Led Zeppelin

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Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin in 1968. From left to right: John Bonham, Robert Plant, Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones
Led Zeppelin in 1968. From left to right: John Bonham, Robert Plant, Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones
Background information
Origin London, England
Genre(s) Hard rock, heavy metal, blues-rock, folk rock
Years active 1968–1980
(Reunions: 1985, 1988, 1995, 2007)
Label(s) Atlantic, Swan Song
Associated acts The Yardbirds, Page and Plant, The Honeydrippers, The Firm, Coverdale & Page, Band of Joy
Website ledzeppelin.com
Former members
Jimmy Page
John Paul Jones
Robert Plant
John Bonham

Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in 1968 by Jimmy Page (guitar), Robert Plant (vocals), John Paul Jones (bass guitar, keyboards) and John Bonham (drums). With their heavy, guitar-driven sound, Led Zeppelin are regarded as one of the first heavy metal bands.[1][2][3] However, the band's individualistic style draws from many sources and transcends any one genre.[4] Their rock-infused interpretation of the blues and folk genres[5] also incorporated rockabilly,[6] reggae,[7] soul,[8] funk,[9] classical, Celtic, Indian, Arabic, pop, Latin and country.[10] The band did not release the popular songs from their albums as singles in the UK, as they preferred to develop the concept of album-oriented rock.[11][12]

Close to 30 years after disbanding following Bonham's death in 1980, the band continues to be held in high regard for their artistic achievements, commercial success and broad influence. The band have sold more than 300 million albums worldwide,[13][14][15][16][17] including 111.5 million sales in the United States[18] and they have had all of their original studio albums reach the U.S. Billboard Top 10,[19] with six reaching the number one spot. Led Zeppelin are ranked #1 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock.[20] Rolling Stone magazine has described Led Zeppelin as "the heaviest band of all time" and "the biggest band of the '70s".[21]

On 10 December 2007 the surviving members of Led Zeppelin reunited (along with deceased drummer John Bonham's son, Jason) for the Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert at The O2 Arena in London.


[edit] History

[edit] The New Yardbirds (1968)

The beginning of Led Zeppelin can be traced back to the English blues-influenced rock band The Yardbirds.[12] Jimmy Page joined The Yardbirds in 1966 to play rhythm guitar after the original bassist, Paul Samwell-Smith, left the group. Shortly after, Page switched from rhythm to lead guitar, creating a dual-lead guitar line up with Jeff Beck. Following the departure of Beck from the group in October 1966, The Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, were beginning to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with himself and Beck on guitars, and The Who's rhythm section—drummer Keith Moon and bassist John Entwistle. Vocalists Donovan, Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were also considered for the project.[22] The group never formed, although Page, Beck and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", which is featured on Beck's 1968 album, Truth. The recording session also included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones, who told Page that he would be interested in collaborating with him on future projects.[23]

The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968. However, they were still committed to performing several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use the Yardbirds name to fulfil the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for lead singer, Terry Reid, declined the offer, but suggested Robert Plant, a West Bromwich singer.[12][24] Plant eventually accepted the position, recommending a drummer, John Bonham from nearby Redditch.[25][12] When Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer (he would later take the photograph that appeared on the back of Led Zeppelin's debut album), John Paul Jones, at the suggestion of his wife, contacted Page about the vacant position.[26] Being familiar with Jones' credentials, Page agreed to bring in Jones as the final piece.

The group came together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerrard Street in London.[27][28] Page suggested that they try playing "Train Kept A-Rollin'", a rockabilly song popularised by Johnny Burnette that had been given new life by the Yardbirds. "As soon as I heard John Bonham play," recalled Jones, "I knew this was going to be great... We locked together as a team immediately."[29] Shortly afterwards, the group played together on the final day of sessions for the P. J. Proby album, Three Week Hero. The album's song "Jim's Blues" was the first studio track to feature all four members of the future Led Zeppelin.[30] Proby recalled, "Come the last day we found we had some studio time, so I just asked the band to play while I just came up with the words. ... They weren't Led Zeppelin at the time, they were the New Yardbirds and they were going to be my band."[31]

The band completed the Scandinavian tour as The New Yardbirds, playing together for the first time in front of a live audience at Gladsaxe Teen Clubs in Gladsaxe, Denmark on 7 September 1968.[32][33] However, it was clear to the band that performing under the old Yardbirds tag was akin to working under false pretences, and upon returning from Scandinavia they decided to change their name.[34] One account of the band's naming, which has become almost legendary, has it that Keith Moon and John Entwistle, drummer and bassist for The Who, respectively, suggested that a possible supergroup containing themselves, Jimmy Page, and Jeff Beck would go over like a lead zeppelin, a term Entwistle used to describe a bad gig.[35] The group deliberately dropped the 'a' in Lead at the suggestion of their manager, Peter Grant, to prevent "thick Americans"[23] from pronouncing it "leed".[36]

Grant also secured for the new band an advance deal of $200,000 from Atlantic Records in November 1968, then the biggest deal of its kind for a new band.[31] Atlantic was a label known for a catalogue of blues, soul and jazz artists, but in the late 1960s it began to take an interest in progressive British rock acts, and signed Led Zeppelin without having ever seen them, largely on the recommendation of singer Dusty Springfield.[28][37] Under the terms of the contract secured by Grant, the band alone would decide when they would release albums and tour, and had final say over the contents and design of each album. They also would decide how to promote each release and which (if any) tracks to release as singles,[29] and formed their own company, Superhype, to handle all publishing rights.[38]

[edit] Early days (1968–1969)

With their first album not yet released, the band made their live debut under the name "Led Zeppelin" at the University of Surrey, Guildford on 25 October 1968.[39] This was followed by a US concert debut on 26 December 1968 (when promoter Barry Fey added them to a bill in Denver, Colorado[40]) before moving on to the west coast for dates in Los Angeles, San Francisco and other cities.[41] Led Zeppelin's eponymous debut album was released on 12 January 1969, during their first US tour. The album's blend of blues, folk and eastern influences with distorted amplification made it one of the pivotal records in the creation of heavy metal music.[42] However, Plant has commented that it is unfair for people to typecast the band as heavy metal, since about a third of their music was acoustic.[43]

Live in Montreux, 1970

In an interview for the Led Zeppelin Profiled radio promo CD (1990) Page said that the album took about 36 hours of studio time to create (including mixing), and stated that he knows this because of the amount charged on the studio bill.[44][28] Peter Grant claimed the album cost £1,750 to produce (including artwork).[23] By 1975, the album had grossed $7,000,000.[45] Led Zeppelin's album cover met an interesting protest when, at a 28 February 1970 gig in Copenhagen, the band were billed as "The Nobs" as the result of a threat of legal action from aristocrat Eva von Zeppelin (a relative of the creator of the Zeppelin aircraft), who, upon seeing the logo of the Hindenburg crashing in flames, threatened to have the show pulled off the air.[46]

In their first year, Led Zeppelin managed to complete four US and four UK concert tours, and also released their second album, entitled Led Zeppelin II.[31] Recorded almost entirely on the road at various North American recording studios, the second album was an even greater success than the first and reached the number one chart position in the US and the UK.[47] Here the band further developed ideas established on their debut album, creating a work which became even more widely acclaimed and arguably more influential.[48] It has been suggested that Led Zeppelin II largely wrote the blueprint for 1970s hard rock.[48]

Following the album's release, Led Zeppelin completed several more tours of the United States. They played often, initially in clubs and ballrooms, then in larger auditoriums and eventually stadiums as their popularity grew.[12] Led Zeppelin concerts could last more than three hours, with expanded, improvised live versions of their song repertoire. Many of these shows have been preserved as Led Zeppelin bootleg recordings. It was also during this period of intensive concert touring that the band developed a reputation for off-stage excess.[10] One alleged example of such extravagance was the shark episode, or red snapper incident, which is said to have taken place at the Edgewater Inn in Seattle, Washington, on 28 July 1969.[23][10]

[edit] "The biggest band in the world" (1970–1977)

Led Zeppelin's popularity in the early years was dwarfed by their triumphant mid-seventies successes and it is this period that continues to define the band.[23][10] The band's image also changed as members began to wear elaborate, flamboyant clothing. Led Zeppelin began travelling in a private jet airliner (nicknamed The Starship),[10][49] rented out entire sections of hotels (most notably the Continental Hyatt House in Los Angeles, known colloquially as the "Riot House"), and became the subject of many of rock's most famous stories of debauchery. One escapade involved John Bonham riding a motorcycle through a rented floor of the Riot House,[10] while another involved the destruction of a room in the Tokyo Hilton, leading to the band being banned from that establishment for life.[28][50] However, although Led Zeppelin developed a reputation for trashing their hotel suites and throwing television sets out of the windows, some suggest that these tales have been somewhat exaggerated. Music journalist Chris Welch argues that "[Led Zeppelin's] travels spawned many stories, but it was a myth that [they] were constantly engaged in acts of wanton destruction and lewd behaviour.[28]

For the composition of their third album, Led Zeppelin III, Jimmy Page and Robert Plant retired to Bron-Yr-Aur, a remote cottage in Wales, in 1970. The result was a more acoustic sound (and a song, "Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp", misspelt as "Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" on the album cover), which was strongly influenced by folk and Celtic music, and revealed the band's versatility.[38]

The album's rich acoustic sound initially received mixed reactions, with many critics and fans surprised at the turn taken away from the primarily electric compositions of the first two albums. Over time, however, its reputation has improved and Led Zeppelin III is now generally praised.[51][52] It has a unique album cover featuring a wheel which, when rotated, displays various images through cut outs in the main jacket sleeve. The album's opening track, "Immigrant Song", was released in November 1970 by Atlantic Records as a single against the band's wishes.[53] It included their only non-album b-side, "Hey Hey What Can I Do". Even though the band saw their albums as indivisible, whole listening experiences—and their manager, Peter Grant, maintained an aggressive pro-album stance—some singles were released without their consent. The group also increasingly resisted television appearances, enforcing their preference that their fans hear and see them in live concerts.[28][54]

The four symbols on the label and inside sleeve of Led Zeppelin IV, representing (from left to right) Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones, John Bonham, and Robert Plant.

Led Zeppelin's fourth album was released on 8 November 1971. There was no indication of a title or a band name on the original cover, but on the LP label four symbols were printed—. The band were motivated to undertake this decision because of their disdain for the music press, which tended to label them as hyped and overrated. In response, they released the album with no indication of who they were in order to prove that the music could sell itself.[24] The album is variously referred to as Four Symbols and The Fourth Album (both titles were used in the Atlantic Records catalogue), and also IV, Untitled, Zoso, Runes, Sticks, Man With Sticks, and Four. It is still officially untitled and most commonly referred to as Led Zeppelin IV. In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine in 2005, Plant said that it is simply called The Fourth Album.[55]

further refined the band's unique formula of combining earthy, acoustic elements with heavy metal and blues emphases. The album included examples of hard rock, such as "Black Dog" and an acoustic track, "Going to California" (a tribute to Joni Mitchell). "Rock and Roll" is a tribute to the early rock music of the 1950s. Until mid-2007, the song was used prominently in Cadillac automobile commercials—one of the few instances of Led Zeppelin's surviving members licensing songs.[56]

The album is one of the best-selling albums in history and its massive popularity cemented Led Zeppelin's superstardom in the 1970s. To date it has sold 23 million copies in the United States.[57] The track "Stairway to Heaven" (sample ), although never released as a single, is sometimes quoted as being the most requested[58] and most played[59] album-oriented rock FM radio song. In 2005, the magazine Guitar World held a poll of readers in which "Stairway to Heaven" was voted as having the greatest guitar solo of all time.[60]

Led Zeppelin's next album, Houses of the Holy, was released in 1973. It featured further experimentation, with longer tracks and expanded use of synthesisers and mellotron orchestration. The song "Houses of the Holy" does not appear on its namesake album, even though it was recorded at the same time as other songs on the album; it eventually made its way onto the 1975 album Physical Graffiti.[23] The orange album cover of Houses of the Holy depicts images of nude children[61] climbing up the Giant's Causeway (in County Antrim, Northern Ireland). Although the children are not depicted from the front, this was controversial at the time of the album's release, and in some areas, such as the "Bible Belt" and Spain, the record was banned.[62][63]

The album topped the charts, and Led Zeppelin's subsequent concert tour of the United States in 1973 broke records for attendance, as they consistently filled large auditoriums and stadiums. At Tampa Stadium, Florida, they played to 56,800 fans (breaking the record set by The Beatles at Shea Stadium in 1965), and grossed $309,000.[23] Three sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden in New York were filmed for a motion picture, but the theatrical release of this project (The Song Remains the Same) would be delayed until 1976. During the final night's performance, $203,000 of the band's money from gate receipts went missing from a safety deposit box at the Drake Hotel.[28] It was never recovered.[64]

Led Zeppelin live at Chicago Stadium, January 1975.

In 1974, Led Zeppelin took a break from touring and launched their own record label, Swan Song, named after one of only five Led Zeppelin songs which the band never released commercially (Page later re-worked the song with his band, The Firm, and it appears as "Midnight Moonlight" on their first album). The record label's logo, based on a drawing called Evening: Fall of Day (1869) by William Rimmer, features a picture of Apollo.[65] The logo can be found on much Led Zeppelin memorabilia, especially t-shirts. In addition to using Swan Song as a vehicle to promote their own albums, the band expanded the label's roster, signing artists such as Bad Company, Pretty Things, Maggie Bell, Detective, Dave Edmunds, Midnight Flyer, Sad Café and Wildlife.[12] The label was successful while Led Zeppelin existed, but folded less than three years after they disbanded.[23]

24 February 1975 saw the release of Led Zeppelin's first double album, Physical Graffiti, which was their first release on the Swan Song Records label. It consisted of fifteen songs, eight of which were recorded at Headley Grange in 1974, and the remainder being tracks previously recorded but not released on earlier albums. A review in Rolling Stone magazine referred to Physical Graffiti as Led Zeppelin's "bid for artistic respectability," adding that the only competition the band had for the title of 'World's Best Rock Band' were The Rolling Stones and The Who.[66] The album was a massive fiscal and critical success. Shortly after the release of Physical Graffiti, all previous Led Zeppelin albums simultaneously re-entered the top-200 album chart,[23] and the band embarked on another U.S. tour, again playing to record-breaking crowds. In May 1975, Led Zeppelin played five highly successful, sold-out nights at the Earls Court Arena in London, footage of which was released in 2003, on the Led Zeppelin DVD.

Following these triumphant Earls Court appearances Led Zeppelin took a holiday and planned a series of outdoor summer concerts in America, scheduled to open with two dates in San Francisco.[54] These plans were thwarted in August 1975 when Robert Plant and his wife Maureen were involved in a serious car crash while on holiday in Rhodes, Greece. Robert suffered a broken ankle and Maureen was badly injured; a blood transfusion saved her life.[23] Unable to tour, Plant headed to the channel island of Jersey to spend August and September recuperating, with Bonham and Page in tow. The band then reconvened in Malibu, California. It was during this forced hiatus that much of the material for their next album, Presence, was written.

By this time, Led Zeppelin were the world's number one rock attraction,[54] having outsold most bands of the time, including the Rolling Stones.[23] Presence, released in March 1976, marked a change in the Led Zeppelin sound towards more straightforward, guitar-based jams, departing from the acoustic ballads and intricate arrangements featured on their previous albums. Though it was a platinum seller, Presence received mixed responses from critics and fans and some speculated the band's legendary excesses may have caught up with them.[67][12] The recording of Presence coincided with the beginning of Page's heroin use, which may have interfered with Led Zeppelin's later live shows and studio recordings, although Page has denied this.[68] Despite the original criticisms, Jimmy Page has called Presence his favourite album, and its opening track "Achilles Last Stand" (sample ) his favourite Led Zeppelin song. In an interview with a Swedish TV program, Plant stated that Presence is the album that sounds the most "Led Zeppelin" of all their LPs.[69]

Plant's injuries prevented Led Zeppelin from touring in 1976. Instead, the band finally completed the concert film The Song Remains The Same, and the soundtrack album of the film. The recording had taken place during three nights of concerts at Madison Square Garden in July 1973, during the band's concert tour of the United States. The film premiered in New York on 20 October 1976, but was given a lukewarm reception by critics and fans.[12] The film was particularly unsuccessful in the UK, where, after being unwilling to tour since 1975 due to a taxation exile, Led Zeppelin were facing an uphill battle to recapture the public spotlight at home.[70]

Plant (left) and Page (right) on stage during the 1977 North American tour

In 1977, Led Zeppelin embarked on another major concert tour of North America. Here the band set another attendance record, with 76,229 people attending their Pontiac Silverdome concert on 30 April.[71] It was, according to the Guinness Book of Records, the largest attendance to date for a single act show.[54] However, though it was financially profitable, the tour was beset with off-stage problems. On 3 June a concert at Tampa Stadium was cut short because of a severe thunderstorm, despite tickets printed with "Rain or Shine". A riot broke out amongst the audience, resulting in several arrests and injuries.[72]

After a 23 July show[73] at the "Day on the Green" festival at the Oakland Coliseum in Oakland, California, John Bonham and members of the band's support staff (including manager Peter Grant and security coordinator John Bindon) were arrested after a member of promoter Bill Graham's staff was badly beaten during the performance. A member of the staff had allegedly slapped Grant's son when he was taking down a dressing room sign. This was seen by John Bonham, who came over and kicked the man. Then, when Grant heard about this, he went into the trailer, along with Bindon and assaulted the man while tour manager Richard Cole stood outside and guarded the trailer.[23][74] The following day's second Oakland concert[75] would prove to be the band's final live appearance in the United States. Two days later, as the band checked in at a French Quarter hotel for their 30 July performance at the Louisiana Superdome, news came that Plant's five year old son, Karac, had died from a stomach virus. The rest of the tour was immediately cancelled, prompting widespread speculation about the band's future.[12][28]

[edit] Bonham's death and breakup (1978–1980)

November 1978 saw the group recording again, this time at Polar Studios in Stockholm, Sweden. The resultant album was In Through the Out Door, which exhibited a degree of sonic experimentation that again drew mixed reactions from critics. Nevertheless, the band still commanded legions of loyal fans, and the album easily reached #1 in the UK and the U.S. in just its second week on the Billboard album chart. As a result of this album's release, Led Zeppelin's entire catalogue made the Billboard Top 200 between the weeks of 27 October and 3 November 1979.[54]

In August 1979, after two warm-up shows in Copenhagen, Denmark, Led Zeppelin headlined two concerts at the Knebworth Music Festival, where crowds of close to 120,000 witnessed the return of the band. However, Plant was not eager to tour full-time again, and even considered leaving Led Zeppelin. He was persuaded to stay by Peter Grant. A brief, low-key European tour was undertaken in June and July 1980, featuring a stripped-down set without the usual lengthy jams and solos. At one show on 27 June, in Nuremberg, Germany, the concert came to an abrupt end in the middle of the third song when John Bonham collapsed on stage and was rushed to a hospital.[76] Press speculation arose that Bonham's problem was caused by an excess of alcohol and drugs, but the band claimed that he had simply overeaten, and they completed the European tour on 7 July, at Berlin.[77][23]

On 24 September 1980, Bonham was picked up by Led Zeppelin assistant Rex King to attend rehearsals at Bray Studios for the upcoming tour of the United States, the band's first since 1977, scheduled to commence on 17 October.[28] During the journey Bonham had asked to stop for breakfast, where he downed four quadruple vodkas (450 ml), with a ham roll. After taking a bite of the ham roll he said to his assistant, "Breakfast". He continued to drink heavily when he arrived at the studio. A halt was called to the rehearsals late in the evening and the band retired to Page's house — The Old Mill House in Clewer, Windsor. After midnight, Bonham had fallen asleep and was taken to bed and placed on his side. At 1:45 pm the next day Benji LeFevre (who had replaced Richard Cole as Led Zeppelin's tour manager) and John Paul Jones found him dead.[28] Bonham was 32 years old.[78] The cause of death was asphyxiation from vomit, and a verdict of accidental death was returned at an inquest held on 27 October.[28] An autopsy found no other drugs in Bonham's body. Bonham was cremated on 10 October 1980, at Rushock parish church in Droitwich, Worcestershire, England.

Despite rumours that Cozy Powell, Carmine Appice, Barriemore Barlow, Simon Kirke or Bev Bevan would join the group as his replacement, the remaining members decided to disband after Bonham's death. They issued a press statement on 4 December 1980 confirming that the band would not continue without Bonham. "We wish it to be known that the loss of our dear friend, and the deep sense of undivided harmony felt by ourselves and our manager, have led us to decide that we could not continue as we were."[28]

[edit] Post-Led Zeppelin (1981–2007)

In 1982, the surviving members of the group released a collection of out-takes from various sessions during Led Zeppelin's career, entitled Coda. It included two tracks taken from the band's performance at the Royal Albert Hall in 1970, one each from the Led Zeppelin III and Houses of the Holy sessions, and three from the In Through the Out Door sessions. It also featured a 1976 John Bonham drum instrumental with electronic effects added by Jimmy Page, called "Bonzo's Montreux".

On 13 July 1985, Page, Plant and Jones reunited for the Live Aid concert at JFK Stadium, Philadelphia, playing a short set featuring drummers Tony Thompson and Phil Collins and bassist Paul Martinez. Collins had contributed to Plant's first two solo albums while Martinez was a member of Plant's current solo band. However, the performance was marred by the lack of rehearsal with the two drummers, Page's struggles with an out-of-tune Les Paul and poorly-functioning monitors, and by Plant's hoarse voice.[79][80] Page himself has described the performance as "pretty shambolic",[81] while Plant was even less charitable, characterising it as an "atrocity".[79] When Live Aid footage was released on a four-DVD set in late 2004 to raise money for Sudan, the group unanimously agreed not to allow footage from their performance to be used, asserting that it was not up to their standard.[82] However, to demonstrate their ongoing support for the campaign Page and Plant pledged proceeds from their forthcoming Page and Plant DVD release and John Paul Jones pledged the proceeds of his then-current US tour with Mutual Admiration Society to the project.

The three members reunited again in May 1988, for the Atlantic Records 40th Anniversary concert, with Bonham's son, Jason Bonham, on drums. However, the reunion was again compromised by a disjointed performance, particularly by Plant and Page (the two having argued immediately prior to coming on stage about whether to play "Stairway to Heaven"), and by the complete loss of Jones' keyboards on the live television feed.[83][80] Page later described the performance as "one big disappointment", and Plant said unambiguously that "the gig was foul".[83]

The first Led Zeppelin box set of the nineties, featuring tracks remastered under the personal supervision of Jimmy Page, introduced the band's music to many new fans, thus stimulating something of a renaissance for Led Zeppelin. This set also included four previously unreleased tracks, including the Robert Johnson tribute "Travelling Riverside Blues", which was released as a single in the US. The song was a huge hit, with the video in heavy rotation on MTV. 1992 saw the release of the "Immigrant Song" b/w "Hey Hey What Can I Do" (the original b-side) as a CD single in the United States. The second box set was released in 1993; the two box sets together containing all known studio recordings, as well as some rare live tracks.

In 1994, Page and Plant reunited in the form of a 90 minute "UnLedded" MTV project. They later released an album called No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded, which featured some reworked Led Zeppelin songs, and embarked on a world tour the following year. This is said to be the beginning of the inner rift between the band members, as Jones was not even told of the reunion.[26][84] When asked where Jones was, Plant had replied that he was out "parking the car".[85]

On 12 January 1995, Led Zeppelin were inducted into the United States Rock and Roll Hall of Fame by Aerosmith's vocalist, Steven Tyler and guitarist Joe Perry. Jason and Zoe Bonham also attended, representing their late father. At the induction ceremony, the band's inner rift became apparent when Jones joked upon accepting his award, "Thank you, my friends, for finally remembering my phone number", causing consternation and awkward looks from Page and Plant.[86] Afterwards, they played a brief set with Tyler and Perry (featuring Jason Bonham on drums), and with Neil Young and Michael Lee replacing Bonham.

On 29 August 1997, Atlantic released a single edit of "Whole Lotta Love" in the U.S. and the UK, making it the only Led Zeppelin UK CD single. Additional tracks on this CD-single are "Baby Come On Home" and "Travelling Riverside Blues". It is the only single the band ever released in the UK. It peaked at #21.[87] 11 November 1997 saw the release of Led Zeppelin BBC Sessions, the first Led Zeppelin album in fifteen years. The two-disc set included almost all of the band's recordings for the BBC. Page and Plant released another album called Walking into Clarksdale in 1998, featuring all new material. However, the album wasn't as successful as No Quarter, and the band slowly dissolved.

On 29 November 1999 the RIAA announced that the band were only the third act in music history to achieve four or more Diamond albums.[88] In 2002, Robert Plant and John Paul Jones reconciled after years of strife that kept the band apart. This was followed by rumours of reunion, quickly quashed by individual members' representatives. 2003 saw the release of a triple live album, How the West Was Won, and a video collection, Led Zeppelin DVD, both featuring material from the band's heyday. By the end of the year, the DVD had sold more than 520,000 copies.

Led Zeppelin were ranked #14 on Rolling Stone's 2004 list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time",[89] and the following year the band received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In November 2005, it was announced that Led Zeppelin and Russian conductor Valery Gergiev were the winners of the 2006 Polar Music Prize. The King of Sweden presented the prize to Plant, Page, and Jones, along with John Bonham's daughter, in Stockholm in May 2006.[90] In November 2006, Led Zeppelin were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame. The television broadcasting of the event consisted of an introduction to the band by various famous admirers, a presentation of an award to Jimmy Page and then a short speech by the guitarist. After this, rock group Wolfmother played a tribute to Led Zeppelin, performing the song "Communication Breakdown".[91][92]

On 27 July 2007, Atlantic/Rhino, & Warner Home Video announced three new Led Zeppelin titles to be released in November, 2007. Released first was Mothership on 13 November, a 24-track best-of spanning the band's career, followed by a reissue of the soundtrack to The Song Remains the Same on 20 November which includes previously unreleased material, and a new DVD.[93] On 15 October 2007, it was reported that Led Zeppelin were expected to announce a new series of agreements that make the band's songs available as legal digital downloads, first as ringtones through Verizon Wireless then as digital downloads of the band's eight studio albums and other recordings on 13 November.[94] The offerings will be available through both Verizon Wireless and iTunes. On 3 November 2007, a UK newspaper the Daily Mirror announced that it had world exclusive rights to stream six previously unreleased tracks via its website. On 8 November 2007, XM Satellite Radio launched XM LED, the network's first artist-exclusive channel dedicated to Led Zeppelin. On 13 November 2007, Led Zeppelin's complete works were published on iTunes.

[edit] 2007 reunion

The surviving members of Led Zeppelin and Jason Bonham at The O2 in London in 2007

On 10 December 2007 the surviving members of Led Zeppelin reunited for a one-off benefit concert held in memory of music executive Ahmet Ertegün, with Jason Bonham taking up his late father's place on drums. It was announced on 12 September 2007 by promoter Harvey Goldsmith in a press conference. The concert was to help raise money for the Ahmet Ertegün Education Fund, which pays for university scholarships in the UK, US and Turkey. Music critics praised the band's performance. Hamish MacBain of NME proclaimed, "What they have done here tonight is proof they can still perform to the level that originally earned them their legendary reputation...We can only hope this isn't the last we see of them."[95] Page suggested the band may start work on new material,[96] and stated that a world tour may be in the works.[97] Meanwhile, Plant made his position regarding a reunion tour known to the Sunday Times, stating: "The whole idea of being on a cavalcade of merciless repetition is not what it's all about." However, he also made it known that he could be in favour of more one-off shows in the near future: "It wouldn't be such a bad idea to play together from time to time."

[edit] Reunion tour reports (2008)

Following the reunion concert and the press coverage it generated, speculation on the future of the band and the possibility of a tour with Jason Bonham on drums increased to a level not seen in several years. In an interview promoting the release of the Mothership compilation in Tokyo early in 2008, Jimmy Page revealed that he was prepared to embark upon a world tour with Led Zeppelin, but due to Robert Plant's tour commitments with Alison Krauss, such plans will not be announced until at least September.[98] Showing enthusiasm for continued performing, in late spring Page and Jones joined Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl and drummer Taylor Hawkins onstage at Wembley Stadium to perform Led Zeppelin tracks "Rock and Roll" (Hawkins on vocals and Grohl on drums), followed by "Ramble On" (Grohl on vocals and Hawkins on drums).[99]

Plant however continued to remain focused on his recent work and tour with Krauss. Their duet album Raising Sand  became certified platinum in March,[100] and their recordings received awards including a Grammy for the song "Gone, Gone, Gone (Done Moved On)"[101] and Album of the Year from the Americana Music Association.[102] Along with concentrating on the duo's American tour, Plant remained evasive on the subject of a Led Zeppelin reunion tour, and expressed displeasure at the process leading up to the 2007 reunion show during an interview with GQ Magazine, saying "The endless paperwork was like nothing I've experienced before. I've kept every one of the emails that were exchanged before the concert and I'm thinking of compiling them for a book, which I feel sure would be hailed as a sort of literary version of Spinal Tap."[103]

After the BBC reported in late August that Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones, and Jason Bonham had been recording material which could become a new Led Zeppelin project,[104] the rumours of a reunion began to accumulate through the remaining summer.[105][106][107] On 29 September Plant released a statement in which he called reports of a Led Zeppelin reunion "frustrating and ridiculous". He said he would not be recording or touring with the band, before adding, "I wish Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones and Jason Bonham nothing but success with any future projects."[108][109]

Following Plant's statement, authoritative but divergent views of the possibility of a Led Zeppelin reunion tour the next year were offered by John Paul Jones and promoter Harvey Goldsmith. In late October, Jones confirmed to BBC Radio Devon in Exeter that he, Page, and Bonham were seeking a replacement for Plant. The bassist remarked: "We are trying out a couple of singers. We want to do it. It's sounding great and we want to get on and get out there."[110] The next day, Goldsmith commented on the prospect of a Led Zeppelin reunion, casting doubt on the possibility or wisdom of such a venture. In an interview with BBC News, Goldsmith stated "I think that there is an opportunity for them to go out and present themselves. I don't think a long rambling tour is the answer as Led Zeppelin." The Ertegün Concert promoter felt the result of the ongoing plans of Jones, Page, and Bonham would not be "called Led Zeppelin".[111] A spokesman for guitarist Jimmy Page later confirmed this, telling RollingStone.com that a new band featuring Page, bassist John Paul Jones and drummer Jason Bonham would not go by the name Led Zeppelin due to the absence of singer Robert Plant.[112]

On January 7, 2009, MusicRadar reported that Jimmy Page's manager Robert Mensch said that the band had "tried out a few singers, but no one worked out, that was it. The whole thing is completely over now. There are absolutely no plans for them to continue."[113][114] In a radio interview, Plant cited a fear of disappointment as a major factor for not continuing a reunited Zeppelin. "The disappointment that could be there once you commit to that and the comparisons to something that was basically fired by youth and a different kind of exhuberance to now, it's very hard to go back and meet that head on and do it justice."[115]

[edit] Songs in other media

While members of Led Zeppelin have seldom allowed their works to be licensed for films or commercials, in recent years, their position has softened. The songs of Led Zeppelin can be heard in movies such as Shrek the Third, One Day in September, School of Rock ("Immigrant Song" in all three), Dogtown and Z-Boys ("Achilles Last Stand", "Nobody's Fault but Mine", and "Hots On for Nowhere"), Almost Famous ("That's the Way", "The Rain Song", "Misty Mountain Hop", "Bron-Yr-Aur", and "Tangerine"), Fast Times at Ridgemont High ("Kashmir"), and Small Soldiers ("Communication Breakdown"). The television series One Tree Hill featured the song "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You". The band has denied frequent requests by developers of popular music video games to use their songs. As with other forms of media, the band seeks to protect the integrity of their work. Specifically, "the band isn't comfortable with the prospect of granting outsiders access to its master tapes, a necessary step in creating the games."[116]

Also noteworthy is Cadillac's use of "Rock and Roll" in their US TV advertising campaign. Recently, Led Zeppelin have agreed to allow Apple to sell their music in Apple's iTunes Store, with the greatest hits collection Mothership as the marquee offering.[117]

In April 2007, Hard Rock Park announced it had secured an agreement with the band to create "Led Zeppelin - The Ride", a roller coaster built by B&M synchronised to the music of Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love". The coaster stands 155 feet (47 m) tall, features six inversions, and spirals over a lagoon. The ride officially opened with the park on May 9, 2008.[118] The ride is currently "Standing but not operating" (SBNO) due to Hard Rock Park filing Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In January 2009, the park filed for Chapter 7. In February 2009, the park was sold to new owners FPI MB Entertainment hoping to reopen by Memorial Day 2009.[119]

[edit] Allegations of plagiarism

The credits for Led Zeppelin II were the subject of some debate after the album's release. The prelude to "Bring It On Home" is a cover of Sonny Boy Williamson's "Bring It On Home" and drew comparisons with Willie Dixon's "Bring It On Back". "Whole Lotta Love" (sample ) contains lyrics that are derivative of Dixon's "You Need Love/Woman You Need Love", though the riff from the song was an original Jimmy Page composition. In the 1970s, Arc Music, the publishing arm of Chess Records, brought a lawsuit against Led Zeppelin for copyright infringement over "Bring It On Home"; the case was settled out of court.[19] Dixon himself did not benefit until he sued Arc Music to recover his royalties and copyrights. Sixteen years later, Dixon filed suit against Led Zeppelin over "Whole Lotta Love" and an out-of-court settlement was reached. Later pressings of Led Zeppelin II credit Dixon. Similarly, the "Lemon Song", from the same album, included an adaptation of Howlin' Wolf's "Killing Floor". The band and Chester Burnett reached an out-of-court settlement to give co-credit to the author of the original song.

Dave Headlam, in an article entitled "Does the song remain the same? Questions of authenticity and identification in the music of Led Zeppelin", suggests that "...in the course of studies on the music of Led Zeppelin, it has become apparent that many songs are compilations of pre-existent material from multiple sources, both acknowledged and unacknowledged." He contends that "...songs like 'Whole Lotta Love' and 'Dazed and Confused' are on the one hand not "authored" by Led Zeppelin, but [rather are] traditional lyrics..." [120] However, noted blues author and producer Robert Palmer states "It is the custom, in blues music, for a singer to borrow verses from contemporary sources, both oral and recorded, add his own tune and/or arrangement, and call the song his own".[121][122] Folklorist Carl Lindahl, refers to these recycling of lyrics in songs as "floating lyrics". He defines it within the folk-music tradition as "lines that have circulated so long in folk communities that tradition-steeped singers call them instantly to mind and rearrange them constantly, and often unconsciously, to suit their personal and community aesthetics".[123]

In an interview he gave to Guitar World magazine in 1993, Page commented on the band's use of classic blues songs:

[A]s far as my end of it goes, I always tried to bring something fresh to anything that I used. I always made sure to come up with some variation. In fact, I think in most cases, you would never know what the original source could be. Maybe not in every case -- but in most cases. So most of the comparisons rest on the lyrics. And Robert was supposed to change the lyrics, and he didn't always do that -- which is what brought on most of the grief. They couldn't get us on the guitar parts of the music, but they nailed us on the lyrics. We did, however, take some liberties, I must say [laughs]. But never mind; we did try to do the right thing.[124]

In another interview, Page responded to the suggestion that Led Zeppelin used a lot of traditional and blues lyrics and tunes and called them their own:

The thing is they were traditional lyrics and they went back far before a lot of people that one related them to. The riffs we did were totally different, also, from the ones that had come before, apart from something like "You Shook Me" and "I Can't Quit You," which were attributed to Willie Dixon. The thing with "Bring It On Home," Christ, there's only a tiny bit taken from Sonny Boy Williamson's version and we threw that in as a tribute to him. People say, "Oh, 'Bring It On Home' is stolen." Well, there's only a little bit in the song that relates to anything that had gone before it, just the end.[24]

[edit] Discography

Studio albums

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Chad Bowar, "Heavy metal timeline", About.com
  2. ^ Heavy Metal. BBC.com
  3. ^ Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, Warner Home Video, 2005.
  4. ^ Brackett, John (2008). "Examining rhythmic and metric practices in Led Zeppelin’s musical style." Popular Music, Volume 27/1, pp. 53–76. Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Shelokhonov, Steve. "Led Zeppelin - Biography". IMDB.com. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0496389/bio. Retrieved on 2008-03-03. 
  6. ^ In live shows, Led Zeppelin would perform rockabilly songs originally made famous by Elvis Presley and Eddie Cochran
  7. ^ Houses of the Holy includes a reggae-influenced song, "D'Yer Mak'er"
  8. ^ Live Led Zeppelin concerts would also include James Brown, Stax and Motown-influenced soul music and funk, as these were favourites of bassist John Paul Jones and drummer John Bonham.
  9. ^ See previous reference to soul and funk
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mick Wall, "The truth behind the Led Zeppelin legend", Times Online, November 1, 2008
  11. ^ Led Zeppelin, followers, Musicmatch.com. Accessed 10 September 2006.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Led Zeppelin Biography". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:wifexqe5ldde~T1. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. 
  13. ^ "Can Led Zeppelin still rock?". CNN. December 9, 2007. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/SHOWBIZ/Music/12/09/led.zep/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-27. 
  14. ^ "VH1 Welcomes the Return of the 'Third Annual UK Music Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony'". vh1.com. 14 September 2006. http://www.led-zeppelin.com/news/vh1_9.14.06.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-21. 
  15. ^ "Led Zeppelin wins Polar Prize", The Local, November 7, 2005
  16. ^ Natalie Paris, "20 million Led Zeppelin fans rush for tickets", The Telegraph, 17 September, 2007
  17. ^ Dan Sloan, "Led Zeppelin concert off until at least September", The Mail & Guardian, January 28, 2008
  18. ^ RIAA. "Top Selling Artists". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt. 
  19. ^ a b Australian Broadcasting Corporation - Triple J Music Specials - Led Zeppelin (first broadcast 2000-07-12)
  20. ^ 100 greatest artists of hard rock at vh1.com
  21. ^ "Led Zeppelin: The Legend, the Classic Reviews, a Selection of Hot Photos and More", Rolling Stone 28 July 2006.
  22. ^ Led-Zeppelin.org. "Led Zeppelin Assorted Info". http://www.led-zeppelin.org/reference/index.php?m=assorted3. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Stephen Davis (1995). Hammer of the Gods (LPC). pp. 32, 44, 64, 190, 225, 277. ISBN 0425182134. OCLC 0330438591. 
  24. ^ a b c Dave Schulps, Interview with Jimmy Page, Trouser Press, October 1977.
  25. ^ Digital Graffiti. "The Led Zeppelin Frequently Asked Questions List, v8.1, 29 September 1994". http://home.mchsi.com/~night_flight/led_zeppelin_faq.htm. 
  26. ^ a b Dominick A. Miserandino, Led Zeppelin - John Paul Jones, TheCelebrityCafe.com.
  27. ^ Liner notes by Cameron Crowe for The Complete Studio Recordings. The building has since been torn down, and the area has been converted into London's Chinatown.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chris Welch (1994) Led Zeppelin, London: Orion Books. ISBN 0-85797-930-3, pp. 21, 28, 31, 37, 47, 49, 63, 68, 85, 92, 94-95.
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  30. ^ Mick Wall (2008), When Giants Walked the Earth: A Biography Of Led Zeppelin, London: Orion, p. 52.
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  32. ^ Gladsaxe Teen Clubs website: Led Zeppelin's first gig
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  36. ^ Jimmy Page Online (unofficial website)
  37. ^ Ian Fortnam, "Dazed & confused", Classic Rock Magazine: Classic Rock Presents Led Zeppelin, 2008, p. 43.
  38. ^ a b Dave Lewis (1994), The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin, Omnibus Press, p. 3
  39. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  40. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  41. ^ Thomas MacCluskey, "Rock Concert Is Real Groovy". Reproduced at led-zeppelin.org
  42. ^ Review of Led Zeppelin at Allmusic
  43. ^ The History of Rock 'n' Roll: The 70s: Have a Nice Decade (1995), film directed by Bill Richmond.
  44. ^ Led Zeppelin Profiled radio promo CD, 1990
  45. ^ Billboard discography
  46. ^ Keith Shadwick Led Zeppelin 1968-1980: The Story Of A Band And Their Music (excerpt posted on Billboard.com)
  47. ^ Review of Led Zeppelin II at Connolly & Company.com
  48. ^ a b Review of Led Zeppelin II at Allmusic
  49. ^ "The Starship" at Led Zeppelin.org
  50. ^ Nigel Williamson, "Forget the Myths", Uncut, May 2005, p. 68.
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  52. ^ "Q4 Review of Led Zeppelin 3". http://www.q4music.com/nav?page=q4music.review.redirect&fixture_review=124845&resource=124845&fixture_artist=144739. 
  53. ^ Atlantic Records had earlier released an edited version of "Whole Lotta Love", which cut the 5:34 song to 3:10, removing the abstract middle section.
  54. ^ a b c d e Dave Lewis (2003), Led Zeppelin: Celebration II: The 'Tight But Loose' Files, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84449-056-4, pp. 30, 35, 45, 49, 80.
  55. ^ Austin Scaggs, "Q&A: Robert Plant", Rolling Stone, 5 May 2005.
  56. ^ Rock and Roll Dropped from Cadillac advert
  57. ^ "Top 100 Albums". RIAA. http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTop100. Retrieved on 2008-08-11. 
  58. ^ "Sold on Song: Stairway To Heaven", BBC.com.
  59. ^ Karen Karbo, "Stairway To Heaven: Is This the Greatest Song of All Time?", Esquire, November 1991.
  60. ^ About Guitar, 100 Greatest Guitar Solos, accessed 10 September 2006. This song, although widely played amongst the radio stations, is also considered the "Greatest Rock Song". Many claim that this song was the definition of Led Zeppelin.
  61. ^ Toby Manning, "Broad Church", Q Led Zeppelin Special Edition, 2003.
  62. ^ Classic Rock Covers: Led Zeppelin; Houses of the Holy. Atlantic, 1973. Designer: Hipgnosis (Storm Thorgneson, Aubrey Powell)
  63. ^ Koldo Barroso, "Best albums with nude covers and the stories behind", intuitivemusic.com, 9 November 2006.
  64. ^ Liner notes by Cameron Crowe for The The Song Remains the Same, reissued version, 2007.
  65. ^ "William Rimmer: A Claim to Fame". September 2006. http://www.rimmerhistory.co.uk/will.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 
  66. ^ Jim Miller, "Album Review: Physical Graffiti", Rolling Stone, 27 March 1975.
  67. ^ Stephen Davis, , "Album Review: Presence", Rolling Stone, 20 May 1976.
  68. ^ Jonh Ingham, "Led Zeppelin: Presence (Swan Song)", Sounds, 10 April 1976. Reproduced in Rock's Backpages.com
  69. ^ From interview in Swedish TV program "Musikbyrån" around the time of Led Zeppelin receiving the Polar Music Prize.
  70. ^ Keith Shadwick (2005). Led Zeppelin: The Story of a band and Their Music 1968-1980. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. p. 320. ISBN 9780879308711. 
  71. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  72. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  73. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  74. ^ Ritchie Yorke (1993). Led Zeppelin: The Definitive Biography. pp. 210. 
  75. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  76. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  77. ^ Led Zeppelin official website: concert summary
  78. ^ John Bonham at the Internet Movie Database
  79. ^ a b Lewis, Dave and Pallett, Simon (1997) Led Zeppelin: The Concert File, London: Omnibus Press, p. 139.
  80. ^ a b Prato, Greg. "Jimmy Page Biography". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:difoxqr5ld6e~T1. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. 
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  82. ^ "Zeppelin defend Live Aid opt out", BBC News, 4 August 2004
  83. ^ a b Lewis, Dave and Pallett, Simon (1997) Led Zeppelin: The Concert File, London: Omnibus Press, p. 140.
  84. ^ Charles Shaar Murray, "The Guv’nors'", Mojo, August 2004, p. 75. Page stated: "In the 14 years from the disbanding of [Led] Zeppelin and Robert [Plant] going solo, there was a lot of water under the bridge. It was just the two of us getting our thing together and the chemistry of us, and it wasn't part of the equation, or a decision to purposely leave [John Paul Jones] out."
  85. ^ Adam Howorth, "A life beyond Led", 9 July 2002. Reproduced at www.led-zeppelin.org.
  86. ^ Lewis, Dave Lewis and Simon Pallett (1997) Led Zeppelin: The Concert File, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-5307-4, p. 144.
  87. ^ everyHit.com - UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Singles & Album Charts
  88. ^ RIAA, "Recording Industry Announces November Awards".
  89. ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone Issue 946. Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty. 
  90. ^ "Award for 'pioneers' Led Zeppelin", BBC News, 23 May 2006.
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  93. ^ Jonathan Cohen, "Led Zeppelin Readies Fall Reissue Bonanza", billboard.com, 27 July 2007.
  94. ^ Leeds, Jeff. "Led Zeppelin Agrees to Make Its Songs Available Digitally". New York Times, 15 October 2007
  95. ^ Hamish MacBain, "Led Zeppelin reunion: the review" New Musical Express, December 10 2007.
  96. ^ "Zeppelin may make new material", BBC News, 17 October 2007.
  97. ^ "Jimmy Page hints at more shows", New Musical Express, 14 December 2008.
  98. ^ Tamlmadge, Eric (28 January 2008). "Led Zeppelin Guitarist Wants World Tour". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/01/28/led-zeppelin-guitarist-wa_n_83534.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  99. ^ Jones, Damian (8 June 2008). "Led Zep stars join Foo Fighters". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/music/newsid_7442000/7442390.stm. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  100. ^ "Alison Krauss/Robert Plant go platinum". Country Standard Time. 20 March 2008. http://www.countrystandardtime.com/news/newsitem.asp?xid=1519&t=Alison_Krauss_Robert_Plant_go_platinum. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  101. ^ "List of Grammy winners". CNN.com. 10 February 2008. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/SHOWBIZ/Music/02/10/grammy.winners/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  102. ^ "Krauss, Plant big winners at Americana awards". USA Today. 2008-09-19. http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/news/2008-09-19-americana-awards_N.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-26. 
  103. ^ "Robert Plant says "paperwork" holds up Led Zeppelin reunion". therockradio.com. 19 September 2008. http://www.therockradio.com/2008/09/paperwork-holds-up-led-zeppelin-reunion.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  104. ^ "Led Zeppelin trio back in studio". BBC. 26 August 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7582917.stm. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  105. ^ "Led Zeppelin plan to audition new singer". The Sun. 2008-09-20. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/showbiz/bizarre/article1712616.ece. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  106. ^ "Led Zeppelin to reunite". Daily Telegraph Sydney. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,24405451-5012327,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-26. 
  107. ^ Chaytor, Rod (2008-09-27). "Zep's Jason sells up for 'world tour'". The Daily Mirror. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2008/09/27/zep-s-jason-sells-up-for-world-tour-115875-20755279/. Retrieved on 2008-09-27. 
  108. ^ "Robert Plant – Official Statement". robertplant.com. 2008-09-29. http://www.robertplant.com/index.php?l1=2&l2=0&l3=0&articleID=186&rt=NE&PHPSESSID=6235928e9e15317186503f0c80686264. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. 
  109. ^ Beech, Mark (2008-09-29). "Led Zeppelin Singer Robert Plant Rules Out Reunion Record, Tour". bloomberg.com. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=aU_5GfM1LTsc&refer=muse. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. 
  110. ^ "Zeppelin to go back on the road". BBC Devon. 2008-10-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/devon/7694327.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-30. 
  111. ^ Youngs, Ian (2008-10-28). "Zep warned off "pointless" tour". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7695866.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-30. 
  112. ^ "Could a Robert Plant-Free Led Zeppelin Tour Succeed?". rollingstone.com. 13 November 2008. http://www.rollingstone.com/rockdaily/index.php/2008/11/13/could-a-robert-plant-free-led-zeppelin-tour-succeed/. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  113. ^ Bosso, Joe (2009-01-07). ""Led Zeppelin are over!" says Jimmy Page's manager". MusicRadar. http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/led-zeppelin-are-over-says-jimmy-pages-manager-190946. 
  114. ^ Kreps, Daniel (2009-01-08). "“Led Zeppelin Are Over,” Jimmy Page’s Manager Declares". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/rockdaily/index.php/2009/01/08/led-zeppelin-are-over-jimmy-pages-manager-declares/. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. 
  115. ^ "Fear Of Disappointment Quashed Led Zeppelin Reunion". http://www.led-zeppelin.org/news/index.php?m=2009news#020409a. 
  116. ^ Wingfield, Nick; Smith, Ethan. "Aerosmith Stars in Guitar Hero Videogame". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121487474239618065.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-10. 
  117. ^ Vanessa Thorpe, "Led Zeppelin join the net generation", The Observer, 29 July 2007.
  118. ^ Hard Rock Park
  119. ^ Fleisher, Lisa. "Judge clears sale of Hard Rock Park". The Sun News. http://www.thesunnews.com/679/story/787981.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  120. ^ Headlam, Dave. "Does the song remain the same? Questions of authenticity and identification in the music of Led Zeppelin." In Concert Music, Rock, and Jazz Since 1945: Essays and Analytical Studies. By Elizabeth West Marvin and Richard Hermann. Published 1995. Boydell & Brewer. 449 pages ISBN 1-58046-096-8 http://books.google.ca/books?id=OhUVusniuzoC
  121. ^ Susan Fast (2001). In the Houses of the Holy: Led Zeppelin and the Power of Rock Music. p. 210, ISBN 0-19-511756-5. 
  122. ^ Robert Palmer (1991). Led Zeppelin: The Music (liner notes). 
  123. ^ Carl Lindahl, "Thrills and Miracles: Legends of Lloyd Chandler", Journal of Folklore Research, Bloomington: May-Dec 2004, Vol. 41, Issue 2/3, pp. 133-72.
  124. ^ Interview with Jimmy Page, Guitar World magazine, 1993
  125. ^ While some external sources, such as Allmusic, categorise Coda as a compilation album, Led Zeppelin's official album label, Atlantic Records, categorises it as studio album. See for example the liner notes for the Led Zeppelin Box Set, Vol. 2 and the label attached to the Complete Studio Recordings boxed set, which state that Led Zeppelin released nine studio albums.

[edit] Published sources

  • Jon Bream (2008), Whole Lotta Led Zeppelin: The Illustrated History of the Heaviest Band of All Time, Minneapolis: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-7603-3507-9.
  • Richard Cole and Richard Trubo (1992), Stairway to Heaven: Led Zeppelin Uncensored, New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018323-3.
  • Stephen Davis (1985), Hammer of the Gods: The Led Zeppelin Saga, New York: William Morrow & Co. ISBN 0-688-04507-3.
  • Susan Fast (2001), In the Houses of the Holy: Led Zeppelin and the Power of Rock Music, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514723-5.
  • Dave Lewis (1991), Led Zeppelin: A Celebration, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-2416-3.
  • Dave Lewis (1994), The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-3528-9.
  • Dave Lewis (2003), Led Zeppelin: Celebration II: The 'Tight But Loose' Files, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84449-056-4.
  • Dave Lewis and Simon Pallett (1997), Led Zeppelin: The Concert File, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-5307-4.
  • Luis Rey (1997), Led Zeppelin Live: An Illustrated Exploration of Underground Tapes, Ontario: The Hot Wacks Press. ISBN 0-9698080-7-0.
  • Keith Shadwick (2005), Led Zeppelin: The Story of a Band and Their Music 1968-1980, San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-871-1.
  • Mick Wall (2008), When Giants Walked the Earth: A Biography Of Led Zeppelin, London: Orion. ISBN 978-0-7528-8877-4.
  • Chris Welch (1994), Led Zeppelin, London: Orion Books. ISBN 0-85797-930-3.
  • Chris Welch (2002), Peter Grant: The Man Who Led Zeppelin, London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9195-2.
  • Chris Welch (2006), Led Zeppelin: Dazed and Confused: The Stories Behind Every Song, Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-818-7.
  • Ritchie Yorke (1993), Led Zeppelin: the Definitive Biography, Novato, California: Underwood-Miller. ISBN 0-88733-177-7.

[edit] External links

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