American Enterprise Institute

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American Enterprise Institute
Abbreviation AEI
Motto Competition of ideas is fundamental to a free society.
Formation 1943
Type Public policy think tank
Headquarters 1150 Seventeenth Street NW
Location Washington, D.C.
President Arthur C. Brooks

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank,[1] founded in 1943. According to the institute its mission is "to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies, political accountability, and open debate".[2] AEI is an independent, non-profit organization. It is supported primarily by grants and contributions from foundations, corporations, and individuals. It is located in Washington, D.C.

AEI emerged as one of the leading architects of the second Bush administration's public policy.[3] More than twenty AEI alumni and visiting scholars and fellows served either in a Bush administration policy post or on one of the government's many panels and commissions.[4]

Among the prominent former government officials now affiliated with AEI are former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, now an AEI senior fellow; former United States Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, now an AEI visiting scholar; former U.S. ambassador to the U.N. John Bolton, now an AEI senior fellow; and former chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities (and wife of former Vice President Dick Cheney) Lynne Cheney, a longtime AEI senior fellow.[5]


[edit] Political stance

AEI is often cited as a right-leaning counterpart to the left-leaning Brookings Institution.[6][7] The two entites have sometimes collaborated: in 1998 they established the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies,[2] and in 2006 they launched the AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project.[8]

AEI is the most prominent think tank associated with American neoconservatism, in both the domestic and international policy arenas.[9] Irving Kristol, widely considered a father of neoconservatism, is a senior fellow at AEI.[5]

[edit] Officers and trustees

AEI's officers are Arthur C. Brooks, president; David Gerson, executive vice president; Jason Bertsch, vice president for marketing; Henry Olsen, vice president and director of the National Research Initiative; and Danielle Pletka, vice president for foreign and defense policy studies.

Its board is chaired by Kevin Rollins. Current notable trustees include:

AEI has a Council of Academic Advisers, chaired by James Q. Wilson, which includes Eliot A. Cohen, Martin Feldstein, Gertrude Himmelfarb, R. Glenn Hubbard, William M. Landes, Sam Peltzman, John L. Palmer, George L. Priest, Jeremy A. Rabkin, and Richard J. Zeckhauser.[10]. The Council of Academic Advisers selects the annual winner of the Irving Kristol Award.

[edit] Scholars and fellows

AEI lists its current scholars and fellows on its web site.[5] A list of notable people affiliated with AEI, both past and present, is available at List of American Enterprise Institute scholars and fellows.

[edit] Research programs

AEI's research is divided into six broad categories: economic policy studies, foreign and defense policy studies, health policy studies, political and public opinion studies, social and cultural studies, and legal and constitutional studies. Until 2008, AEI's work was divided into economics, foreign policy, and politics and social policy.

[edit] Economic policy studies

Economic policy was the original focus of the American Enterprise Association, and "the Institute still keeps economic policy studies at its core."[11] According to AEI's annual report, "The principal goal is to better understand free economies--how they function, how to capitalize on their strengths, how to keep private enterprise robust, and how to address problems when they arise."[11] Kevin A. Hassett directs economic policy studies at AEI.

Scholars at AEI working on the U.S. and world economies include Desmond Lachman, Adam Lerrick, John H. Makin, Allan H. Meltzer, and Vincent R. Reinhart. These scholars examine the federal budget, monetary policy, and international financial markets.[12]

[edit] The 2008 financial crisis

As the 2008 economic crisis unfolded, major media outlets noted that predictions by AEI scholars about the involvement of housing GSEs had come true.[13] In the late 1990s, Fannie Mae eased credit requirements on the mortgages it purchased and exposed itself to more risk. Peter J. Wallison warned that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac's public-private status put taxpayers on the line for increased risk.[14] "Because of the agencies' dual public and private form, various efforts to force Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to fulfill their public mission at the cost of their profitability have failed--and will likely continue to fail," he wrote in 2001. "The only viable solution would seem to be full privatization or the adoption of policies that would force the agencies to adopt this course themselves."[15] Wallison ramped up his criticism of the GSEs throughout the 2000s. In 2006 and 2007, he moderated conferences featuring James B. Lockhart III, the chief regulator of Fannie and Freddie[16] In August 2008, after Fannie and Freddie had been backstopped by the Treasury Department, Wallison outlined several ways of dealing with the GSEs, including "nationalization through a receivership," outright "privatization," and "privatization through a receivership."[17] The following month, Lockhart and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson took the former path by putting Fannie and Freddie into federal "conservatorship."

As the housing crisis unfolded, AEI sponsored a series of conferences featuring bearish commentators, including Lachman, Makin, and Nouriel Roubini.[18] Makin had been warning about the effects of a housing downturn on the broader economy for months.[19] Amid charges that many homebuyers did not understand their complex mortgages, Alex J. Pollock gained recognition for crafting a prototype of a one-page mortgage disclosure form.[20][21]

Research in AEI's Financial Markets Program also includes banking, insurance and securities regulation, accounting reform, corporate governance, and consumer finance.[12]

[edit] Program on International Economics

AEI's Program on International Economics encompasses international trade, globalization, and international financial and regulatory bodies (such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund). Scholars in the Program on International Economics, including Claude Barfield, Philip I. Levy, Desmond Lachman, and Allan H. Meltzer, strongly favor free trade.[22] Much of AEI's recent work on trade focuses on the Doha Development Round and why it has failed to gain traction.[23]. The AEI Press has published several volumes on trade in services negotiations.

The Program also includes work on multilateral financial institutions. Meltzer--who chaired the International Financial Institution Advisory Commission that recommended changes in IMF lending goals and procedures--has called for revisiting the Bretton Woods system and suggested that U.S. leadership in the international economic order may be drawing to an end.[24] Levy and Barfield have launched a conference series to address fundamental reform in international economic organizations.[25]

[edit] Tax and fiscal policy

AEI is currently associated with supply-side economics. Kevin Hassett and Alan D. Viard are AEI's principal tax policy experts, although Alex Brill, R. Glenn Hubbard, Aparna Mathur, and Bill Thomas also work on the subject. Specific subjects include "income distribution, transition costs, marginal tax rates, and international taxation of corporate income. . . . the Pension Protection Act of 2006; dynamic scoring and the effects of taxation on investment, savings, and entrepreneurial activity; and options to fix the alternative minimum tax."[12] Hassett has coedited several volumes on tax reform.[26] Viard has edited a book on tax policy lessons from the Bush administration.[27] AEI's working paper series includes developing academic works on economic issues. One paper by Hassett and Mathur on the responsiveness of wages to corporate taxation[28] was cited by The Economist[29]; figures from another paper by Hassett and Brill on maximizing corporate income tax revenue[30] was cited by the Wall Street Journal[31].

[edit] Center for Regulatory and Market Studies

From 1998 to 2008, the Reg-Markets Center was the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, directed by Robert W. Hahn. The Center, now housed entirely at AEI, sponsors conferences, papers, and books on regulatory decision-making and the impact of federal regulation on consumers, businesses, and governments. It covers a range of disciplines. The Center maintains a separate website at It also sponsors an annual Distinguished Lecture series. Past lecturers in the series have included William Baumol, Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, Alfred Kahn, Sam Peltzman, Richard Posner, and Cass Sunstein.[32]

[edit] Energy and environmental policy

AEI's work on climate change has been subject to controversy (see below). According to AEI, it "emphasizes the need to design environmental policies that protect not only nature but also democratic institutions and human liberty."[12] AEI scholars have strongly promoted carbon taxation as an alternative to cap-and-trade regimes. "Most economists believe a carbon tax (a tax on the quantity of CO2 emitted when using energy) would be a superior policy alternative to an emissions-trading regime," wrote Kenneth P. Green, Kevin Hassett, and Steven F. Hayward. "In fact, the irony is that there is a broad consensus in favor of a carbon tax everywhere except on Capitol Hill, where the 'T word' is anathema."[33] Other AEI scholars, including Samuel Thernstrom and Lee Lane, have argued for similar policies.[34][35] Thernstrom and Lane are codirecting a project on whether geoengineering would be a feasible way to "buy us time to make [the] transition [from fossil fuels] while protecting us from the worst potential effects of warming."[36]

Green is expanding AEI's work on energy policy. He has hosted conferences on nuclear power[37] and ethanol[38] With Aparna Mathur, he has also evaluated Americans' indirect energy use to discover unexpected areas in which energy efficiencies can be achieved.[39][40]

[edit] Foreign and defense policy studies

AEI's foreign and defense policy studies researchers focus on "how political and economic freedom--as well as American interests--are best promoted around the world."[11] AEI scholars have tended to be advocates of a hard U.S. line on threats or potential threats to the United States, including the Soviet Union during the Cold War, Saddam Hussein's Iraq, the People's Republic of China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Russia, and terrorist or militant groups like al Qaeda and Hezbollah. Likewise, AEI scholars have promoted closer U.S. ties with countries whose interests or values (i.e., democracy) they view as aligned with America's, such as Israel, the Republic of China, India, Australia, Japan, Mexico, Colombia, the United Kingdom, and emerging post-Communist states such as Poland and Georgia.

AEI's foreign and defense policy studies department, directed by Danielle Pletka, is the part of the institute most commonly associated with neoconservatism,[9] especially by its critics.[41][42] Prominent foreign-policy neoconservatives at AEI include Richard Perle, Gary Schmitt, and Paul Wolfowitz. John R. Bolton, often said to be a neoconservative,[43][44] has said that he is not one, as his primary focus is on American interests, not democracy promotion.[45][46] Joshua Muravchik and Michael Ledeen spent many years at AEI, although they departed at around the same time as Reuel Marc Gerecht in 2008 in what was rumored to be a "purge" of neoconservatives at the institute, possibly "signal[ing] the end of [neoconservatism's] domination over the think tank over the past several decades."[47]

[edit] U.S. national security strategy, defense policy, and the "surge"

In late 2006, the security situation in Iraq continued to deteriorate, and the Iraq Study Group proposed a phased withdrawal of U.S. troops and further engagement of Iraq's neighbors. Consulting with AEI's Iraq Planning Group, Frederick W. Kagan published an AEI report entitled Choosing Victory: A Plan for Success in Iraq calling for "phase one" of a change in strategy to focus on "clearing and holding" neighborhoods and securing the population; a troop escalation of seven Army brigades and Marine regiments; and a renewed emphasis on reconstruction, economic development, and jobs.[48] As the report was being drafted, Kagan and Keane were briefing President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and othe senior Bush administration officials behind the scenes. According to Bob Woodward, "[Peter J.] Schoomaker was outraged when he saw news coverage that retired Gen. Jack Keane, the former Army vice chief of staff, had briefed the president Dec. 11 about a new Iraq strategy being proposed by the American Enterprise Institute, the conservative think tank. 'When does AEI start trumping the Joint Chiefs of Staff on this stuff?' Schoomaker asked at the next chiefs' meeting."[49] Kagan, Keane, and Senators John McCain and Joseph Lieberman presented the plan at a January 5, 2007, event at AEI. Bush announced the change of strategy on January 10 the idea having "won additional support among some officials as a result of a detailed study by Gen. Jack Keane, the former vice chief of staff at the Army, and Frederick W. Kagan, a military specialist, that was published by the American Enterprise Institute."[50] Kagan authored three subsequent reports monitoring the progress of the surge.[51]

AEI's defense policy researchers, who also include Schmitt and Thomas Donnelly, also work on issues related to the U.S. military forces' size and structure and military partnerships with allies (both bilaterally and through institutions such as NATO). Schmitt directs AEI's Program on Advanced Strategic Studies, which "analyzes the long-term issues that will impact America’s security and its ability to lead internationally."[12]

[edit] Area studies

Asian studies at AEI covers "the rise of China as an economic and political power; Taiwan’s security and economic agenda; Japan’s military transformation; the threat of a nuclear North Korea; and the impact of regional alliances and rivalries on U.S. military and economic relationships in Asia."[12] AEI has published several reports on Asia.[52] Papers in AEI's Tocqueville on China series "elicit the underlying civic culture of post-Mao China, enabling policymakers to better understand the internal forces and pressures that are shaping China's future."

AEI's Europe program was previously housed under the auspices of the New Atlantic Initiative, which was directed by Radek Sikorski before his return to Polish politics. Leon Aron's work forms the core of the institute's program on Russia. AEI scholars tend to view Russia as posing "strategic challenges for the West."[12]

Mark Falcoff, now retired, was previously AEI's resident Latinamericanist, focusing on the Southern Cone, Panama, and Cuba. He has warned that the road for Cuba after Fidel Castro's rule or the lifting of the U.S. trade embargo would be difficult for an island scarred by a half-century of poverty and civil turmoil.[53] Roger Noriega's focuses at AEI are on Venezuela, Brazil, the Mérida Initiative with Mexico and Central America,[54] and hemispheric relations.

[edit] Global warming

AEI staff and fellows have been critical of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the international scientific body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity.[55][56] In February 2007, a number of sources, including the British newspaper The Guardian, reported that the AEI had sent letters to scientists offering US$10,000 plus travel expenses and additional payments, asking them to critique the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.[57] The letters alleged that the IPCC was "resistant to reasonable criticism and dissent, and prone to summary conclusions that are poorly supported by the analytical work" and asked for essays that "thoughtfully explore the limitations of climate model outputs".[58][59] According to the Guardian article, the AEI received $1.6 million in funding from ExxonMobil. The article further notes that former ExxonMobil CEO Lee R. Raymond is the vice-chairman of AEI's board of trustees. This story was repeated by Newsweek, which drew criticism from columnist Robert J. Samuelson because "this accusation was long ago discredited, and Newsweek shouldn't have lent it respectability. (The company says it knew nothing of the global-warming grant, which involved issues of climate modeling. And its 2006 contribution to the think tank, the American Enterprise Institute, was small: $240,000 out of a $28 million budget.)"[60]

The Guardian article was disputed both by AEI[61] and in an editorial in the Wall Street Journal.[62] The rebuttals claimed factual errors and distortions, noting the ExxonMobil funding was spread out over a ten-year period and totaled less than 1% of AEI's budget. The Wall Street Journal editorial stated: "AEI doesn't lobby, didn't offer money to scientists to question global warming, and the money it did pay for climate research didn't come from Exxon."

AEI denies that the organization is skeptical about global warming. Criticizing the story as part of a "climate inquisition" published in "the left-wing press", the AEI's Steven Hayward and Kenneth Green wrote in the The Weekly Standard:

[I]t has never been true that we ignore mainstream science; and anyone who reads AEI publications closely can see that we are not "skeptics" about warming. It is possible to accept the general consensus about the existence of global warming while having valid questions about the extent of warming, the consequences of warming, and the appropriate responses. In particular, one can remain a policy skeptic, which is where we are today, along with nearly all economists.[63]

Hayward has described efforts to reduce global warming as being "based on exaggerations and conjecture rather than science".[64] He also has stated that "even though the leading scientific journals are thoroughly imbued with environmental correctness and reject out of hand many articles that don't conform to the party line, a study that confounds the conventional wisdom is published almost every week".[65] Green has referred to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as "the positively silly idea of establishing global-weather control by actively managing the atmosphere's greenhouse-gas emissions", and endorsed Michael Crichton's novel State of Fear for having "educated millions of readers about climate science".[66]

Christopher DeMuth, former AEI president, accepts that the earth has warmed in recent decades, but states that "it's not clear why this happened" and charges that the IPCC "has tended to ignore many distinguished physicists and meteorologists whose work casts doubt on the influence of greenhouse gases on global temperature trends".[67] AEI fellow James Glassman also disputes the prevailing scientific opinion on climate change, having written numerous articles criticizing the Kyoto accords and climate science more generally for Tech Central Station.[68] He has supported the views of U.S. Senator Jim Inhofe, an outspoken skeptic of human-caused climate change,[69] and, like Green, cites Crichton's State of Fear, which "casts serious doubt on global warming and extremists who espouse it".[70] Joel Schwartz, an AEI visiting fellow, states: "The Earth has indeed warmed during the last few decades and may warm further in the future. But the pattern of climate change is not consistent with the greenhouse effect being the main cause."[71]

[edit] United States Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

AEI asked Arizona Senator John McCain to give a policy address on how to achieve victory in Afghanistan. The 25 February, 2009 address was billed as a follow-up to the Senator's "seminal AEI address on 'Winning the War in Iraq'".[72] Similar to his previous AEI-sponsored speech on Iraq, Senator McCain encouraged the United States to rethink its strategy, as well as to increase the number of soldiers in the country. In the speech, McCain told AEI that the U.S. cannot succeed in Afghanistan without "more than [doubling] the current size of the Afghan army to 160,000 troops," and possibly "enlarging it to 200,000." Senator McCain also commented that "We will fail in Afghanistan without a serious change in both strategy and resources."[1]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b McCain calls for Afghan strategy overhaul
  2. ^ a b "AEI's Organization and Purposes". American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  3. ^ Abramowitz, Michael (July 19, 2006). "Conservative Anger Grows Over Bush's Foreign Policy". Washington Post: p. A01. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  4. ^ Bush, George W. (2003-02-26). "President Discusses the Future of Iraq". Retrieved on 2009-02-13. 
  5. ^ a b c "Scholars & Fellows". AEI. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  6. ^ "An insider's guide to the upcoming week". Washington Post: p. A02. April 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  7. ^ Milbank, Dana (December 8, 2000). "White House Hopes Gas Up A Think Tank: For Center-Right AEI, Bush Means Business". Washington Post: p. A39. 
  8. ^ "Home page". AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  9. ^ a b Schifferes, Steve (April 3, 2003). "Battle of the Washington think tanks". BBC News. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  10. ^ "Trustees, Officers, and Advisers". AEI.,contentID.20038142213500052/default.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  11. ^ a b c American Enterprise Institute, Annual Report, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g American Enterprise Institute, Research Highlights, accessed 7 April 2008.
  13. ^ McKinnon, John D. (12 July 2008). "Critic of the Firms Sadly Says 'Told You'". Wall Street Journal: p. A8. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. .
  14. ^ Holmes, Stephen A. (30 September 1999). "Fannie Mae Eases Credit To Aid Mortgage Lending". New York Times: p. C2. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. .
  15. ^ Wallison, Peter J. (2001), "Introduction", in Wallison, Peter J., Serving Two Masters, Yet Out of Control: Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, AEI Studies on Financial Market Deregulation, Washington, DC: AEI Press, pp. 4, ISBN 0844741663,,bookID.233/book_detail.asp .
  16. ^ The conferences were held on September 13, 2006, and December 12, 2007.
  17. ^ Wallison, Peter J. (August 2008), Fannie and Freddie by Twilight, , Financial Services Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), .
  18. ^ The conferences were held on March 28, 2007, October 11, 2007, March 12, 2008, October 30, 2008, and March 17, 2009.
  19. ^ "A weak housing sector has accompanied every American recession since 1965, but not every episode of housing weakness has accompanied a recession." Makin, John H. (December 2006), Housing and American Recessions, , Economic Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), .
  20. ^ Pollock, Alex J. (2007), "To Make Mortgages Fair, Keep Disclosures To a Page", The American, 2 May 2007,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  21. ^ Rucker, Patrick (15 June 2007), "One-page mortgage form pitched as simplicity tool", Reuters,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  22. ^ See, for example, Levy, Philip I. (October 2008), Does Trade Policy Matter?, , International Economic Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), .
  23. ^ Conferences on the Doha Round were held on November 19, 2001, August 18, 2003, September 2, 2003, June 9, 2004, December 2, 2005, October 3, 2006, January 30, 2008, August 6, 2008, and March 23, 2009
  24. ^ Meltzer, Allan H. (22 October 2008). The End of the American Era: Looking Ahead. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. 
  25. ^ The first in this conference series took place on February 20, 2009.
  26. ^ Hassett, Kevin A.; Hubbard, R. Glenn, eds. (2001), Transition Costs of Fundamental Tax Reform, Washington, DC: AEI Press, ISBN 0844741124, . Auerbach, Alan J.; Hassett, Kevin A., eds. (2005), Toward Fundamental Tax Reform, Washington, DC: AEI Press, ISBN 0844742341, .
  27. ^ Viard, Alan D., ed. (2009), Tax Policy Lessons from the 2000s, Washington, DC: AEI Press, ISBN 978-0-8447-4278-6, .
  28. ^ Kevin A., Hassett; Aparna Mathur (July 6, 2006). Taxes and Wages. working paper. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. .
  29. ^ "A toll on the common man", The Economist, 29 June 2006 .
  30. ^ Alex, Brill; Kevin A. Hassett (July 31, 2007). Revenue-Maximizing Corporate Income Taxes: The Laffer Curve in OECD Countries. working paper. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. .
  31. ^ Editorial (26 December 2006), "The Wages of Growth", Wall Street Journal,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 
  32. ^ Full list of Reg-Markets Center events.
  33. ^ Green, Kenneth P.; Hassett, Kevin A.; Hayward, Stephen F. (1 June 2007), "Climate Change: Caps vs. Taxes?", Environmental Policy Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), 2007,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  34. ^ Lane, Lee (2006), Strategic Options for Bush Administration Climate Policy, Washington, DC: AEI Press,,filter.all/book_detail.asp, retrieved on 2009-04-07 
  35. ^ Lane, Lee; Thernstrom, Samuel (19 January 2007), "A New Direction for Bush Administration Climate Policy", Environmental Policy Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), 2007,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  36. ^ Thernstrom, Samuel (23 June 2008), "Resetting Earth's Thermostat", Los Angeles Times,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  37. ^ Conference information.
  38. ^ Conference information. See also Green, Kenneth P. (29 July 2008), "Ethanol and the Environment", Environmental Policy Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), 2008,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  39. ^ Green, Kenneth P.; Mathur, Aparna (4 December 2008), "Measuring and Reducing Americans' Indirect Energy Use", Environmental Policy Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), 2008,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  40. ^ Green, Kenneth P.; Mathur, Aparna (4 March 2009), "Indirect Energy and Your Wallet", Environmental Policy Outlook (American Enterprise Institute), 2009,, retrieved on 2009-04-07 .
  41. ^ Heilbrunn, Jacob (12 January 2009), "Where Have All the Neocons Gone?", The American Conservative, 2009,, retrieved on 2009-04-08 .
  42. ^ Lobe, Jim (27 March 2003), "All in the Neocon Family", Alternet, 2003,, retrieved on 2009-04-08 .
  43. ^ Adam, Zagorin (2007-11-16). "John Bolton: The Angriest Neocon". Time/CNN.,8599,1685063,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-4-06. .
  44. ^ Murray, Douglas (2006). Neoconservatism: Why We Need It. New York: Encounter Books. pp. 87. .
  45. ^ Bolton, John (2007-12-18). "'Bush's Foreign Policy Is in Free Fall'" (in English). Der Spiegel.,1518,523991,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. .
  46. ^ {{ | series = Hardball with Chris Matthews | serieslink = Hardball with Chris Matthews | airdate = November 14, 2007}}.
  47. ^ Heilbrunn, Jacob (19 December 2008), "Flight of the Neocons", The National Interest, 2008,, retrieved on 2009-04-08 .
  48. ^ Kagan, Frederick W. (January 5, 2007). Choosing Victory: A Plan for Success in Iraq. Phase I Report. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. .
  49. ^ Woodward, Bob (2008). The War Within: A Secret White House History 2006-2008. New York: Simon and Schuster. 
  50. ^ Gordon, Michael R. (2008-08-30). "Troop ‘Surge’ Took Place Amid Doubt and Debate". New York Times. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. .
  51. ^ Kagan, Frederick W. (April 25, 2007). Choosing Victory: A Plan for Success in Iraq. Phase II Report. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. ; Kagan, Frederick W. (September 6, 2007). No Middle Way: The Challenge of Exit Strategies from Iraq. Phase III Report. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. ; Kagan, Frederick W. (March 24, 2008). Iraq: The Way Ahead. Phase IV Report. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. .
  52. ^ Auslin, Michael; Christopher, Griffin (December 1, 2008). Securing Freedom: The U.S.-Japanese Alliance in a New Era. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. ; Blumenthal, Dan; Randall, Schriver (February 22, 2008). Strengthening Freedom in Asia: A Twenty-First-Century Agenda for the U.S.-Taiwan Partnership. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. ; Blumenthal, Dan; Aaron, Friedberg (January 12, 2009). An American Strategy for Asia. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. .
  53. ^ Falcoff, Mark (2003). Cuba the Morning After: Confronting Castro's Legacy. Washington: AEI Press. .
  54. ^ See a conference.
  55. ^ Hayward, Steven F. (February 15, 2005). "Climate Change Science: Time for 'Team B'?". AEI. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  56. ^ Bate, Roger (August 2, 2005). "Climate Change Policy after the G8 Summit". AEI. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  57. ^ Sample, Ian (February 2, 2007). "Scientists offered cash to dispute climate study". The Guardian.,,2004397,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  58. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (February 5, 2007). "AEI Critiques of Warming Questioned: Think Tank Defends Money Offers to Challenge Climate Report". Washington Post: p. A04. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  59. ^ American Enterprise Institute. "Letter to Prof. Steve Schroeder" (PDF). ThinkProgress. Archived from the original on 2008-02-27. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  60. ^ Samuelson, Robert J. (August 20-27, 2007). "Greenhouse Simplicities". Newsweek: p. 47. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  61. ^ DeMuth, Chris (February 9, 2007). "Climate Controversy and AEI: Facts and Fictions". AEI.,filter.all/pub_detail.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  62. ^ Editorial (February 9, 2007). "Global Warming Smear". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  63. ^ Hayward, Steven F.; Kenneth P. Green (February 19, 2007). "Scenes from the Climate Inquisition: The chilling effect of the global warming consensus". Weekly Standard 012 (22). 
  64. ^ Hayward, Steven F. (June 12, 2006). "Acclimatizing: How to Think Sensibly about Global Warming". AEI. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  65. ^ Hayward, Steven F. (May 15, 2006). "How to Think Sensibly, or Ridiculously, About Global Warming". AEI.,pubID.24401/pub_detail.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  66. ^ Green, Kenneth (May 8, 2006). "Clouds of Global-Warming Hysteria". National Review Online. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  67. ^ DeMuth, Christopher (September 2001). "The Kyoto Treaty Deserved to Die". The American Enterprise. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  68. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (December 2003). "How James Glassman reinvented journalism—as lobbying". Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  69. ^ Glassman, James K. (December 15, 2003). "Certainty of Catastrophic Global Warming is a Hoax". Capitalism Magazine. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  70. ^ Glassman, James K. (December 14, 2004). "Global Warming: Extremists on the Run". AEI.,pubID.21703/pub_detail.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  71. ^ Schwartz, Joel (July 2007). "A North Carolina Citizen's Guide to Global Warming" (PDF). John Locke Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-02-12. 
  72. ^ Winning the War in Afghanistan, An Address by Senator John McCain

[edit] External links

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