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Socionics (Lithuanian: socionika, Russian: соционика) is a theory of information processing and personality type. It incorporates elements of Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types and Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. Socionics is a modification of Jung's personality type that uses all eight Jungian functions (in socionics called information elements), in contrast to Jung's 4-function model, and also it's supplemented with the idea of type-level interpersonal interaction (intertype relations).

The theory was developed in the 1970s and '80s mainly by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė,[1] a financier and teacher of political economics.[2] The name socionics is derived from the word "society", since Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.[3]

The central idea of socionics is that information is divided into 8 different categories (information elements, in compliance with 8 Jungian functions), which a person's psyche processes using eight psychological functions. Each socionic type has a different correspondence between functions and information elements, which results in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information. This in turn results in distinct thinking patterns, values, and behavior, all of which are encompassed within socionic type. Socionics' theory of intertype relations is based on the interaction of these functions between types.

Socionics has thus far been developed through introspection, observation, and personal inquiry. Although descriptive of a wide range of human behavior and interaction, socionics still has no sufficient scientific experimental substantiation. [4] The ongoing "Model T" project, led by Viktor Talanov, aims to correlate socionics functions with cognitive theories of information.


[edit] Jung's psychological types

Carl Jung describes four psychological functions that are capable of becoming conscious, but to differing degrees in specific individuals:[5]

  • Sensation - all perceptions by means of the sense organs
  • Intuition - perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
  • Thinking (in socionics, logic) - interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect
  • Feeling (in socionics, ethics) - interpretation of information based on its ethical aspects

Each of these functions can be in extraverted [Jung used 'extra',[6] but not 'extro'] or introverted form. If the dominant function in psychological type is extraverted - the type is extraverted; if the dominant function is introverted - the type is introverted.

Sensation and intuition are called irrational or perceiving functions, and are thus named because unlike the rational or judging functions (i.e., thinking and feeling), they deal with raw perception of reality rather than the interpretation of it. If the dominant function is rational - the type is rational, if the dominant function is irrational - the type is irrational.

Beside dominant function, there is auxiliary function. If dominant function is extraverted, auxiliary is introverted; and vice versa, if dominant function is introverted, auxiliary is extraverted. If dominant function is rational, auxiliary is irrational; and vice versa, if dominant function is irrational, auxiliary is rational. For example, if dominant function is extraverted intuition, then auxiliary function can be introverted thinking or introverted feeling (there are 2 types with dominant extraverted intuition).

Jung's model of psychological type has all 4 functions (but with no account taken of their extraverted/introverted forms). Jung believed that dominant function is the most conscious, followed by auxiliary (2nd) function, tertiary (3rd) function, and inferior (4th) function. Jung's tertiary function has the same parameters extraverted/introverted and rational/irrational as at auxiliary function, and it is another function in pair of rational or irrational functions (for example, if auxiliary function is introverted thinking, then tertiary function is introverted feeling). Inferior function has the same parameter rational/irrational as at dominant function, and other extraverted/introverted parameter, and it is another function in pair of rational or irrational functions (for example, if dominant function is extraverted intuition, then inferior function is introverted sensation).

For example, Jung's model for 2 types: extraverted intuitive-thinking (ILE, ENTP) and introverted feeling-sensory (ESI, ISFJ)

dominant function
auxiliary function
tertiary function
inferior function
extraverted intuition
introverted thinking
introverted feeling
introverted sensation
introverted feeling
extraverted sensation
extraverted intuition
extraverted thinking

By this Jung's rules 16 psychological types exist. But in his book "Psychological Types" he described in detail only 8 types, by their 8 forms of dominant function (4 functions, each in extraverted/introverted forms).

[edit] Information elements

In socionics, Jung's functions (8 functions - 4, each in extraverted or intoverted form) are called information elements, or information aspects. A basic premise of socionics is that all information is encompassed in these 8 categories. Each of these information elements is processed by a psychological function. Augustinavičiūtė introduced graphic symbols for each information element to simplify discussion.

To understand socionics it is crucial to see the realm in which each information element experiences reality.

Element Acronym Symbol Description
Extraverted logic (thinking) Te Te is responsible for assessing the efficiency of actions, understanding of technical processes, the accomplishment of work, the efficient and prudent use of resources, factual accuracy, and the acquisition of relevant and useful information. Te understands the difference between effective and ineffective behavior when performing a procedure or accomplishing a task, and aspires to increase the frequency of productive outcomes within a system.
Introverted logic (thinking) Ti Ti is responsible for understanding logic and structure, categorizations, ordering and priorities, logical analysis and distinctions, logical explanations, and the derivation of true statements from "self-evident" rules (axioms). Ti interprets information according to how it fits into a system. Ti is particularly aware of syntactic correctness and how concepts relate to each other in meaning and structure.
Extraverted ethics (feeling) Fe Fe is responsible for the perception of an emotional state in an individual and the bodily and linguistic expression of emotions. Fe is able to influence others' emotional condition and to communicate its own, "infecting" others. Fe is used especially in generating and recognizing excitement and enthusiasm.
Introverted ethics (feeling) Fi Fi is responsible for understanding the quality, nature, and proper maintenance of personal relations; makes moral judgments; and aspires to humanism and kindness. Fi has a strong understanding of the social hierarchy and how people feel about each other, their attitudes of like or dislike, enthrallment or disgust, repulsion or attraction, enmity or friendship.
Extraverted sensing Se Se is responsible for the perception, control, defense, and acquisition of space, territory, and control. It assesses objective appearance and the geometric form of subjects, estimates whether forces are in alignment or conflict, and uses strength of will and power-based methods to achieve purposes. Se understands territory and physical aggression.
Introverted sensing Si Si is responsible for perception of physical sensations; questions of comfort, coziness, and pleasure; and a sense of harmony and acclimation with one's environment (especially physical). Si understand how well a person or thing's behavior agrees with its nature as well as the differences between comfortable behaviors and positions and uncomfortable ones.
Extraverted intuition Ne Ne is responsible for understanding the essence (permanent traits) of a thing, estimating opportunities and possibilities for people and things, and visualizing potential outcomes of events. It is responsible for the sense of interest or boredom. Ne will speculate as to why an event occurs, but sees the specific event as static and unalterable.
Introverted intuition Ni Ni is responsible for the estimation of the passage of time, the understanding of a course of processes in time, and forecasting. Ni understand how things change and evolve over time and throughout history. Ni is acutely aware of events that are occurring outside of the immediate perception of the moment, and sees events as part of a continuous flow. Ni perceives the inevitability of future events and notices ties to the past.

[edit] 16 types

Socionics divides people into 16 different psychological types. These types are most commonly specified by their two strongest functions, which in socionics are called the leading function (Jung's dominant) and the creative function (Jung's auxiliary). The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means it must be either extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition. Socionic types have dominant and auxiliary functions like Jung's types. Here it differs from the Myers-Briggs typology. For example, a type with dominant logic is always rational (judging in Myers-Briggs) in socionics and by Jung, but such type may be perceiving (irrational in socionics) in the Myers-Briggs typology (if this type is introverted).

Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert (SLI) to refer to the types. In SLI the leading function is introverted sensing and the creative function is extraverted logic. She also introduced the practice of referring to types by the name of a famous person of the type (although types of these persons are not shared by all using socionics, especially about "Napoleon"). For example, she called the SLI Gabin and the SEI Dumas. Also sometimes types' names like Craftsman or Mediator are used to express the social role of type. MBTI abbreviations are also in frequent use, given the similarities present in the two typologies. Some prefer in designation of socionics type with preferences of Myers-Briggs' 4-letter code, the letter for J/P to write in lower case (for example, ENTp, ESFj), - this is because introverted types in socionics (and by Jung) have leading/dominant and creative/auxiliary cognitive functions like Myers-Briggs types with different J/P parameter (for example, INTP by socionics have these functions like INTJ by Myers-Briggs, ISFJ like ISFP, ..., and vice versa).

The following tables provide a list of types with names most commonly used in socionics:[7]

First two functions Formal name MBTI name Social role Type alias
ILE (intuitive-logical extravert) ENTP Seeker / Inventor Don Quixote
SEI (sensory-ethical introvert) ISFP Mediator / Peacemaker Dumas
ESE (ethical-sensory extravert) ESFJ Bonvivant / Enthusiast Hugo
LII (logical-intuitive introvert) INTJ Analyst / Mastermind Robespierre (or Descartes)
EIE (ethical-intuitive extravert) ENFJ Mentor / Actor Hamlet
LSI (logical-sensory introvert) ISTJ Inspector / Pragmatist Maxim Gorky
SLE (sensory-logical extravert) ESTP Legionnaire / Conqueror Zhukov
IEI (intuitive-ethical introvert) INFP Lyricist / Romantic Yesenin
SEE (sensory-ethical extravert) ESFP Politician / Ambassador Napoleon (or Caesar)
ILI (intuitive-logical introvert) INTP Critic / Observer Balzac
LIE (logical-intuitive extravert) ENTJ Enterpriser / Pioneer Jack London
ESI (ethical-sensory introvert) ISFJ Guardian / Conservator Dreiser
LSE (logical-sensory extravert) ESTJ Administrator / Director Stirlitz (or Sherlock Holmes)
EII (ethical-intuitive introvert) INFJ Humanist / Empath Dostoyevsky
IEE (intuitive-ethical extravert) ENFP Psychologist / Reporter Huxley
SLI (sensory-logical introvert) ISTP Craftsman / Artisan Gabin

[edit] Model A

Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed a model of personality called Model A, which includes all eight information elements (aspects), as opposed to only the four information elements of Jung's model and the Myers-Briggs typology.[8] Every human can perceive and process information in all information elements. A information element's position in a type's Model A reflects how the type uses that element. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions in Model A (numbers of functions are in Viktor Gulenko's notation). Note that, although these functions are numbered 1 to 8, this does not mean that the functions are ordinal in strength, as is the case in MBTI. Example for ILE (ENTP) type:

1 2
4 3
6 5
7 8

[edit] Nature of functions

  • Function 1 - leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged.
  • Function 2 - creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its essence. One is generally less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened, or when dealing with new and complex tasks and data.
  • Function 3 - role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from one's suggestive function to overcome the problems associated with the role function.
  • Function 4 - the vulnerable function, or place of least resistance, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from one's mobilizing function to overcome the problems associated with this function.
  • Function 5 - suggestive function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents. When left to ones own devices, the suggestive function goes unnoticed.
  • Function 6 - mobilizing function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's actions. Individuals requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it. Often an individuals is only aware that they are totally unaware of how to use this function.
  • Function 7 - observant or ignoring function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Individuals will disregard this function when an argument calls for restraint or when it will be difficult to indulge in its essence.
  • Function 8 - demonstrative function. This function is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not consciously aware of its existence or utilization.

[edit] Blocks of the psyche

According to Augustinavičiūtė, the functions are paired in four blocks: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block contains the leading (1) and creative (2) functions, the super-ego block contains the role (3) and vulnerable (4) functions, the super-id block contains the suggestive (5) and activation (6) functions, while the id block contains the observant (7) and demonstrative (8) functions.

The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious (or "mental") functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious (or "vital"). The functions residing within the ego and id blocks are strong functions which are used naturally and well, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak functions and used with difficulty and not infrequently incorrectly.

1 2
4 3
6 5
7 8

[edit] The 16 types in Model A


[edit] Intertype relations

The field of intertype relations within Socionics attempts to describe the nature of information interchange between two different people based on their socionic type. Each intertype relation has its bad and good qualities.

Table of intertype relations
ILE Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd
SEI Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg
ESE Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+
LII Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+
EIE Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf
LSI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI
SLE Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex
IEI Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se
SEE Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg
ILI Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp
LIE QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv-
ESI Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq-
LSE Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr
EII Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac
IEE Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du
SLI Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id

Du - Duality; Ac - Activation; Sd - Semi-duality; Mg - Mirage; Mr - Mirror; Id - Identity; Cp - Cooperation; Cg - Congenerity; QI - Quasi-Identity; Ex - Extinguishment; Se - Super-ego; Cf - Conflict; Rq+ - Requester; Rq- - Request recipient; Sv+ - Supervisor; Sv- - Supervisee

Remark: all relations beside Request and Supervision are bidirectional (symmetric). Request and Supervision relations are asymmetric and have 2 roles: Request - Requester and Request recipient, Supervision - Supervisor and Supervisee. Each cell in the table shows who the type in the left column is to the type in the top row.

[edit] Duality

Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support, and are generally viewed as optimal for friendship, intimacy, and marriage (though socionic type is not the only factor influencing this). The 8 dual pairs are as follows:


In dual relations, the dominant function of one partner is the suggestive function of the other, and the creative function of one partner is the mobilizing function of the other. Thus, the ego functions (the strongest and most socialized) of each correspond to the super-id functions of the other (the area where the person needs and expects assistance). Likewise, the super-ego block of one corresponds to the id of the other. In this relation, just 1 of 4 Jungian dichotomies are shared - rationality/irrationality. Duality interaction is generally rewarding and satisfying for both parties, providing inspiration and support.

For example, here is the scheme of function associations for the ILE—SEI dual pair:

Image:Socionics scheme duality ILE-SEI.gif

[edit] Activation

Activation relations occur between two members of the same quadra who share either introversion or extraversion. This relations can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, this relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others activation function. Activation relations are better suited to friendly correspondence.

Activation relationships are often romantic if both partners find each other attractive. These relationships are often very easy to start, as both partners share either extraversion or introversion. Introvert activation relationships appear reserved, while extravert activation relationships appear hectic.

[edit] Semi-duality

Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who share each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's activation functions. As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).

Relationships of semi-duality can become very close for moderate periods of time until correspondence is broken indefinitely. These relationship are often begin, or rekindle because of mutual interests or friends held in common.

[edit] Mirage

Mirage relations occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' activation functions, but whose dual seeking functions are part of the id block of the other partner.

Relationships of mirage often become quite close and are easy to begin because both individuals are able to communicate effectively with one another because partners share a preference for thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting.

[edit] Mirror

Mirror relations occur between types who share the same ego functions, yet place different emphases on them; the dominant function of one partner is the creative function of the other. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally.

An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing between EJ and IP, or between EP and IJ. EJs find the passive, unstable IP behavior to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while IPs find the restless and proactive actions of EJ types paranoid and stifling. Similarly, EP types find IJ types to be somewhat dull and boring, while IJ types see EP types as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.

[edit] Identity

Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will perceive similar situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value.

[edit] Cooperation

Cooperation relations occur between partners who have the same creative function but differing dominant functions. As a result, partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Partners will often approach their related fields with vastly different agendas and will generate conflict when working as a team. This relations become formal and business like as to avoid open debate and conflict.

[edit] Congenerity

Congenerity relations occur between types who share the same dominant function but possess different creative functions. Partners often see each other as interesting people and are often able to see each other's motivations, but tailor their actions towards areas where the other partner is unskilled or uninterested, as the creative function for one partner is the place of least resistance of the other.

Congenerity relationships are often similar to mirror relationships where ideas are communicated through drawn out dialog. This relationships are easy to begin because both partners share a similar type of intelligence, and are able to communicate it easily to one another.

[edit] Quasi-Identity

Relations of Quasi-Identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. One partner's ego functions are the other partner's demonstrative and observant functions. As quasi-identicals have opposite functions, they will often have similar interests (id block and ego blocks contain the same functions) and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.

Interestingly, Quasi-Identity partners often identify themselves as being very different from the partner. Outside observers often have trouble seeing the differences that the individual sees between himself and the partner.

[edit] Extinguishment

Extinguishment relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. This relations often consist of similar lifestyles but differing thought processes. Partners will have similar interests and areas of expertise, and have little trouble communicating with one another.

Still, misunderstanding and conflict arise when partners come to vastly different conclusions about specific ideas or events.

[edit] Super-ego

Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by differing values, discomfort, and mutual misunderstanding.

Partners in a super-ego relationship are often fascinated or terrified by their partners lack of similarity to themselves. Super-ego partners are constantly aware of their total opposition in values to the partner. Outside observers are often similarly aware.

[edit] Conflict

Relations of Conflict are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict. Conflictors are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictors may take for granted truths that their partners will dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict is not well understood, but prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end. Conflictors also are of opposite temperaments, a fact which both partners often find irritating. Conflictors usually are rather interesting for each other, but and rather tiresome also.

[edit] Request

Relations of request are asymmetrical relations; one type requests another. The request recipient's dual seeking function is the requester's creative function, and as a result the request recipient often takes an interest in the requester. However, the requester's dual seeking function is the request recipient's place of least resistance, and the requester finds the request recipient a highly uninteresting person. Relations of request frequently end with the departure of the requester.

[edit] Supervision

Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisee is often on the defensive since the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's point of least resistance (the function most vulnerable to criticism). The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his objective and benevolent assistance.

[edit] Groups of types

[edit] Clubs

Clubs are groups that reflect spheres of activity.[9] There are 4 clubs, each with 4 types:

  • Researchers (NT): ENTP, INTJ, INTP, ENTJ.
  • Practitioners (ST): ISTJ, ESTP, ESTJ, ISTP.
  • Socials (SF): ISFP, ESFJ, ESFP, ISFJ.
  • Humanitarians (NF): ENFJ, INFP, INFJ, ENFP.

[edit] Quadras

A quadra is a group of four types in which only identity, dual, activity, and mirror relations occur. Quadras are distinguished by offering the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the quadra is due to the fact that all types in the quadra seek to give expression to the shared set of information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and to de-emphasize the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks.[10]

The Quadras
























[edit] Temperaments

There is Viktor Gulenko's hypothesis of four temperaments in socionics.[11]

Extraverted Rational Temperament (EJ). Extraverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)

Introverted Rational Temperament (IJ). Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)

Extraverted Irrational Temperament (EP). Extraverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)

Introverted Irrational Temperament (IP). Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)

Beside Gulenko's, there are several other theories of correlation between temperaments and socionic types, although almost all socionic authors support Eysenck's view that temperaments do correlate with the E/I factor.

[edit] Other models

In addition to Model A, two other models are in wide use by socionists. Model B, created by Aleksandr Boukalov, is designed to reconcile the socionics standpoint with the so-called "Model J" (Jung's outlook) and uses sixteen functional components instead of eight. The model uses the same eight functions as Model A, but further differentiates them by attributing positive and negative polarities to each. Model B also refines Model A's strong/weak concept by attributing vectors of dimensionality to each function. This allows it to describe with precision why some functions are relied on more than others.

The four dimensions are

  • globality (also thought of as "time")
  • situation
  • cultural normatives
  • experience

Experience is the lowest dimension; globality is the highest. The importance of the dimension system lies in its clarification of the differences between strong and weak functions. Although any type may learn information specific to any function with adequate study, only the strong functions have the vectors of situation which are required to create new knowledge. The types are thus reliant on each other in their search for understanding.

[edit] Model T

In recent years, socionists have sought to identify cognitive correlates for functions. Recent advances in cognitive psychology have facilitated understanding of information processing at the cognitive level. Introversion has been correlated to high brain-blood levels; extroversion to lower levels. Viktor Talanov has proposed to identify the processing centers of the four Jungian functions -- logic, ethics, intuition, and sensing -- as a first step towards demonstrating the existence of the function types. (called simply "functions" in socionics) Currently there is a campaign underway to inform the public about Model T.

[edit] Methods of type identification

There are some general methods:

1) Analysis of behavior, interview (including special questionnaires), biography

2) Tests

3) Analysis of nonverbal behavior (mimic, gestures, plastique, etc.)

Socionists often use several methods when determining a personality type.

Separately, it's need to say about analysis of nonverbal behavior (also called image method). It's a rather popular method (popularized by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė), but rarely used as basic method, more as auxiliary. It is based on analysis of impressions from nonverbal behavior and associating them with features of types. Often the image method is used to create an initial hypothesis about a person's type, which is tested against more reliable methods.

Several socionists have linked type traits to regular facial expressions and constancies of gaze. For example, ESEs are known to have a characteristic smirk. Many (but not all) ILIs are notable for an expression conveying sadness, although it is typically unrelated to what they are actually feeling. EIEs often take on a melancholy expression when trying to explain something, even when in good spirits. Intuitive types in general tend not to follow objects with their eyes, although sensing types do. Intuitives of the Beta and and Delta quadras tend to focus on processes in their immediate view, while intuitives of Alpha and Gamma tend to have a removed, far-off look, almost as though they are staring into space. Logical types have only light emotional expressivity apparent in their facial expressions, in contrast to feeling types whose emotions are usually evident to all. Extroverts are more excitable than introverts, while introverts are calmer.

[edit] Cultural influence

Socionics originated in Vilnius and has developed extensively in the former Soviet Union in the past 30 years. In the Russian-speaking world (primarily Russia and Ukraine, but also the Baltic States, Central Asia, and Russian communities abroad) socionics has grown significantly in popularity, and is now a topic of discussion among large numbers of amateurs, as well as a group of a few hundred professionals. Clubs for socializing, theoretical discussion, exchange of experience, and other activity exist in many large cities across the former USSR. A couple of journals exist, as well as a number of organizations which periodically hold conferences in Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities.

However, in the English-speaking world the socionics community is mainly limited to the internet due to its novelty, relative obscurity, and competition with the Myers-Briggs typology. It was first introduced in English in the mid-1990s when Russian socionist Sergei Ganin created The English-speaking socionics community has resided primarily in internet forums. Socionics is barely known among psychologists outside of the former USSR, and no significant research on socionics has been published in peer reviewed, English-language scientific journals.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "SOCIONICS: Personality Types and Relationships". Retrieved on 2008-05-09. 
  2. ^ "". Retrieved on 2008-05-09. 
  3. ^ Седых Р. (1994). Информационный психоанализ. Соционика как метапсихология. НПП Менатеп-Траст. ISBN 5-900449-02-5.  (In Rissian. Title can be translated as: Sedikh R. Informational psychoanalysis. Socionics as a metapsychology) Text is available online.
  4. ^ DeLong R. Socionics as a Potential Scientific Theory
  5. ^ Jung, C.G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol.6), 1976 (1921), ISBN 0-691-01813-8 The chapter X, General description of types contains descriptions of basic psychological functions and 8 major psychological types.
  6. ^ Carroll, R. T.,The Skeptic's Dictionary: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  7. ^ Filatova E. Искусство понимать себя и окружающих. (In Russian, The Art of Understanding Oneself and Others.)
  8. ^ Аугустинавичюте Аушра Теория функций. Функционика. (In Russian) The title can be translated as Function theory. Functionics.
  9. ^ Wikisocion: Clubs
  10. ^ Wikisocion: Quadras
  11. ^ Гуленко В. (2003). Менеджмент слаженной команды. Соционика для руководителей. Астрель.  (In Russian. Title can be translated as: Gulenko V. Management of well co-ordinated team. Socionics for managers.) Text is available online

[edit] External links

[edit] Information resources

[edit] Socionic forums, blogs, communities

[edit] Dating sites

[edit] Tests

[* - manual calculation of result]

[edit] Types of famous people

[* - typology similar to socionics]

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