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Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F40.
F40.00 Without panic disorder, F40.01 With panic disorder
ICD-9 300.22 Without panic disorder, 300.21 With panic disorder
MeSH D000379

Agoraphobia (from Greek aγορά, "marketplace"; and φόβος/φοβία, -phobia) is an anxiety disorder, often precipitated by the fear of having a panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. As a result, sufferers of agoraphobia may avoid public and/or unfamiliar places. In severe cases, the sufferer may become confined to his or her home, experiencing difficulty traveling from this "safe place."


[edit] Definition

The word "agoraphobia" is an English adaptation of the Greek words agora (αγορά) and phobos (φόβος), and literally translates to "a fear of the marketplace."

Agoraphobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or where he or she perceives that they have little control. Triggers for this anxiety may include wide open spaces, crowds, or traveling (even short distances). This anxiety is often compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.[1]

Agoraphobics may experience panic attacks in situations where they feel trapped, insecure, out of control or too far from their personal comfort zone. In severe cases, an agoraphobic may be confined to his or her home. [2] Many people with agoraphobia are comfortable seeing visitors in a defined space they feel they can control. Such people may live for years without leaving their homes, while happily seeing visitors in and working from their personal safety zones. If the agoraphobic leaves his or her safety zone, they may experience a panic attack.

[edit] Prevalence

The one-year prevalence of agoraphobia in the United States is about 5 percent.[3] According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately 3.2 million Americans ages 18-54 have agoraphobia at any given time. About one third of people with panic disorder progress to develop agoraphobia.[4]

[edit] Gender differences

Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men.[5] The gender difference may be attributable to social-cultural factors that encourage, or permit, the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women. Other theories include the ideas that women are more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed, that men are more likely to abuse alcohol as a reaction to anxiety and be diagnosed as an alcoholic, and that traditional female sex roles prescribe women to react to anxiety by engaging in dependent and helpless behaviors.[6] Research results have not yet produced a single clear explanation as to the gender difference in agoraphobia.

[edit] Causes and contributing factors

The causes of agoraphobia are currently unknown. It is linked however to the presence of other anxiety disorders, a stressful environment or substance abuse. More women than men are affected.[7] Chronic use of tranquillisers and sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines has been linked to causing agoraphobia. When benzodiazepine dependence has been treated and after a period of abstinence, agoraphobia symptoms gradually abate.[8]

Research has uncovered a linkage between agoraphobia and difficulties with spatial orientation.[9] [10] Normal individuals are able to maintain balance by combining information from their vestibular system, their visual system and their proprioceptive sense. A disproportionate number of agoraphobics have weak vestibular function and consequently rely more on visual or tactile signals. They may become disoriented when visual cues are sparse as in wide open spaces or overwhelming as in crowds. Likewise, they may be confused by sloping or irregular surfaces.[11] Compared to controls, in virtual reality studies, agoraphobics on average show impaired processing of changing audiovisual data. [12]

[edit] Alternate theories

[edit] Attachment theory

Some scholars [13] [14] have explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i.e., the temporary loss of the ability to tolerate spatial separations from a secure base. Recent empirical research has also linked attachment and spatial theories of agoraphobia [15].

[edit] Spatial theory

In the social sciences there is a perceived clinical bias [16] in agoraphobia research. Branches of the social sciences, especially geography, have increasingly become interested in what may be thought of as a spatial phenomenon. One such approach links the development of agoraphobia with modernity.[17].

[edit] Diagnosis

Most people who present to mental health specialists develop agoraphobia after the onset of panic disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1998). Agoraphobia is best understood as an adverse behavioral outcome of repeated panic attacks and subsequent anxiety and preoccupation with these attacks that leads to an avoidance of situations where a panic attack could occur.[18] In rare cases where agoraphobics do not meet the criteria used to diagnose Panic Disorder, the formal diagnosis of Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder is used.

[edit] DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria

A) Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or in which help may not be available in the event of having an unexpected or situationally predisposed panic attack or panic-like symptoms. Agoraphobic fears typically involve characteristic clusters of situations that include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd, or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and traveling in a bus, train, or automobile.

B) The situations are avoided (e.g., travel is restricted) or else are endured with marked distress or with anxiety about having a panic attack or panic-like symptoms, or require the presence of a companion.

C) The anxiety or phobic avoidance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to social situations because of fear of embarrassment), Specific Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to a single situation like elevators), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g., avoidance of dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (e.g., avoidance of stimuli associated with a severe stressor), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., avoidance of leaving home or relatives).[19]

[edit] Association with panic attacks

Agoraphobia patients can experience sudden panic attacks when traveling to places where they fear they are out of control, help would be difficult to obtain, or they could be embarrassed. During a panic attack, epinephrine is released in large amounts, triggering the body's natural fight-or-flight response. A panic attack typically has an abrupt onset, building to maximum intensity within 10 to 15 minutes, and rarely lasts longer than 30 minutes. [20] Symptoms of a panic attack include palpitations, a rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, vomiting, dizziness, tightness in the throat and shortness of breath. Many patients report a fear of dying or of losing control of emotions and/or behavior. [20]

[edit] Treatments

Agoraphobia can be successfully treated in many cases through a very gradual process of graduated exposure therapy combined with cognitive therapy and sometimes anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications.[citation needed] Treatment options for agoraphobia and panic disorder are similar.

[edit] Cognitive behavioral treatments

Exposure treatment can provide lasting relief to the majority of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Disappearance of residual and subclinical agoraphobic avoidance, and not simply of panic attacks, should be the aim of exposure therapy. [21] Similarly, Systematic desensitization may also be used.

Cognitive restructuring has also proved useful in treating agoraphobia. This treatment uses thought replacing with the goal of replacing one's irrational, counter-factual beliefs with more accurate and beneficial ones.[citation needed]

Relaxation techniques are often useful skills for the agoraphobic to develop, as they can be used to stop or prevent symptoms of anxiety and panic.[citation needed]

[edit] Psychopharmaceutical treatments

Anti-depressant medications most commonly used to treat anxiety disorders are mainly in the SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) class and include sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine. Benzodiazepine tranquilizers, MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are also commonly prescribed for treatment of agoraphobia.[citation needed]

[edit] Alternative treatments

Eye movement desensitization and reprogramming (EMDR) has been studied as a possible treatment for agoraphobia, with poor results.[22] As such, EMDR is only recommended in cases where cognitive-behavioral approaches have proven ineffective or in cases where agoraphobia has developed following trauma.[23]

Alternative treatments of agoraphobia include hypnotherapy, acupuncture, guided imagery meditation, music therapy, yoga, religious practice and ayurvedic medicine.[citation needed] However, there is no evidence that any of these practices have any impact at all on agoraphobia.

Additionally, many people with anxiety disorders benefit from joining a self-help or support group and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Stress management techniques and meditation can help people with anxiety disorders calm themselves and may enhance the effects of therapy. There is preliminary evidence that aerobic exercise may have a calming effect. Since caffeine, certain illicit drugs, and even some over-the-counter cold medications can aggravate the symptoms of anxiety disorders, they should be avoided.[24]

[edit] Notable agoraphobes

[edit] References

  1. ^ Psych Central: Agoraphobia Symptoms
  2. ^ "Treatment of Panic Disorder", NIH Consens Statement 9 (2): 1–24, September 25-27, 1991, 
  3. ^ Anxiety Disorders. NIH Publication No. 06-3879. 2006. 
  4. ^ Robins, LN; Regier, DN, eds. (1991), Psychiatric Disorders in America: the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, New York, NY: The Free Press 
  5. ^ Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W. , Wittchen, H. U., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey, Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159–168.
  6. ^ Agoraphobia Research Center. "Is agoraphobia more common in men or women?". Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  7. ^ "Agoraphobia". 
  8. ^ Professor C Heather Ashton (1987). "Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: Outcome in 50 Patients". British Journal of Addiction 82: 655–671. 
  9. ^ "Relationship between balance system function and agoraphobic avoidance.". Behav Res Ther. 33 (4): 435–9. 1995 May. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00060-W. PMID : 7755529. 
  10. ^ "Panic, agoraphobia, and vestibular dysfunction". Am J Psychiatry 153: 503–512. 1996. 
  11. ^ "Surface dependence: a balance control strategy in panic disorder with agoraphobia". Psychosom Med. 59 (3): 323–30. 1997 May-June. PMID : 9178344. 
  12. ^ "High sensitivity to multisensory conflicts in agoraphobia exhibited by virtual reality.". Eur Psychiatry 21 (7): 501–8. 2006 October. PMID : 17055951. 
  13. ^ G. Liotti, (1996). Insecure attachment and agoraphobia, in: C. Murray-Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.). Attachment Across the Life Cycle.
  14. ^ J. Bowlby, (1998). Attachment and Loss (Vol. 2: Separation).
  15. ^ J. Holmes, (2008). "Space and the secure base in agoraphobia: a qualitative survey", Area, 40, 3, 357 - 382.
  16. ^ J. Davidson, (2003). Phobic Geographies
  17. ^ J. Holmes, (2006). "Building Bridges and Breaking Boundaries: Modernity and Agoraphobia", Opticon1826, 1, 1,
  18. ^ Barlow, D. H. (1988). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. Guilford Press. 
  19. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DVM-IV-TR). 2000. 
  20. ^ a b David Satcher etal. (1999). "Chapter 4.2". Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. 
  21. ^ Fava, G.A.; Rafanelli, C.; Grandi, S.; Cinto, S.; Ruini, C. (2001). "Long-term outcome of panic disorder with agoraphobia treated by exposure". Psychological Medicine (Cambridge University Press) 31: 891–898. doi:10.1017/S0033291701003592. 
  22. ^ Goldstein, Alan J.; Goldstein, Alan J., de Beurs, Edwin, Chambless, Dianne L., Wilson, Kimberly A. (2000). "EMDR for Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia : Comparison With Waiting List and Credible Attention-Placebo Control Conditions". Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 68 (6): 947–957. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.947. 
  23. ^ Agoraphobia Resource Center, Agoraphobia treatments - Eye movement desensitization and reprogramming,, retrieved on 2008-04-18 
  24. ^ National Institute of Mental Health, How to get help for anxiety disorders,, retrieved on 2008-04-18 
  25. ^ "Reconstructing Woody"
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  30. ^ Biography for Daryl Hannah. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  31. ^ Psychological Autopsy can help understand controversial deaths -- The Crime Library on
  32. ^ Olivia Hussey - People Magazine – March 16, 1992
  33. ^ Olivia Hussey Biography - Internet Movie Database
  34. ^ Biography for Rose McGowan. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
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  36. ^ Stanisław Fita, ed., Wspomnienia o Bolesławie Prusie (Reminiscences about Bolesław Prus), Warsaw, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy (State Publishing Institute), 1962, p. 113.
  37. ^ Whatever Happened to the Gender Benders?, Channel 4 documentary, United Kingdom.

[edit] External Links

This article incorporates text from the National Institute of Mental Health, which is in the public domain.

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