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State of Qatar
دولة قطر
Dawlat Qaṭar
Flag of Qatar Coat of arms of Qatar
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAs Salam al Amiri
Location of Qatar
(and largest city)
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.3°N 51.517°E / 25.3; 51.517
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Qatari
Government Absolute Monarchy
 -  Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
 -  Prime Minister Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani
 -  current ruling family came to power
December 18, 1878 
 -  Termination of special treaty with the United Kingdom
September 3, 1971 
 -  Total 11,437 km2 (164th)
4,416 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
 -  October 2008 estimate 1,541,130 [1] 
 -  2004 census 744,029[4] (159th)
 -  Density 74/km2 (121st)
192/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $95.130 billion[2] (?)
 -  Per capita $86,669[2] (1st)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $116.851billion[2] (?)
 -  Per capita $106,459[2] (3rd)
HDI (2007) 0.875 (high) (35th)
Currency Riyal (QAR)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) (not observed) (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .qa
Calling code 974

Qatar (Arabic: قطرQaṭar; IPA[ˈqɑtˁɑr],[3] local pronunciation: [qʌtˤʌɾ]),[4] officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: دولة قطر transliterated as Dawlat Qatar), is an Arab emirate in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the larger Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south; otherwise the Persian Gulf surrounds the state. An oil-rich nation, Qatar has the second highest GDP per capita in the world according to the CIA World Factbook.[5]


[edit] Etymology

Sources say the name may derive from "Qatara", believed to refer to the Qatari town of Zubara, an important trading port and town in the region in ancient times. The word "Qatara" first appeared on Ptolemy's map of the Arabian Peninsula.[citation needed]

In Standard Arabic the name is pronounced IPA[ˈqɑtˁɑr], while the local dialect pronounces it giṭar.[4] In English-language broadcast media within Qatar—for example, television commercials for Qatar Airways and advertisements concerning economic development in Qatar—the name is pronounced "KA-tar" (like "cutter"), with a distinct differentiation between the syllables from the forming of the 'p' sound.

Qatar's main families: Al Sulaiti (known as the pearl divers) Al Ansari (known as the bread makers) Al Hashmi (known as the first bedu tribe) Al Kuwari (known as the money makers of Qatar) In addition to large Almarry tribe which extends into Saudi Arabia. Al Sai (descendants of India)

[edit] History

Zubara fort

Recent discoveries on the edge of an Island in the West of Qatar indicates early human presence in pre-historic Qatar. Discovery of a 6th millennium BC site at Shagra, in the South-east of Qatar revealed the key role the sea (Gulf) played in the lives of Shagra’s inhabitants. Excavation at Al-Khore in the North-east of Qatar, Bir Zekrit and Ras Abaruk and the discovery of pottery and Flint, Flint-scraper tool, Rim of painted ceramic and vessels there indicates Qatar’s connection with the Al-Ubaid civilization which flourished in the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates during the period of 5th –4th millennium BC. There had also been barter trade system between the settlements at Qatar and the Ubaid Mesopotamia and the exchange of commodities were mainly pottery and dried fish.[6]

Islam swept the entire Arabian region in the 7th century, overturning the idol worshippers. With the spread of Islam in Qatar, Prophet Mohammad sent his first envoy Al Ala Al-Hadrami to Al-Mundhir Ibn Sawa Al-Tamimi, the ruler of Bahrain, which extended the coast from Kuwait to the south of Qatar including al-Hasa and Bahrain Islands, in the year 628, inviting him to accept Islam. Mundhir responding to the Prophet’s call announced his conversion to Islam and all the Arab inhabitants of Qatar including some Persians living in Qatar also became Muslim, heralding the beginning of the Islamic era in Qatar.

In medieval times, Qatar was more often than not independent and a participant in the great Gulf-Indian Ocean commerce. Many races and ideas were introduced into the peninsula from Africa, South and Southeast Asia, as well as the Malay archipelago. Today, the traces of these early interactions with the oceanic world of the Indian Ocean survive in the small minorities of races, peoples, languages and religions, such as the presence of Africans and Shihus.

After centuries-long domination by the Ottoman and British empires, Qatar became an independent state on September 3, 1971 (but national celebration day is December 18).

Although the peninsular land mass that makes up Qatar has sustained humans for thousands of years, for the bulk of its history the arid climate fostered only short-term settlements by nomadic tribes.

The British initially sought out Qatar and the Persian Gulf as an intermediary vantage point en route to their colonial interests in India, although the discovery of oil and other hydrocarbons in the early twentieth century would re-invigorate their interest. During the nineteenth century, the time of Britain’s formative ventures into the region, the Al Khalifa clan reigned over the Northern Qatari peninsula from the nearby island of Bahrain to the west.

Although Qatar had the legal status of a dependency, resentment festered against the Bahraini Al Khalifas along the eastern seaboard of the Qatari peninsula. In 1867, the Al Khalifas launched a successful effort to squash the Qatari rebels, sending a massive naval force to Wakrah. However, the Bahraini aggression was in violation on the 1820 Anglo-Bahraini Treaty. The diplomatic response of the British to this violation set into motion the political forces that would eventuate in the founding of the state of Qatar. In addition to censuring Bahrain for its breach of agreement, the British Protectorate (per Colonel Lewis Pelly) asked to negotiate with a representative from Qatar. The request carried with it a tacit recognition of Qatar’s status as distinct from Bahrain. The Qataris chose as their negotiator the respected entrepreneur and long-time resident of Doha, Muhammed bin Thani. His clan, the Al Thanis, had taken relatively little part in Persian Gulf politics, but the diplomatic foray ensured their participation in the movement towards independence and their hegemony as the future ruling family, a dynasty that continues to this day. The results of the negotiations left Qatar with a new-found sense of political selfhood, although it did not gain official standing as a British protectorate until 1916.

Diwan Al-Emiri

The reach of the British Empire diminished after the Second World War, especially following Indian independence in 1947. Pressure for a British withdrawal from the Arab emirates in the Persian Gulf increased during the 1950s, and the British welcomed Kuwait's declaration of independence in 1961. When Britain officially announced in 1968 that it would disengage politically (though not economically) from the Persian Gulf in three years' time, Qatar joined Bahrain and seven other Trucial States in a federation. Regional disputes, however, quickly compelled Qatar to resign and declare independence from the coalition that would evolve into the seven-emirate United Arab Emirates. On September 3, 1971, Qatar became an independent sovereign state.

In 1991, Qatar played a significant role in the Persian Gulf War, particularly during the Battle of Khafji in which Qatari tanks rolled through the streets of the town providing fire support for Saudi Arabian National Guard units which were fighting against units of the Iraqi Army. Qatar also allowed Coalition troops from Canada to use the country as an airbase to launch aircraft on CAP duty.

Since 1995, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani has ruled Qatar, seizing control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani while the latter vacationed in Switzerland. Under Emir Hamad, Qatar has experienced a notable amount of sociopolitical liberalization, including the endorsement of women's suffrage or right to vote, drafting a new constitution, and the launch of Al Jazeera, a leading English and Arabic news source which operates a website and satellite television news channel.

The International Monetary Fund states that Qatar has the highest GDP per capita in the world, followed by Luxembourg. The World Factbook ranks Qatar at second, following Luxembourg.

Qatar served as the headquarters and one of the main launching sites of the US invasion of Iraq [5] in 2003.

In March 2005, a suicide-bombing killed a British teacher at the Doha Players Theatre, shocking for a country that had not previously experienced acts of terrorism. The bombing was carried out by Omar Ahmed Abdullah Ali, an Egyptian residing in Qatar, who had suspected ties to Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.[7][8]

[edit] Government and politics

Qatar has an emirate government type. Factbook

[edit] Administrative divisions

Qatar is divided into ten municipalities (Arabic: baladiyah), also occasionally or rarely translated as governorates or provinces:

  1. Ad Dawhah
  2. Al Ghuwariyah
  3. Al Jumaliyah
  4. Al Khawr
  5. Al Wakrah
  6. Ar Rayyan
  7. Jariyan al Batnah
  8. Ash Shamal
  9. Umm Salal
  10. Mesaieed

[edit] Economy

Qatar's capital, Doha.

Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused on fishing and pearling. After the introduction of the Japanese cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's pearling industry faltered. However, the discovery of oil, beginning in the 1940s, completely transformed the state's economy. Now the country has a high standard of living, with many social services offered to its citizens and all the amenities of any modern state.

Qatar’s national income primarily derives from oil and natural gas exports. The country has oil estimated at 15 billion barrels (2.4 km³), while gas reserves in the giant north field (South Pars for Iran) which straddles the border with Iran and are almost as large as the peninsula itself are estimated to be between 800 trillion cubic feet (23,000 km3) to 80 trillion cubic feet (2,300 km3) (1 trillion cubic foot is equivalent to about 80 million barrels (13,000,000 m3) of oil). Qatar is sometimes referred to as the Saudi Arabia of natural gas. Qataris’ wealth and standard of living compare well with those of Western European states; Qatar has the highest GDP per capita in the Arab World according to the International Monetary Fund (2006)[9] and the highest GDP per capita in the world according to the CIA World Factbook.[10] With no income tax, Qatar is also one of the two least-taxed sovereign states in the world (the other is Bahrain).

Aspire Tower, built for the Asian Games, is visible across Doha. Sports City.

While oil and gas will probably remain the backbone of Qatar’s economy for some time to come, the country seeks to stimulate the private sector and develop a “knowledge economy”. In 2004, it established the Qatar Science & Technology Park to attract and serve technology-based companies and entrepreneurs, from overseas and within Qatar. Qatar also established Education City, which consists of international colleges. For the 15th Asian Games in Doha, it established Sports City, consisting of Khalifa stadium, the Aspire Sports Academy, aquatic centres, exhibition centres and many other sports related buildings and centres. Following the success of the Asian Games, Doha kicked off its official bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics in October 2007.[11] Qatar also plans to build an "entertainment city" in the future.

Qatar is aiming to become a role model for economic and social transformation in the region. Large scale investment in all social and economic sectors will also lead to the development of a strong financial market.

The Qatar Financial Centre (QFC) provides financial institutions with various world class financial services including investments, margin and no-interest loans, and capital support. These platforms are situated in an economy founded on the development of its hydrocarbons resources, specifically its exportation of petroleum. It has been created with a long term perspective to support the development of Qatar and the wider region, develop local and regional markets, and strengthen the links between the energy based economies and global financial markets.

Apart from Qatar itself, which needs to raise the capacity of its financial services to support more than $130 billion worth of projects, the QFC also provides a conduit for financial services providers to access nearly $1 trillion of investments which stretch across the GCC as a whole over the next decade.

The largest project ever in Qatar, the new town of Lusail, is under construction.

[edit] Geography

Desert landscape in Qatar
Map of Qatar

The Qatari peninsula juts 100 miles (161 km) north into the Persian Gulf from Saudi Arabia and is slightly smaller than the state of Massachusetts, USA. Much of the country consists of a low, barren plain, covered with sand. To the southeast lies the spectacular Khor al Adaid (“Inland Sea”), an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. There are mild winters and very hot, humid summers.

The highest point in Qatar is Qurayn Abu al Bawl at 103 metres (340 ft)[10] in the Jebel Dukhan to the west, a range of low limestone outcrops running north-south from Zikrit through Umm Bab to the southern border. The Jebel Dukhan area also contains Qatar’s main onshore oil deposits, while the natural gas fields lie offshore, to the northwest of the peninsula.

[edit] Religion

Islam is the predominate Religion and makes up 77.5% of the population of Qatar and all others make up the remaining 22.5%.[12]

Sunni Muslims constitute 98% percent of Muslim population. The majority of noncitizens are from South and Southeast Asian and Arab countries working on temporary employment contracts, accompanied by family members in some cases. Most noncitizens are Sunni or Shi'a Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, or Bahá'ís. Most foreign workers and their families live near the major employment centers of Doha, Al Khor, Mesaieed, and Dukhan.

The Hindu community is almost exclusively Indian, while Buddhists include South, Southeast, and East Asians. Most Bahá'ís come from Iran. Religion is not a criterion for citizenship, according to the Nationality Law. However, nearly all Qatari citizens are either Sunni or Shi'a Muslims, except for at least one Christian, a few Bahá'ís, and their respective families who were granted citizenship.

No foreign missionary groups operated openly in the country.[13]

[edit] Population

Almost all Qataris profess Islam, specifically Sunni Islam. Besides ethnic Arabs, much of the population migrated from various nations to work in the country’s oil industry. Arabic serves as the official language. However, English as well as many other languages like Hindi, Pashto, Malayalam, Punjabi, Urdu, Sindhi, Balochi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Tagalog, and Persian are widely spoken in Qatar.

Expatriates form the majority of Qatar’s residents. The petrochemical industry has attracted people from all around the world. Most of the expatriates come from South Asia and from non-oil-rich Arab states. Because a large percentage of the expatriates are male, Qatar has a heavily skewed sex ratio, with 3.46 males per female.[14]

In July 2007, the country had a growing population of approximately 907,229 people,[10] of whom approximately 350,000 were believed to be citizens.[15] Qatari citizens follow the dominant Hanbali branch of Islam practiced in neighboring Saudi Arabia, therefore it is considered the culturally closest Persian Gulf state to Saudi Arabia.

The majority of the estimated 800,000 non-citizens are individuals from South and South East Asian and Arab countries working on temporary employment contracts in most cases without their accompanying family members. Most foreign workers and their families live near the major employment centers of Doha, Al Khor, Messaeed, and Dukhan.

No foreign missionary groups operate openly in the country but in 2008 the government allowed some churches to conduct mass. In March 2008 the Roman Catholic Church “Our Lady of the Rosary” was consecrated in Doha. Despite Qatar's inherent welcoming attitude to other religions, Qatar retains a heavily Muslim population and wants it to remain so.

Year Population
1908 est. 26,000 - 27,000[16]
1939 est. 28,000[16]
late 1960s 70,000[17]
1986 369,079
1997 522,023[18]
2000 744,483
2001 769,152
2002 793,341
2003 817,052
2004 840,290
2005 863,051
2006 885,359
2007 907,229

The population of Qatar is currently about 1,650,000.[19][20][21][16]

[edit] Culture

Qatari culture (music, art, dress, and cuisine) is extremely similar to that of other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf. Arab tribes from Saudi Arabia migrate to Qatar and other places in the Persian Gulf; therefore, the culture in the Persian Gulf region varies little from country to country.

Qatar explicitly uses Sharia law as the basis of its government, and the vast majority of its citizens follow Hanbali Madhhab. Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (The other three are Hanafi, Maliki and Shafii). Sunni Muslims believe that all four schools have "correct guidance", and the differences between them lie not in the fundamentals of faith, but in finer judgments and jurisprudence, which are a result of the independent reasoning of the imams and the scholars who followed them. Because their individual methodologies of interpretation and extraction from the primary sources (rusul) were different, they came to different judgments on particular matters. Shi'as comprise around 2% of the Muslim population in Qatar.

[edit] Qatari law

When contrasted with other Arab states such as Saudi Arabia, for instance, Qatar has comparatively liberal laws, but is still not as liberal as some other Persian Gulf countries like UAE or Bahrain. Qatar is a civil law jurisdiction. However, Shari'a or Islamic law is applied to aspects of family law, inheritance and certain criminal acts. Women can legally drive in Qatar and there is a strong emphasis in equality and human rights brought by the HRA.

The country has undergone a period of liberalization and modernisation during the reign of the current Emir, Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, who came to power in 1995. Under his rule, Qatar became the first amongst Arab countries of the Persian Gulf to extend suffrage to women[22][23] as well as holding senior positions in government. Also, women can dress mostly as they please in public (although in practice local Qatari women generally don the black abaya). Before the liberalisation, it was taboo for men to wear shorts in public. The laws of Qatar tolerate alcohol to a certain extent. However, public bars and nightclubs in Qatar operate only in expensive hotels and clubs, much like in the UAE, though the number of establishments has yet to equal that of UAE. Non-Muslim expatriates resident in Qatar are eligible to receive liquor permits permitting them to purchase alcohol for personal use through Qatar Distribution Company, the exclusive importer and retailer for alcohol in Qatar. Qatar has further been liberalised due to the 15th Asian Games, but is cautious of becoming too liberal in their law. Overall Qatar has yet to reach the more western laws of UAE or Bahrain, and though plans are being made for more development, the government is cautious.

In common with other Persian Gulf countries, sponsorship laws exist in Qatar. These laws have been widely described as akin to modern-day slavery.[24] The Sponsorship system (Kafeel or Kafala) exists throughout the GCC and means that a worker (not a tourist) may not enter the country without having a kafeel, cannot leave without the kafeel's permission (an Exit Permit must first be awarded by the sponsor, or kafeel), and the sponsor has the right to ban the employee from entering Qatar within 2-5 years of his first departure. Many sponsors do not allow the transfer of one employee to another sponsor.

[edit] Education

Cornell University's Weill Medical College in Qatar

In recent years Qatar has placed great emphasis on education. Citizens are required to attend government provided education from kindergarten through to high school.[25] Qatar University was founded in 1973. More recently, with the support of the Qatar Foundation, some major American universities have opened branch campuses in Education City, Qatar. These include Carnegie Mellon University, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Texas A&M University, Virginia Commonwealth University, Cornell University’s Weill Medical College and Northwestern University. In 2004, Qatar established the Qatar Science & Technology Park at Education City to link those universities with industry. Education City is also home to a fully accredited International Baccalaureate school, Qatar Academy. Two Canadian institutions, the College of the North Atlantic and the University of Calgary, also operate campuses in Doha. And in 2007 the American Brookings Institution announced that it was opening the Brookings Doha Center to undertake research and programming on the socio-economic and geo-political issues facing the region.

Moreover, Stenden University Qatar (Former CHN University of Professional Education) has been around in Doha for 8 years. It offers four year bachelor degree programs (BBA) in International Hospitality Management, International Business & Management Studies, and Tourism Management. It is a Dutch university and its programs are fully accredited by Ministry of Education, Qatar.

In November 2002, the Emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani created the Supreme Education Council.[26] The Council directs and controls education for all ages from the pre-school level through the university level, including the “Education for a New Era”[27] reform initiative.

The Emir’s second wife, Her Highness Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser Al-Missned, has been instrumental in new education initiatives in Qatar. She chairs the Qatar Foundation, sits on the board of Qatar’s Supreme Education Council, and is a major driving force behind the importation of Western expertise into the education system, particularly at the college level.

[edit] Healthcare

Hamad Medical Corporation, the premier non-profit health care provider in Doha, Qatar. Established by Emiri decree in 1979, the Corporation manages four highly specialized hospitals: Hamad General Hospital, Rumailah Hospital, Women’s Hospital, Al-Amal Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital and the Primary Health Care Centers.

Through the years, Hamad Medical Corporation has fulfilled its mandate of providing the best quality care for all patients irrespective of nationality, and played its role in providing “Health For All” as pledged by the State of Qatar.

Since its establishment in October 1979, HMC has rapidly developed highly specialized medical facilities capable of providing state of the art diagnosis and treatment of diseases that previously could only be managed in overseas medical centers.

The Corporation implements a policy of continuous improvement of all management systems and patient care protocols. All equipments and facilities are upgraded in order to keep all hospitals constantly ready to provide high quality care.

Continued expansion of facilities for diagnosis and therapy is the focus of efforts in short term. Coupled with the new facility construction program is a sustained effort to attract and retain the best human resources to provide the diagnostic and therapeutic skills needed.

HMC, throughout the 23-year existence of Hamad General Hospital, has accumulated a wealth of vital information essential to improve therapeutic outcome and plan public education. The profile of patients has altered in 22 years and new trends, which the Corporation has to address, have emerged. A Research Center has been established.

[edit] Communications

Qatar has a modern Telecommunication system centered in Doha. Tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat. People can call to Qatar using their submarine cable, satellite or using VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol); however, Qtel has interfered with VoIP systems in the past, and Skype's website has been blocked before. Following complaints from individuals, the website has been unblocked; and Paltalk has been permanently blocked.

Qtel’s ISP branch, Internet Qatar, uses SmartFilter to block websites they deem inappropriate to Qatari interests and morality.

In Qatar, ictQATAR (Supreme Council of Information and Communication Technology) is the nation's Telecom Regulatory Authority. Under the Chairmanship of His Highness the Heir Apparent Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, ictQATAR has been invested with two authorities:

ictQATAR is the country's independent and fair telecommunications regulator and consumer advocate. As regulator, ictQATAR is mandated to protect consumers and business from unfair practices as our country transitions to a competitive telecoms market. ictQATAR is the government body that supports the take-up of innovative technologies, by ensuring people of all ages and income levels are comfortable with technology. Through technology ictQATAR aims to foster citizen's involvement in important government processes. Working with government entities, industry bodies, and commercial enterprises ictQATAR is developing and guiding initiatives in a range of sectors including e-Education, e-Business, e-Health, e-Government, Infrastructure and Information Security.

Vodafone, in partnership with Qatar Foundation, has been announced to be opening in Qatar in mid 2008.

Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة‎, al-ğazīrä, [al.dʒaˈziː.ra], meaning “The Island”) is a television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Al Jazeera initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has since expanded into a network of several specialty TV channels. Print media is going through expansion, with over 3 English dailies and Arabic titles. The magazine segment is dominated by Qatar Today, which is the country's only news, business monthly magazine. It is published by Oryx Advertising Co, which is the largest magazine publisher of the country. The group also brings out several titles like Qatar Al Youm, Qatar's only Arabic monthly business magazine, Woman Today, the only working women's magazine and GLAM, the only fashion title.

[edit] Human rights and labour

According to the US State Department’s Trafficking in Persons Report, men and women who are lured into Qatar by promises of high wages are often forced into underpaid labour. The report states that Qatari laws against forced labour are rarely enforced and that labour laws often result in the detention of victims in deportation centers pending the completion of legal proceedings. The report ranks Qatar at Tier-3, which groups countries that neither satisfy the minimum standards nor demonstrate a significant effort to come into compliance.[28][29]

The Government of Qatar maintains that it is setting the benchmark when it comes to human rights[30] and treatment of labourers.

Qatari contracting agency Barwa is constructing a residential area for labourers known as Barwa Al Baraha (also called Workers City). The project was launched after a recent scandal in Dubai's Labour 'Slave' camps. The project aims to provide a reasonable standard of living as defined by the new Human Rights Legislation.[31] The Barwa Al Baraha will cost around $1.1 billion and will be a completely integrated city in the Industrial area of Doha. Along with 4.25 square metres of living space per person, the residential project will provide parks, recreational areas, malls, and shops for labourers. Phase one of the project is set to be completed at the end of 2008 while all phases will be complete by mid 2010.[32]

[edit] Notes and references

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  1. ^ Qatar Statistics Authority[1]
  2. ^ a b c d "Qatar". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. 
  3. ^ The pronunciation of Qatar in English varies; see List of words of disputed pronunciation for details. In terms of English phonemics, the vowels sound halfway between short u /ʌ/ and broad a /ɑ/. The q and the t have no direct counterparts, but are closest to the unaspirated allophones of English k and t. However, this allophone of k cannot occur in this position in English, in this context it will sound more like English g. So the closest pronunciation, according to English phonemics, to the original Arabic might be /ˈɡʌtər/
  4. ^ a b Johnstone, T.M. "Ķaṭar." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 04 April 2008 [2]
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook ([3])
  6. ^
  7. ^ Coman, Julian (March 21, 2005). "Egyptian Suicide Bomber Blamed for Attack in Qatar". The Independent. 
  8. ^ "The Advent of Terrorism in Qatar". Forbes. March 25, 2005. 
  9. ^ International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2007, for the year 2006: Countries
  10. ^ a b c "Qatar". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2008-03-20. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  11. ^ "Doha 2016 bid brings wind of change". (Doha: Al Jazeera). 2007-10-26. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  12. ^ the World Factbook
  13. ^ CIA The World Fact Book
  14. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named
  15. ^ "Qatar". International Religious Freedom Report 2005. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor - United States Department of State. 2005-11-08. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  16. ^ a b c The population of Qatar
  17. ^ Qatar - Country overview, Location and size, Population, Industry, Mining, Manufacturing, Services, Tourism
  18. ^ CGIS Home Page - Main Section
  19. ^ Current population in Qatar, Doha
  20. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Qatar
  21. ^ Qatar's population doubles since '04 - Politics & Economics -
  22. ^ "In Bahrain, Women Run, Women Vote, Women Lose" New York Times
  23. ^ Elbagir, Nima (2007-02-08). "The role of Saudi women". Channel 4. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.  Link to the full Channel 4 video report.
  24. ^,,,,QAT,4562d8cf2,484f9a3732,0.html
  25. ^ "Qatar constitution". 
  26. ^ "About the SEC". Supreme Education Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  27. ^ "Education for a New Era". Supreme Education Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  28. ^ "Country Narratives -- Countries Q through Z". Trafficking in Persons Report. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, United States Department of State. 2007-06-12. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  29. ^ "India escapes U.S. list of worst human traffickers". (Washington: Cable News Network). 2007-06-12. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. 
  30. ^ "Qatar: National Human Rights Committee report". Qatar National Human Rights Committee. 2006-05-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. . According to the source at, the web link “ the unofficial translation by The Peninsula team of the 57-page Arabic text of the report released by the National Human Rights Committee yesterday.”
  31. ^ "Qatar: National Human Rights Committee Support Expats". The Peninsula via 2008-06-18.,2540,2540. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  32. ^ Bowman, D (2008-03-02). "Qatar to build $1.1bn labourer city". (Dubai: ITP Digital Publishing). Retrieved on 2008-03-25.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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