. Low-income families living in shantytowns unreachable by truck bring their trash bags to neighborhood centers, where they exchange them for bus tickets and food. This means less city litter and less disease, less garbage dumped in sensitive areas such as rivers and a better life for the undernourished poor. There's also a program for children where they can exchange recyclable garbage for school supplies, chocolate, toys and tickets for shows.

Under the "garbage that's not garbage" program, 70% of the city's trash is recycled by its residents. Once a week, a truck collects paper, cardboard, metal, plastic and glass that has been sorted in the city's homes. The city's paper recycling alone saves the equivalent of 1,200 trees a day. As well as the environmental benefits, money raised from selling materials goes into social programs, and the city employs the homeless and recovering alcoholics in its garbage separation plant. Open University, created by the city, lets residents take courses in many subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Retired city buses are often used as mobile schools or offices. Downtown areas were transformed into pedestrian streets, including a 24-hour mall with shops, restaurants and cafes, and a street of flowers with gardens tended by street kids.

The "capacity building job line" was created to generate a better quality of life for people in the region surrounding a new economic development axis of Curitiba. Key initiatives include the South-Circular bus line, which links the southern and eastern regions of town; Entrepreneurial Sheds, business incubators designed to help small companies get established and prosper; and the Crafts Lycée, which trains people for professions such as marketing and finance so that they can find employment in new companies that emerge from the business incubator. Specifically, the goal is to provide jobs and income for the unemployed among 400,000 people living in 15 peripheral towns, and to structure and develop the region according to integrated planning principles. About 15,000 new jobs have been generated so far, and 15,000 more are expected.[48]

There's a model, inexpensive, speedy transit service used by more than 2 million people a day. There are more car owners per capita than anywhere in Brazil, and the population has doubled since 1974, yet auto traffic has declined by 30%, and atmospheric pollution is the lowest in Brazil.[49]

[edit] Government

The Curitiba City Hall.

The executive is currently exercised by the mayor Beto Richa (elected in 2004 and with a mandate until 2008), by the deputy mayor (vice mayor) Luciano Ducci and the municipal secretaries appointed by the mayor. The City Council of Curitiba was created in 1693, and has a total of 38 councillors elected since 2004.

Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments (equivalent to subprefecture), who manage the 75 districts of the municipality. The Rua da Cidadania ("Street of Citizenship") is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and meeting place for the user of municipal utilities, in a regional context, taking into account the needs and rights of the citizen in trade, leisure and services, facilitating the access of the population for different services in the areas of health, justice, policing, education, sport, housing, environment, urban planning, social service and supply, etc. Several units work annexed to the terminals of public transport in Curitiba. Their nuclei offer services in the local, state and federal areas.

[edit] Culture

Musicians on a street.
Paranaense Museum.

[edit] Arts and entertainment

Curitiba is the first city in Brazil to have an IMAX cinema. It is in the Palladium Shopping Center[50] which is the biggest mall in Southern Brazil.

Curitiba also has many theaters. The biggest and most important one is the Guaíra Theater.[51]

Every year, in April, it hosts the Curitiba Theater Festival,[52] with various artists playing in Curitiba Theaters and even on the squares.

[edit] Museums

  • Museu Paranaense ("Paranaense Museum") - dedicated to the arts and history;
  • Oscar Niemeyer Museum - the largest museum of Latin America,[53] dedicated to plastic arts;
  • Museu de Arte Sacra ("Religious Art Museum") - the focus are religious and sacred Christian art in general;
  • Museu do Expedicionário ("Museum of Expeditionary") - dedicated to the history of Brazilian participation in World War II;
  • Museu de Arte Contemporânea ("Museum of Contemporary Art");
  • Museu da Imagem e do Som ("Image and Sound Museum") - about cinema and photography;
  • Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba ("Metropolitan Museum of Art in Curitiba") - modern art;
  • Museu de História Natural ("Natural History Museum") - dedicated to the biology and botany.

[edit] Tourism and recreation

24 Horas (24 Hours)Street.
German church in Curitiba.
Japan Square in Curitiba.
With Linha Turismo (Tourism Line), the visitant can know a big part of touristic places of the city.

24 Horas Street

The Street that never sleeps is the synthesis of a city which also never sleeps. It is 120 meters long and 12 meters wide. It is composed by 32 arches in metallic tubular structure, trademark of the modern curitibana architecture.

Botanic Gardens

Curitiba’s trademark, created to resemble French gardens, rolls out its flower carpet to the visitors right at the entrance. The greenhouse, with a metallic structure, has botanic species that are national symbols, and also a water fountain.

The native forest is filled with paths for walking. The Botanic Museum attracts researchers from all over the world. There is a space for exhibitions, library and a theatre.

German Woods

The wood has various features to celebrate and promote the German traditions. There are 38 thousand square meters of native forest, which was part of the old farm from the Schaffer family. The replica of an old wooden church, built in 1933 at the Seminário neighbourhood, with neo-gothic decorative elements, shelters a concert hall called Bach’s Oratorium.

Other attractions are the John and Mary path, which tells the Grimm brothers tale, a children’s library, the Philosophers Tower, a wooden observatory allowing a panoramic view of the city and the Ocean Ridge, and the German Poetry Square, with a reproduction of the Casa Mila façade, a German building from the beginning of the last century, originally located in the city centre. It's closed for remodeling at the present time.

Italian Woods

A place for the typical parties of the Italian community in the district, such as the Grape Party, the Wine Party and the 4 Giorni in Italy. It has structure for food and drinkstalls, space for shows and folkloric presentations and a polenta pot.

Japan Square

Homage to Japanese immigrants who settled there dedicating themselves to agriculture. Scattered around the square are 30 cherry trees sent from Japan and artificial lakes. In 1993 the Japanese Portal, the Culture House and the Tea House were built.

Tingüi Park

Part of the biggest linear environmental park in the Country, established at the Barigüi river margins, it reminds us of the Indians who used to live there, with the statue of Tindiqüera Chieftain. The Ukrainian Memorial is also there, homage to the immigrants, in a replica of an orthodox church, originally built in inland Paraná State, hosting a pêssankas and icons exhibition.

Wire Opera House

It is one of the emblematic symbols of Curitiba, with tubular structure and transparent ceiling, of great beauty. Inaugurated in 1992, it caters for all types of shows, between lakes, typical vegetation and cascades, on a unique landscape. The Wire Opera House is part of the Pedreiras Park, together with the Paulo Leminski Cultural Space, where the Passion of Christ was enacted, and hosted many other big events since 1989, and can hold, in the open air, 10 thousand people seated or 50 thousand standing.

Tanguá Park

This park was inaugurated in 1996, the Tanguá Park surprises with its beauty as an example of urban space being re-utilized - on one old complex of disactivated quarries -, and it is part of the Barigüi river preservation project joining Tingüi and Barigüi parks. This park with an area of 450 thousand square meters has two quarries connected by a 45 meter tunnel that may be crossed on foot by a path over the water. It can be visited on boat or on foot (hiking). The park has a cooper and bicycle track, snack bar, belvedere and Poty Lazzaroto garden.

Portugal Wood

Homage to the Portuguese-Brazilian bonds, this space is highlighted by a track following a small brook, where one can see drawn on tiles excerpts from famous Portuguese language poets, as well as a tribute to the great Portuguese navigators and their discoveries.

Curitiba Iternational Ecological Marathon

In November, happens the Maratona Ecológica Internacional de Curitiba ("Curitiba International Ecological Marathon"). This marathon is known as the hardest in Brazil,[54] because happens in the end of the year, when usually is warm weather in the city (because is summer in Southern Hemisphere), and the hilly course, with many of the inclines being in the last 10km. To compensate the hard course, runners count with good structure[55] and enthusiastic fans cheering along the course.[56]

Tourism Line

Every year, tourism grows in Curitiba. To attend this demand, the Linha Turismo ("Tourism Line") started in 1994. Its a special city tour that visits the principal tourist attractions in Curitiba, featuring comfortable white buses with big windows and a shape similar to that of streetcars. The vehicles are equipped with a sound system that plays recorded messages describing sites in three different languages: Portuguese, English and Spanish. It is possible to visit the parks, squares and the rest of the city's tourist attractions. Considered one of the best in the country, the Linha Turismo is available every thirty minutes and has a two and a half-hour tour, which travels around forty-four kilometers. To go on the tour you must buy a ticket with five tickets that give you the right to get on and off bus four times. Users can therefore choose the touristic point where they want to stay longer. Then, they can embark again to complete the remaining part of the itinerary. Today the line goes to 25 key reference points in Curitiba, completing 44 km in 2 and ½ hours.

[edit] UN Convention on Biodiversity

United Nations Convention in Curitiba.

From March 20th to the 31st an important world gathering of the United Nations on biodiversity is taking place in Curitiba, addressing items of the 1993 Convention on Biological Diversity adopted by 188 countries. This convention seeks to discuss strategies to safeguard life from the threats directed against it. Starting with the Summit of the Earth or Rio de Janeiro Eco-92 the topic has been gaining centrality and has been the subject of numerous official documents, especially the 2000 and 2003 Cartagena Protocols on biosecurity. The Curitiba preparatory document, developed by specialists of the UN and of the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment for issues from Brazil, defines biodiversity as follows: including all the different species of plants, animals and microorganisms (estimated in more than 10 million species), all the genetic variability within the species (10 to 100 genes per specie) and all the diverse ecosystems formed by different combinations of species. Biodiversity includes the environmental services responsible for maintenance of life on Earth, for the interaction between living beings and for the offer of goods and services that sustain human societies and their economies.[57]

[edit] Transport

Bus route plan for RIT (Rede Integrada de Transporte).
A bus stop in the city.
How the tube-station works.
Biodiversity publicity in the bus stop.

[edit] Public transport

Curitiba has a unique transportation system, developed locally and causing much interest worldwide.[58] This Bus Rapid Transit system, is very simple and practical. Public transportation consists entirely of buses. There are several different types of bus, each with a different function. All stations are easily accessed, are enclosed, and the busses have been changed to make for easier entry and exit.[59] Together with other low-cost changes, this bus system aims at becoming a comfortable and preferred transportation choice for the public.[60]

The popularity of Curitiba's BRT has effected a modal shift from automobile travel to bus travel. Based on 1991 traveler survey results, it was estimated that the introduction of the BRT had caused a reduction of about 27 million auto trips per year, saving about 27 million liters of fuel annually. In particular, 28 percent of BRT riders previously traveled by car. Compared to eight other Brazilian cities of its size, Curitiba uses about 30 percent less fuel per capita, resulting in one of the lowest rates of ambient air pollution in the country. Today about 1,100 buses make 12,500 trips every day, serving more than 1.3 million passengers, 50 times the number from 20 years ago. Eighty percent of travelers use the express or direct bus services. Best of all, Curitibanos spend only about 10 percent of their income on travel, much below the national average.[61]

Curitiba's Master Plan integrated transportation with land use planning, calling for a cultural, social, and economic transformation of the city. It limited central area growth, while encouraging commercial growth along the transport arteries radiating out from the city center. The city center was partly closed to vehicular traffic, and pedestrian streets were created. Linear development along the arteries reduced the traditional importance of the downtown area as the primary focus of day-to-day transport activity, thereby minimizing congestion and the typical morning and afternoon flows of traffic. Instead, rush hour in Curitiba has heavy commuter movements in both directions along the public transportation arteries.

Other policies have also contributed to the success of the transit system. Land within two blocks of the transit arteries is zoned for high density, since it generates more transit ridership per square foot. Beyond the two blocks, zoned residential densities taper in proportion to distance from transitways. Planners discourage auto-oriented centers and channel new retail growth to transit corridors. Very limited public parking is available in the downtown area, and most employers offer transportation subsidies, especially to low-skilled and low-paid employees.

[edit] Roads

Moving around in a car can be difficult in and around the city centre because of the many one-way streets and frequent traffic jams. This makes the public transportation system more attractive if one wants to go there. The trinary system allows quick access to the city centre for car drivers. Some avenues are spacious and laid out in a grid, and apart from some points around the city centre, Munhoz da Rocha Street and Batel Avenue, traffic jams are not thus severe.[62] Recently, the city installed around 140 traffic radars, causing much discontent among drivers in general.[63]

[edit] International Airport

Afonso Pena International Airport is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport. With a constructed area of 45 thousand square meters, Afonso Pena/Curitiba International Airport serves some 3.5 million passengers a year. The apron has 19 boxes for aircraft parking, six of them served by boarding bridges from the terminal. The airport also has auxiliary buildings, a waste treatment station, a large parking lot, and is encircled by expansive grassy areas and gardens.[64] (Small aircraft may also use the Bacacheri airport.) It is integrated into Curitiba's transportation system, with rapid buses and shuttle service connecting the airport to the city.

[edit] Sports

Couto Pereira "Estádio Major Antônio Couto Pereira ".
Vila Capanema "Estádio Durival Britto e Silva" - FIFA World Cup 1950.

Curitiba provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. There are several soccer clubs based in Curitiba. The most important ones - Brazilian mid-class clubs - are:

Coritiba Foot Ball Club

Clube Atlético Paranaense

Paraná Clube


Curitiba is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil.[65]


The Autódromo Internacional de Curitiba is located in nearby Pinhais.

[edit] Neighborhoods

Map of Curitiba, with the neighbourhoods and boroughs.
Satellite view.

Bairros (neighbourhoods) of Curitiba are geographical divisions of the city. There is no delegation of administrative powers to neighborhoods, although there are several neighborhoods associations devoted to improve their own standards of living. Curitiba is divided into 9 regional governments (boroughs) covering the 75 neighbourhoods of the city. All districts are served by the system of integrated urban transport.

Most districts of Curitiba was born of colonial groups formed by families of European immigrants in the second half of the nineteenth century.

The centre ("Downtown" in American English or "CBD" - central business district - in other English use), place of foundation of the city, is the most bustling area, which concentrates most of the financial institutions of Curitiba.

List of neighborhoods by regional:

  • Matriz: Centro, Centro Cívico, Batel, Bigorrilho, Mercês, São Francisco, Bom Retiro, Ahu, Juvevê, Cabral, Hugo Lange, Jardim Social, Alto da XV, Alto da Glória, Cristo Rei, Jardim Botânico, Prado Velho and Rebouças;
  • Santa Felicidade: Santa Felicidade, Lamenha Pequena, Butiatuvinha, São João, Vista Alegre, Cascatinha, São Brás, Santo Inácio, Orleans, Mossunguê, Campina do Siqueira, Seminário, CIC (north region) and part of Campo Comprido;
  • Boa Vista: Boa Vista, Bacacheri, Bairro Alto, Tarumã, Tingüi, Atuba, Santa Cândida, Cachoeira, Barreirinha, Abranches, Taboão, Pilarzinho and São Lourenço;
  • Cajuru: Cajuru, Uberaba, Jardim das Américas, Guabirotuba and Capão da Imbuia;
  • Fazendinha/Portão: Portão, Fazendinha, Santa Quitéria, Vila Isabel, Água Verde, Parolin, Guaíra, Lindóia, Fanny, Novo Mundo and part of Campo Comprido;
  • Boqueirão: Boqueirão, Xaxim, Hauer and Alto Boqueirão;
  • Pinheirinho: Pinheirinho, Capão Raso, Tatuquara, Campo de Santana and Caximba;
  • Bairro Novo: Sítio Cercado, Ganchinho and Umbará;
  • Cidade Industrial de Curitiba: CIC (center and south region), Riviera, Augusta and São Miguel.

[edit] Sister cities

The Sister Cities of Curitiba are:

[edit] Famous places

Museu Oscar Niemeyer (Oscar Niemeyer Museum).

Curitiba is mostly known for some of its famous places:

[edit] Notable people

Curitiba skyline.
Curitiba in the morning.
Passeio Público.

[edit] Arts

[edit] Aviation

[edit] Science

[edit] Politics

  • Beto Richa (Mayor of Curitiba)
  • Roberto Requião (Governor of the State of Paraná)

[edit] Sports

Mixed martial arts
Beach Volleyball

[edit] References

  1. ^ IBGE, Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios 2005. Retrieved in 07/April/2008.
  2. ^ Mapa da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba - Paraná
  3. ^ "Região Metropolitana" (in Portuguese). Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  4. ^ European Immigration to Curitiba
  5. ^ "A imigração árabe muçulmana em Curitiba" (in Portuguese). Etni-cidade. Retrieved on 2008-10-03. 
  6. ^ "Quase metade de Curitiba é dos "estrangeiros"" (in Portuguese). Bem Paraná. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. 
  7. ^ a b Fenianos, E. (2003) Almanaque Kur'yt'yba, Curitiba: Univer Cidade, p.6
  8. ^ Climate of Curitiba
  9. ^ Curitiba is the coldest capital of Brazil
  10. ^ Cold fronts and rain in Curitiba
  11. ^ Winter of Curitiba is dry and cold
  12. ^ a b c "City of Curitiba, Brazil" (in English). Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved on 2008-05-23. 
  13. ^ "Livro mostra roteiros das árvores de Curitiba/Pr" (in Portuguese). Ambiente Brasil. Retrieved on 2005-05-25. 
  14. ^ "The Agache Plan" (in English). Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba. Retrieved on 2008-08-12. 
  15. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF)Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2008. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. 
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^ German immigration to Curitiba
  18. ^ Polish Memorial of Curitiba
  19. ^ Italian immigration in Curitiba
  20. ^ Ukrainian memorial in the city of Curitiba
  21. ^ Paraná Governament (Ukrainian community in the State)
  22. ^ Slavic community in Curitiba
  23. ^ Jews of Brazil site Source listing Curitiba as one of the important Jewish communities. A Habad article gives the number of 844 religious participating families there in the year 2007
  24. ^ Brazil's Jews during the Vargas Era and After by Robert M. Levine 1968. This is a book about early Jewish settlers in Brazil
  25. ^ Digital edition of Levine's book
  26. ^ A research paper about the Jewish immigration to Brazil during the second world war.
  27. ^ Jewish in Curitiba
  28. ^ "Beit Chabad"
  29. ^ Israel Synagogue in addition to the Hevra Kadisha Synagogue and the Habad Synagogue mentioned in the Chabad reference
  30. ^ Jewish Geneaology site lists cemeteries.
  31. ^ Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism And Racism
  32. ^ Japan Square in Curitiba
  33. ^ GDP - Curitiba
  34. ^ "A capital do Paraná se destaca na área de TI e oferece oportunidades para profissionais do setor." (in Portuguese). Revista TI. Retrieved on 2003-10-11. 
  35. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF)GDP. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. 
  36. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF)per capita income. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. 
  37. ^ Jonas Rabinovitch and Josef Leitman, "Urban Planning in Curitiba", Scientific American, vol. 274, no. 3 (March 1996), pp. 46-53
  38. ^ Curitiba busca recuperação de biodiversidade local Terra - Ambiente
  39. ^ Prefeitura ENG
  40. ^ [ About Curitiba]
  41. ^ Parks of Curitiba and floods
  42. ^ Irazábal, Clara Elena (2002) Curitiba and Portland: Architecture, City Making, and Urban Governance in the Era of Globalization, Ph.D. Dissertation in Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, p.112
  43. ^ Curitiba - urban plannig
  44. ^ "クリチバもモデルに=カブール復興計画に参加" (in Japanese). Nikkey Shimbun. Retrieved on 2008-10-21. 
  45. ^ RIT Curitiba - Trajetory
  46. ^ Social programs in the city
  47. ^ "15 Green Cities" (in English). Grist. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  48. ^ Curitiba a green city
  49. ^ Curitiba - low pollution
  50. ^ Palladium Shopping Center
  51. ^ Teatro Guaíra
  52. ^ Festival de Teatro de Curitiba
  53. ^ "Museu Oscar Niemeyer" (in Portuguese). Descubra Curitiba. Retrieved on 2008-01-17. 
  54. ^ "Maratona Ecológica de Curitiba - Ladeiras e incentivos do povo curitibano" (in Portuguese). Copacabana Runners. Retrieved on 2008-08-07. 
  55. ^ "RUN THE CURITIBA MARATHON" (in English). Charity Giving. Retrieved on 2008-08-07. 
  56. ^ "MARATONA ECOLÓGICA INTERNACIONAL DE CURITIBA" (in Portuguese). Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto. Retrieved on 2008-08-07. 
  57. ^ UN Convention on Biodiversity and Biosecurity
  58. ^ CNN Transcript - Special Event: The People's Planet - December 24, 2000
  59. ^ EPA-International Best Practices & Innovations-Urban Management, Sustainable Transport and Mobility Management
  60. ^ Curitiba Transportation Workshop
  61. ^ Urban transport of Curitiba
  62. ^ Roads in Curitiba
  63. ^ Traffic radars in Curitiba
  64. ^ Afonso Pena International Airport
  65. ^ Curitiba | FIFA World Cup 2014
  66. ^ a b c d e f g "Cidades-irmãs" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Curitiba. Retrieved on 2007-05-22. 
  67. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. 
  68. ^ a b "Asuntos Federales y Electorales - Ciudades y Provincias argentinas hermanadas con contrapartes extranjeras" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved on 2008-07-02. 
  69. ^ "Honorowe Miasta Bliźniacze - Kurytyba (Brazylia)" (in Polish). Retrieved on 2006-01-13. 
  70. ^ "Curitiba, une ville modèle du développement durable" (in French). Veille Technologique. Retrieved on 2005-11-30. 
  71. ^ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. 
  72. ^ "Cenni storici ed informazioni generali su Treviso" (in Italian). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 

[edit] External links

Find more about Curitiba on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Definitions from Wiktionary

Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews

Learning resources from Wikiversity

[edit] Official

[edit] News

[edit] Tourism

Personal tools