L. Ron Hubbard

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Lafayette Ronald Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard
Born March 13, 1911(1911-03-13)
Tilden, Nebraska,
United States
Died January 24, 1986 (aged 74)
San Luis Obispo County, California, United States
Nationality American
Occupation Speculative fiction author
Founder, Scientology
Salary Unknown
Net worth > $200,000,000 in 1982[1]
Spouse(s) Margaret "Polly" Grubb
Sara Northrup (unlawful)
Mary Sue Whipp
Children 7

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986) was an American science fiction writer who devised a self-help system called Dianetics, first published in 1950, which he developed over the next three decades into a set of doctrines and rituals he called Scientology. Hubbard's writings became the guiding texts for the Church of Scientology and a number of affiliated organizations that address such diverse topics as business administration, literacy and drug rehabilitation. [2]

Hubbard was a controversial public figure, and many details of his life are still disputed. [3] Official Scientology biographies present him as a "larger than life" figure whose career is studded with admirable accomplishments in an astonishing array of fields.[4] These accounts have been disputed by third-party researchers not connected with Scientology, who have often written sharply critical accounts of Hubbard's deeds. [5][6][7]


Early life

L. Ron Hubbard was born in 1911 in Tilden, Nebraska[8] to Ledora May Hubbard and Harry Ross Hubbard.[9] Since Harry Hubbard was involved with the Navy, the family had to move as Harry was reassigned to new posts.[8] While living on the Puget Sound in 1923, L. Ron Hubbard joined the Boy Scouts of America and became an Eagle Scout at age 13.[10] In 1930, Hubbard was reported in the Washington Evening Star as having been the youngest Eagle Scout in the United States.[11] According to the Boy Scouts of America, their documents at the time were only kept in alphabetical order with no reference to their ages and thus there was no way of telling who was the youngest.[12]

Between 1927 and 1929, Hubbard traveled twice to the Far East with his parents during his father's posting to the United States Navy base on Guam.[13] While in Guam,[14] Hubbard was befriended by Commander Joseph "Snake" Thompson (1874–1943), who had recently returned from Vienna and studies with Sigmund Freud, and was stationed as a member of the Naval Medical Corps.[14] Through the course of their friendship, the commander spent many afternoons teaching Hubbard about the human mind.[citation needed]

Church biographies published from the 1950s to the 1970s stated that with "the financial support of his wealthy grandfather" Hubbard journeyed throughout Asia, "studying with holy men" in northern China, India, and Tibet.[15] Although Hubbard said on several occasions that he visited India,[citation needed] Jon Atack disputes the possibility that this ever took place.[16] Hubbard said[citation needed] that he was made a lama priest by Old Mayo the Beijing magician.[6] Hubbard's diaries were used as evidence in the Armstrong trial; they make no mention of Old Mayo or nomad bandits and no reflection on Eastern philosophy.[7]


After studies at Swavely Preparatory School in Manassas, Virginia and graduating from Woodward School for Boys in 1930, Hubbard enrolled at The George Washington University where he majored in civil engineering.[17] There he became one of eight assistant editors of the University newspaper "The University Hatchet".[18][19] Paulette Cooper wrote that Hubbard received extremely low grades during his time there.[20] University records show that he attended for only two semesters after which he was placed on academic probation "for deficiency in scholarship" in September 1931, leaving the university without a degree and "entitled to a statement of honorable dismissal."[citation needed]

During the Second World War, Hubbard attended a four-month course in military government at the Naval Training School, located at Princeton.[21] Hubbard claimed to be a nuclear physicist.[22] One of his classes was among the country's first schools offering curriculum in molecular and atomic physics, although he failed the course.[citation needed] The Church denies that he ever made that claim,[6] despite the fact that Hubbard asserted expertise in radiation exposure on the human body in the book "All About Radiation" (co-authored by Hubbard in 1957).[citation needed]

After leaving George Washington University, Hubbard worked as a writer and aviator.[23][24] In June 1932 Hubbard headed the "Caribbean Motion Picture Expedition", a two-and-a-half-month, 5,000-mile (8,000 km) voyage aboard a chartered 200-foot (61 m), four-masted schooner called "Doris Hamlin" with over fifty fellow college students.[citation needed] Its purpose was to collect floral and reptilian specimens for the University of Michigan and to film recreations of pirate activity and haunts.[citation needed] The voyage was a disappointment, with only three of the sixteen planned ports of call visited.[citation needed] Hubbard later called it "a two-bit expedition and a financial bust".[7]

Hubbard was accepted as a member of The Explorers Club on 19 February 1940.[25] In December of that year Hubbard was licensed by the United States Department of Commerce to legally operate steam and motor vessels.[citation needed]In 1961 Hubbard carried the Explorers Club flag for his "Ocean Archaeological Expedition" and in 1966 was awarded custody of the Explorers Club flag for the "Hubbard Geological Survey Expedition".[citation needed]

On February 10, 1953 Hubbard was awarded an honorary Ph.D. by Sequoia University, California, "in recognition of his outstanding work and contributions in the fields of Dianetics and Scientology."[26] This non-accredited body was closed by the California state courts 30 years later after it was investigated by California authorities on the grounds of being a mail-order "degree mill."[27] [28]

Military career

In 1941, Hubbard entered the navy and served a public relations role.[29] Because he sometimes suffered from depression, he once checked himself into a hospital to receive psychiatric treatment.[29] He was able to skip the initial officer rank of Ensign and was commissioned a Lieutenant, Junior Grade for service in the Office of Naval Intelligence.[citation needed] He was unsuccessful there, and after some difficulty with other assignments found himself in charge of a 173-foot (53 m) submarine chaser.[30]

In May 1943, while taking the USS PC-815 on her shakedown cruise to San Diego, Hubbard attacked what he believed to be two enemy submarines, ten miles (16 km) off the coast of Oregon. The battle took two days and involved at least four other US vessels plus two blimps, summoned for reinforcements and resupply.[31] Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, Commander Northwest Sea Frontier concluded after reviewing trip data and other captains' accounts that there were no submarines in the area at the time.[31] Hubbard and Tom Moulton, one of the ship's officers, subsequently claimed that the authorities' denials of any Japanese submarine presence off the Pacific coast had been motivated by a desire to avoid panic among the U.S. population.[32]

In June 1943, Hubbard was relieved of command after anchoring PC-815 off the Coronado Islands, which is Mexican territory. There, he conducted unauthorised gunnery practice. An official complaint from Mexican authorities, coupled with his failure to return to base as ordered, led to a Board of Investigation. It was determined that Hubbard had disregarded orders, and he was given the punishment of a formal warning and was transferred to other duties. Since this was the third leadership position Hubbard had lost during his tenure, he was not given command authority on his next assignment.[33] It was later reported that Hubbard had been relieved of command twice, and was the subject of negative reports from his superiors on several occasions.[34][35] However, he also won some praise, being described as a "capable and energetic" officer, "if temperamental", an "above-average navigator", and as possessing "excellent personal and military character".[32]

Early writings and Dianetics

Hubbard's post war writing career: Cover of October, 1950 edition of Fantastic Adventures featuring Hubbard's "The Masters of Sleep".

Hubbard published stories, novellas in aviation, sports, and pulp magazines.[citation needed] Between 1933 and 1938, Hubbard wrote 138 novels, both science fiction and adventure.[3] He published his first hardcover novel in 1937, titled Buckskin Brigades.[8] He helped write a 15-part movie screenplay titled, "The Secret of Treasure Island".[8] Literature critics have cited Final Blackout, set in a war-ravaged future Europe, and Fear, a psychological horror story, as the best examples of Hubbard's pulp fiction.[36] Among his published stories were Sea Fangs, The Carnival of Death, Man-Killers of the Air, and The Squad that Never Came Back, which he wrote under numerous pseudonyms.[7] He became a well-known author in the science fiction and fantasy genres.[citation needed] He also published westerns and adventure stories.[citation needed] His agent at one time was the well known science fiction guru Forrest Ackerman.[citation needed] According to friend and colleague A.E. van Vogt, Hubbard wrote:

"... about a million words a year, straight on to the typewriter at incredible speed. My guess was that he typed at about seventy words a minute. It just poured out—I have seen typists working at that speed, but never a writer. I was in his apartment a couple of times when he said he had to finish a story and he would sit typing steadily for twenty minutes without a break and without looking up. That would have been totally impossible for me."[37]

Hubbard returned to writing fiction briefly for a few years after the war. He eventually sought to publicize Dianetics, a self-help technique. Unable to elicit interest from mainstream publishers or medical professionals,[citation needed] Hubbard turned to the science fiction editor John W. Campbell, who had for years published Hubbard's science fiction.[citation needed] Hubbard wrote the Ole Doc Methuselah series for Campbell's Astounding Science Fiction, and in 1949 published the first article on Dianetics in the magazine.[citation needed] Campbell referred to Dianetics in the preface of the article as a "scientific method" of mental therapy.[38]

In works such as "Masters of Sleep," the story features "a mad psychiatrist, Doctor Dyhard, who persists in rejecting Dianetics after all his abler colleagues have accepted it [and] believes in prefrontal lobotomies for everyone".[39][40] most of Hubbard's output thereafter was related to Dianetics or Scientology. During Hubbard's transition from science fiction to Dianetics, his story The Professor was a Thief was adapted and aired on the Dimension X radio show, whose writers included Ray Bradbury, Robert A. Heinlein and Kurt Vonnegut.[41] Hubbard did not make a major return to non-Dianetics fiction until the 1980s.

Introducing Dianetics: Cover of May, 1950 edition of Astounding Science Fiction featuring "Dianetics: a new science of the mind".

Members of the science fiction community held varying opinions about Hubbard's Dianetics work. Isaac Asimov, a professor of biochemistry, criticized Dianetics' unscientific aspects, and veteran author and literature PhD Jack Williamson described Dianetics as "a lunatic revision of Freudian psychology", likening it to a scam.[42] Campbell and novelist A. E. van Vogt, on the other hand, enthusiastically embraced Dianetics. Campbell became Hubbard's treasurer, and van Vogt—convinced his wife's health had been transformed for the better by auditing—interrupted his writing career to run the first Los Angeles Dianetics center.[21] Dr. J. A. Winter, who supported Hubbard, submitted papers outlining the principles and methodology of Dianetic therapy to the journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry, but they were rejected.[43] Although Campbell was initially supportive of Dianetics, he reversed his position in 1951.[44]

In April 1950, Hubbard and several others established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey to coordinate work related for the forthcoming publication of a book on Dianetics.[citation needed] The book, entitled Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, was published in May 1950 by Hermitage House, whose head was also on the Board of Directors of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation.[45] With Dianetics, Hubbard introduced the concept of "auditing," a two-person question-and-answer therapy that focused on painful memories, referred to as "engrams". Hubbard claimed that Dianetics could cure cure physical illnesses and increase intelligence.[46] In his introduction to Dianetics, Hubbard called his discoveries "a milestone for Man comparable to his discovery of fire and superior to his inventions of the wheel and the arch".[47]

Dianetics sold 150,000 copies within a year of publication.[48] Reviews were almost entirely hostile.[49] In September 1950, The New York Times published a cautionary statement by the American Psychological Association which stated that the claims of Dianetics were not supported by empirical evidence, recommending against the use of the techniques described therein until they had scientific evidence to support their use.[50] Consumer Reports, in an August 1951 assessment of Dianetics, called it "the basis for a new cult", noted its lack of modesty, and pointed out that it made generalizations without backing them up with evidence or facts.[51]

Branch offices of the Dianetics Foundation opened in five other US cities before the end of 1950.[citation needed] In August of that year, amid public pressure to show evidence of the book's claims, Hubbard arranged to present a Clear (the end product of Dianetics) in the Shrine Auditorium. He presented a physics student, Sonya Bianca, who failed to answer several questions testing her memory and analytical abilities.[47] Many of the Dianetics practices folded within a year of establishment and Hubbard abandoned the Foundation, denouncing a number of his former associates to the FBI as communists.[52][53]

Sam Moskowitz, a 74-year-old science fiction editor in Newark, claimed that Hubbard made comments to 23 members of the Eastern Science Fiction Association in 1948 about starting a religion to make money.[54] Lloyd Esbach recalls Hubbard making such a statement in 1948, made to a group of science fiction authors.[35] According to The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Hubbard made statements to the effect that developing a religion or psychiatric method was an effective way to make money.[55] Harlan Ellison says that Hubbard told John W. Campbell that he was going to devise a religion that would make him wealthy.[56] After spending some time with Hubbard in 1951, Del Close claimed that Hubbard frequently complained about the American Medical Association and IRS, expressing interest in starting a religion.[57]


In March 1952, Hubbard moved to Phoenix, Arizona. He claimed that he had conducted years of intensive research into the nature of human existence.[citation needed] He codified a set of ideas that promised to improve the condition of the human spirit, which he called a "Thetan."[citation needed] To describe his findings, he developed an elaborate system of neologisms which he described as Scientology, "an applied religious philosophy".[citation needed]

In December 1953, Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey.[58] He moved to Washington, D.C. in 1955 and organized the Founding Church of Scientology. His Washington, D.C. residence, the L. Ron Hubbard House, now operates as a historic house museum.[59] In 1959, Hubbard moved to England where he supervised the growing organization from an office in London.[citation needed] In 1959, he bought Saint Hill Manor near the Sussex town of East Grinstead, a Georgian manor house once owned by the Maharajah of Jaipur.[60] This became the world headquarters of Scientology.[61]

Hubbard's followers believed his techniques gave them access to their past lives, the traumas of which led to failures in the present unless they were dealt with in a process referred to as "auditing". By this time,[when?] Hubbard had introduced a biofeedback device to the auditing process, which he called a "Hubbard Electropsychometer" or "E-meter", originally invented in the 1940s by a chiropractor and Dianetics enthusiast named Volney Mathison.[citation needed] This machine is used by Scientologists in auditing to evaluate what Hubbard referred to as "mental masses" which were said to impede thetans from realizing their full potential.[citation needed] Hubbard professed that many physical diseases were psychosomatic, and that a person who had attained the enlightened state of "clear" would be relatively disease free.[citation needed] Hubbard insisted humanity was imperiled by such forces, which were the result of negative memories (or "engrams") stored in the unconscious or "reactive" mind, some carried by the immortal thetans for billions of years.[citation needed]

Church members were expected to pay fixed donation rates for courses, auditing, books and E-meters, all of which proved very lucrative for the Church, which paid emoluments directly to Hubbard and his family.[62] In a case fought by the Founding Church of Scientology of Washington, D.C. over its tax-exempt status (revoked in 1958 because of these emoluments) it was found that Hubbard had personally received over $108,000 from the Church and affiliates over a four-year period, over and above the percentage of gross income (usually 10%) he received from Church-affiliated organizations.[63] Hubbard denied such emoluments many times in writing, stating instead that he never received any money from the Church.[64]

The Church of Scientology founded its own companies to publish Hubbard's works: Bridge Publications for the US and Canadian market, and New Era Publications based in Denmark for the rest of the world.[citation needed] New volumes of his transcribed lectures continue to be produced.[citation needed] There are estimated to be 110 related volumes.[citation needed] Hubbard also wrote a number of works of fiction during the 1930s and 1980s, which are published by the Scientology-owned Galaxy Press.[citation needed] All three of these publishing companies are subordinate to Author Services Inc., another Scientology corporation.[citation needed]

Some documents written by Hubbard himself suggest he regarded Scientology as a business, not a religion. In one letter dated April 10, 1953, he says calling Scientology a religion solves "a problem of practical business," and status as a religion achieves something "more equitable...with what we've got to sell."[citation needed] In a 1962 official policy letter, he said that Scientology "is being planned on a religious organization basis throughout the world. This will not upset in any way the usual activities of any organization. It is entirely a matter for accountants and solicitors."[65]

Legal difficulties and life on the high seas

Scientology became a focus of controversy across the English-speaking world during the mid-1960s, with the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, the Australian state of Victoria[66] and the Canadian province of Ontario all holding public inquiries into Scientology's activities.[citation needed] In 1966, Hubbard moved to Rhodesia, claiming to be the reincarnation of Cecil Rhodes.[67] Following Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Hubbard offered to invest large sums in Rhodesia's economy which was then hit by UN sanctions, but was asked to leave the country.[68]

In 1967, L. Ron Hubbard resigned as executive director of the Church and appointed himself "Commodore" of a small fleet of Scientologist-crewed ships that spent the next eight years cruising the Mediterranean Sea.[citation needed] During this time, Hubbard formed the religious order known as the "Sea Organization" or "Sea Org," with titles and uniforms.[citation needed] The Sea Org subsequently became the management group within Hubbard's Scientology empire.[citation needed] He was attended by "Commodore's Messengers"; teenage girls who performed various tasks for him, such as fixing his shower, dressing him, and catching the ash from his cigarettes.[69] He had frequent screaming tantrums and instituted harsh punishments such as being confined to the ship's dirty chain-locker for days or weeks at a time, or being bound, blindfolded, and thrown overboard.[70][71] Some of these punishments were applied to children as well as to adults.[72]

A letter Hubbard wrote to his third wife, Mary Sue, when he was in Las Palmas around 1967: "I’m drinking lots of rum and popping pinks and greys..."[73] The author of an unauthorized Hubbard biography also says that "John McMasters told me that on the flagship Apollo in the late sixties he witnessed Hubbard's drug supply. 'It was the largest drug chest I had ever seen. He had everything!'".[73] This was confirmed by Gerry Armstrong through Virginia Downsborough who said in 1967 Hubbard returned to Las Palmas totally debilitated from drugs.[74] His drug use appears to pre-date the 1967 accounts.[75] Hubbard claimed in a letter to his first wife that he had once been an opium addict.[5]

In March 1969, the Greek Government branded L. Ron Hubbard and his group of 200 disciples "undesirables". The group had been living aboard the 3,300 ton Panamanian ship Apollo and had been docked in the harbor of Corfu island since August. On March 18, local authorities issued a 24-hour ultimatum to the Scientologists, but Hubbard was granted an extension due to engine problems. The expulsion order was the result of mounting pressure from American, British, and Australian diplomats to examine the activities of the Apollo occupants. Most of the occupants were American, some were British, Australian, and South African.[76]

In 1977, Scientology offices on both coasts of the United States were raided by FBI agents seeking evidence of Operation Snow White, a church-run espionage network.[citation needed] Hubbard's wife Mary Sue and a dozen other senior Scientology officials were convicted in 1979 of conspiracy against the United States federal government, while Hubbard himself was named by federal prosecutors as an "unindicted co-conspirator."[77] At this time the IRS also had evidence that he had skimmed millions of dollars from church accounts and secreted the funds to destinations overseas.[78]

In 1978, as part of a case against three French Scientologists, Hubbard was convicted of making fraudulent promises and given a four year prison sentence and a 35,000₣ fine by a French court.[79] Hubbard was not in the country at the time of the trial, and didn't retain legal assistance.[citation needed] The case was subsequently appealed by one of the other convicts in 1980, during which the court indicated that all those who had been convicted could be pardoned if they filed their own appeals against the original ruling.[citation needed] A second defendant did in 1981, and the fraud charges were canceled by judgment on November 9, 1981.[citation needed] Hubbard himself never took any action, and the fine was never enforced.[80]

Hubbard's refusal to speak with British immigration officials about this conviction is said to have later caused the British Home Office to re-affirm an earlier decision to bar him from the UK.[81] In 1989 however the then Home Office Minister of State, Tim Renton, confirmed in writing that from 1980 until the date of his death, Hubbard had been free to apply for entry to the United Kingdom under the ordinary immigration rules and that any ban had been lifted on July 16, 1980.[82][83] The accuracy of Hubbard's self-representations were challenged in court during a 1984 custody case of a Scientologist and his former wife about two of their children. The judgment of the High court of London (Family Division) quotes the opinion of Justice Latey, that Scientology is "dangerous, immoral, sinister and corrupt" and "has its real objective money and power for Mr. Hubbard."[84]

According to the 1965 Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology in the Australian state of Victoria, Hubbard falsely claimed scientific and other credentials and his sanity was "to be gravely doubted".[85] The report concluded that while Hubbard's followers are taught that they are entitled to question the beliefs, they are conditioned to believe that the teachings are correct.[86] It also notes that Hubbard's claims of finding a cure for atomic radiation is unsupported by evidence.[87] The Scientologists' response was a pamphlet entitled Kangaroo Court, describing Victoria as "the riff-raff of London's slums [...] a very primitive community, somewhat barbaric".[85]

"Fair Game" was introduced by Hubbard as a policy against people or groups that "actively seeks to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist by Suppressive Acts." He defined it as: ENEMY — SP Order. Fair game. May be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.[citation needed]

In July 1968, Hubbard revised this definition to a somewhat milder wording: ENEMY — Suppressive Person order. May not be communicated with by anyone except an Ethics Officer, Master at Arms, a Hearing Officer or a Board or Committee. May be restrained or imprisoned. May not be protected by any rules or laws of the group he sought to injure as he sought to destroy or bar fair practices for others. May not be trained or processed or admitted to any org.[88] The use of the expression "Fair Game" was canceled altogether in October 1968, with Hubbard stating that

The practice of declaring people FAIR GAME will cease. FAIR GAME may not appear on any Ethics Order. It causes bad public relations. This P/L does not cancel any policy on the treatment or handling of an SP.

L. Ron Hubbard[89]

Hubbard later explained that:

There was never any attempt or intent on my part by the writing of these policies (or any others for that fact), to authorize illegal or harassment type acts against anyone. As soon as it became apparent to me that the concept of 'Fair Game' as described above was being misinterpreted by the uninformed, to mean the granting of a license to Scientologists for acts in violation of the law and/or other standards of decency, these policies were canceled."

L. Ron Hubbard[90]

While the number of incidents involving so-called dirty tricks or unethical actions dropped in the years that followed,[91] several judges and juries have through their decisions or comments asserted that the tactics continued beyond Hubbard's order canceling use of the term Fair Game in 1968.[92]

Personal life

Hubbard claimed that when he was four years old, he became the protegé of "Old Tom," a Blackfeet Indian medicine man.[93] In 1985, Scientologists claimed that members of Blackfeet Nation, Montana, commemorated "the seventieth anniversary of [L. Ron Hubbard] becoming a blood brother of the Blackfeet Nation. Tree Manyfeathers in a ceremony re-established L. Ron Hubbard as a blood brother to the Blackfeet Tribe."[93] Blackfeet historian Hugh Dempsey has commented that the act of blood brotherhood was "never done among the Blackfeet", and Blackfeet Nation officials have disavowed attempts to "re-establish" Hubbard as a "blood brother" of the Blackfeet.[93] Former vice president of the tribe's executive committee, John Yellow Kidney denounced the credibility of a letter claiming to re-establish Hubbard as a blood brother.[93]

Publicly, Hubbard was sociable and charming.[94] Privately, he wrote entries in his notebook like "All men are your slaves," and "You can be merciless whenever your will is crossed and you have the right to be merciless."[6] After a 1940 sailing trip that ended with engine trouble on his yacht, he began a three-month stay in Ketchikan, Alaska. Hubbard worked as the host of a popular maritime radio show where he was known as a "charismatic storyteller". He once incurred a debt from First National Bank in the amount of $350 which was not repaid.[9] Hubbard was also interested in and talented at hypnosis [95][9] although biographer Russell Miller mentions several incidents—including a cruel post-hypnotic 'prank' recalled by writer A.E. van Vogt—which suggest that Hubbard sometimes used his hypnotic talents capriciously on his unsuspecting subjects.[96]

During this[when?] same period, Hubbard was financially destitute,[6] and suffered from feelings of depression as well as suicidal thoughts, according to a letter he wrote in 1947 requesting assistance from Veterans Affairs.[97]

Toward the end of my (military) service, I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected....I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.

L. Ron Hubbard[6]

Hubbard's first wife was Margaret "Polly" Grubb whom he married in 1933, and fathered two children: L. Ron, Jr. (also known as Ronald DeWolf) and Katherine May (born in 1936).[citation needed] They lived in Los Angeles, California and, during the late 1930s, in Bremerton, Washington.[citation needed] In a 1983 interview for Penthouse magazine that he later retracted,[citation needed] DeWolf said, "according to him and my mother", he was the result of a failed abortion and recalls at six years old seeing his father performing an abortion on his mother with a coat hanger. In the same interview, he said "Scientology is a power-and-money-and-intelligence-gathering game" and described his father as "only interested in money, sex, booze, and drugs."[98] Later, in a sworn affidavit, DeWolf stated that he had "weaved" stories about his father's harassment of others, that the charge he had made about drugs was false, and that the Penthouse story was an example of statements that he deeply regretted and that had caused his father and himself much pain.[citation needed]

After the war[when?], Hubbard met Jack Parsons, a researcher at Caltech and an associate of the British Intelligence occultist[99] Aleister Crowley.[100][101] By Crowley's account, Hubbard and Parsons were engaged in the practice of ritual magick in 1946, including an extended set of sex magic rituals called the Babalon Working, intended to summon a goddess or "moonchild."[102] The Church says Hubbard was working as an ONI agent on a mission to end Parsons' supposed magical activities and to "rescue" a girl Parsons was "using" for supposedly magical purposes.[citation needed] Hubbard later married the girl he said that he rescued from Parsons, Sara Northrup.[103] Crowley recorded in his notes that Hubbard made off with Parsons' money and girlfriend in an "confidence trick."[21][104]

Sara Northrup became Hubbard's second wife in August 1946.[citation needed] Hubbard left his first wife and children as soon as he left the Navy, and he divorced his first wife more than a year after he had remarried.[105] Both women allege Hubbard physically abused them.[citation needed] Later, he disowned Alexis, claiming he was not her father and that she was actually Jack Parsons' child.[106] Sara filed for divorce in late 1950, claiming that Hubbard was still legally bound to his first wife at the time of their marriage.[citation needed] She accused him in her divorce papers of kidnapping their baby daughter Alexis, as well as torturing her.[107][108]

In 1952, Hubbard married his third wife, Mary Sue Whipp, to whom he remained married until his death. Over the next six years, Hubbard fathered four more children: Diana, Quentin, Suzette, and Arthur.[citation needed] Quentin, born in 1954, was expected to one day replace his father as head of the Scientology organization.[109][110] Quentin was uninterested in his father's plans and had preferred to become a pilot. Quentin felt guilty about his homosexuality, and comitted suicide in 1976.[110] Hubbard was prone to self-aggrandizement and exaggeration,[9] and in 1938, he wrote a letter to then-wife Margaret "Polly" Grubb reading, "I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form, even if all the books are destroyed. That goal is the real goal as far as I am concerned."[6] In 1984, during the Church of Scientology's lawsuit against Gerry Armstrong, Judge Paul G. Breckenridge Jr. described Hubbard as "charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents." However, the judge ruled against the Church, and in so doing said, "The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements."[6]

Hubbard was regarded as abusive by some family members and former associates. He married his second wife, Sara Northrup, on August 10, 1946, without revealing his existing marriage and children.[6][107] This was one reason for her later divorce from Hubbard. During those legal proceedings, Northrup alleged abuse by Hubbard, and produced a letter she received from Margaret "Polly" Grubb during the proceedings recounting her treatment by him.[6] It reads, in part,

Ron is not normal… I had hoped you could straighten him out. Your charges probably sound fantastic to the average person—but I've been through it—the beatings, threats on my life, all the sadistic traits which you charge—12 years of it.[6]

Several of those trusted to be near him say Hubbard was prone to emotional fits when he became upset, using insults and obscenities. Former Scientologist Adelle Hartwell once described such an outburst: "I actually saw him take his hat off one day and stomp on it and cry like a baby."[6]

The financial windfall that came with the success of Scientology allowed Hubbard to hide this and other aspects of his personality that contrasted with the image of himself currently celebrated by Scientologists,[6] who regard Hubbard as "mankind's greatest friend".[111] The few who worked at his side saw personality flaws and quirks not reflected in the staged photographs or in Hubbard's church-produced biographies.[6]

Later life

In 1976, Hubbard moved to a Californian ranch, and returned to writing science fiction for the proceeding years.[3] He wrote an unpublished screenplay called Revolt in the Stars in 1977 which dramatizes Scientology's OT III teachings.[112] In 1982, he wrote Battlefield Earth,[3] and later wrote the ten-volume Mission Earth. During this time, Hubbard's science fiction sold well and received mixed reviews, but some press reports suggest that sales of Hubbard's books were inflated by Scientologists purchasing large quantities of books to manipulate the bestseller charts.[113][114] While claiming to be entirely divorced from the Scientology management, Hubbard continued to draw income from the Scientology enterprises; Forbes magazine estimated "at least $200 million gathered in Hubbard's name through 1982".[1]

On January 24, 1986, Hubbard died from a stroke at his ranch aged 74.[115] He left a $600 million estate.[3] Scientology attorneys arrived to claim his body, which they sought to have cremated immediately in accordance with his will.[citation needed] They were blocked by the San Luis Obispo County medical examiner, who ordered a drug toxicology test of a blood sample from Hubbard's corpse.[citation needed] The examination revealed a trace amount of the drug hydroxyzine (brand name Vistaril).[citation needed] After the blood was taken, Hubbard's remains were cremated.[citation needed]

The Church of Scientology announced Hubbard had deliberately discarded his body to conduct his research in spirit form, and was now living "on a planet a galaxy away."[116] In May 1987, David Miscavige, one of Hubbard's former personal assistants, assumed the position of Chairman of the Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation which owns the trademarked names and symbols of "Dianetics", "Scientology", and "L. Ron Hubbard".[117]

Fictionalized depictions in media

  • Hubbard turns up in a fellow pulp author's fiction as early as Anthony Boucher's 1942 murder mystery Rocket to the Morgue which features cameos by members and friends of the "Mañana Literary Society of Southern California" in which Hubbard makes a dual appearance as D. Vance Wimpole and Rene Lafayette (a pen name of Hubbard).[118]


Hubbard was awarded the 1994 Ig Nobel Prize in Literature (a mock award parodying the Nobel prize) for Dianetics.[119][120]

In 2006, Guinness World Records declared Hubbard the world's most published and most translated author, having published 1,084 fiction and non-fiction works that have been translated into 71 languages.[121][122]


  • Under the Black Ensign (1935)
  • Buckskin Brigades (1937), ISBN 0-88404-280-4
  • Slaves of Sleep (1939)
  • Ultimate Adventure, the (1939)
  • Final Blackout (1940), ISBN 0-88404-340-1
  • Indigestible Triton, the (1940)
  • The Automagic Horse (1940) published (1994)
  • Death's Deputy (1948)
  • Return to Tomorrow (1950)
  • The Masters of Sleep (1948)
  • The Kingslayer (1949)
  • Fear (1951), ISBN 0-88404-599-4
  • Typewriter in the Sky (1951), ISBN 0-88404-933-7
  • Return to Tomorrow (1954)
  • The Ultimate Adventure (1970)
  • Ole Doc Methuselah (1953), ISBN 0-88404-653-2
  • Seven Steps to the Arbiter (1975)
  • Battlefield Earth (1982), ISBN 0-312-06978-2
  • Mission Earth 1. The Invaders Plan (1985)
  • Mission Earth 2. Black Genesis (1986)
  • Mission Earth 3. The Enemy Within (1986)
  • Mission Earth 4. An Alien Affair (1986)
  • Mission Earth 5. Fortune of Fear (1986)
  • Mission Earth 6. Death Quest (1986)
  • Mission Earth 7. Voyage of Vengeance (1987)
  • Mission Earth 8. Disaster (1987)
  • Mission Earth 9. Villainy Victorious (1987)
  • Mission Earth 10. The Doomed Planet (1987)
  • Ai! Pedrito! When Intelligence Goes Wrong (1998)
  • Very Strange Trip, a (1999)

Short fiction

Scientology and Dianetics


  1. ^ a b Behar, Richard (1986-10-27). "The prophet and profits of Scientology". Forbes 400 (Forbes). "Altogether, FORBES can total up at least $200 million gathered in Hubbard's name through 1982. There may well have been much more." 
  2. ^ Bednarowski, Mary Farrell (1995). New Religions and the Theological Imagination in America (Religion in North America). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20952-8. "Scientology has its origins in a system of self-help that is spelled out in early form in Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health" 
  3. ^ a b c d e Christian D. von Dehsen (1999). Philosophers and Religious Leaders: An Encyclopedia of People Who Changed the World (Lives and Legacies Series). Phoenix, Ariz: Oryx Press. pp. 90. ISBN 1-57356-152-5. 
  4. ^ "Writer & Professional in Dozens of Fields". Church of Scientology International. 1996-2009. http://www.scientology.org/l-ron-hubbard/professional-dozens-fields/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-18. 
  5. ^ a b Corydon 1987
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (1990-06-24). "The Mind Behind The Religion". Los Angeles Times: p. A1:1. http://www.latimes.com/la-scientology062490,0,7104164,full.story. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 
  7. ^ a b c d Atack 1990
  8. ^ a b c d Streissguth 1995, p. 66
  9. ^ a b c d "L. Ron Hubbard's Alaska Adventure". Stories in the News. http://www.sitnews.us/JuneAllen/Hubbard/011905_hubbard.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. 
  10. ^ "“Automotive adventure”, Boy Scouts & Eagle Scout". L. Ron Hubbard: Chronicle Timeline Part One-(1911-1947). Church of Scientology International. 1996-2009. http://www.scientology.org/l-ron-hubbard/chronicle/pg001.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-18. 
  11. ^ "Oratory Contest Winners in six schools chosen - Victor at Woodward is Ronald Hubbard". Washington Evening Star. March 25, 1930. "Ronald Hubbard, 19 years old, at one time the youngest Eagle Scout in America, was the winner of the contest at the Woodward School for Boys [...]" 
  12. ^ Miller 1988, p. 25
  13. ^ Atack 1990, p. 53-57
  14. ^ a b The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, The Psychoanalytic Roots of Scientology by Silas L. Warner, M.D. Lightly edited by Ann-Louise S. Silver, M.D. The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Presented at the winter meeting, New York City December 12, 1993
  15. ^ Alexandra David-Neel Magic and Mystery in Tibet, Dover Publications Inc., 1971 ISBN 0-486-22682-4; French 1st ed. 1929
  16. ^ Atack 1990, p. 57
  17. ^ Miller 1988, p. 45-46
  18. ^ "The University Hatchet" of George Washington University, Vol. 28 , No. 33, May 24, 1932, lists L. Ron Hubbard as "Assistant Editor"
  19. ^ "The Hatchet"
  20. ^ The Scandal of Scientology by Paulette Cooper: Actually his grades were appallingly low.{16} Although he did do well in his engineering and English courses, the man who frequently calls himself a nuclear physicist got a D in one physics course, an E in another, and in the atomic and molecular physics courses that he most often emphasizes (to the degree of thanking his instructors for it), he received an F.{17} With those grades, along with similar ones in mathematics, it is not surprising that Hubbard was placed on probation after his first year in college and didn't return for his second -- and of course never received the degrees that he claims he has.{18}
  21. ^ a b c Miller 1988
  22. ^ Hubbard as a Nuclear Physicist BOARD OF INQUIRY INTO SCIENTOLOGY, The Anderson Report, 1963. One of the many claims made by Hubbard about himself, and oft repeated by his followers, is that he is a nuclear physicist, and his boast is that he was even one of the first nuclear physicists who, in 1932, were studying on lines which finally led to the atomic bomb.
  23. ^ The Pilot, July 1934 issue, about Hubbard
  24. ^ The Sportsman Pilot, articles of L. Ron Hubbard, Issue January 1932, Issue May 1933, Issue October 1933
  25. ^ Official Explorers Club Member list, "Deceased Members of The Explorers Club, 1904 to 23 May 2007"
  26. ^ Malko, George (October 1971) [1970]. Scientology: The Now Religion (First Delta printing ed.). New York: Dell Publishing. 
  27. ^ "Some Questionable Creationist Credentials", talkorigins.org, May 31, 2002. Retrieved January 7, 2007. Sequoia University was issued a permanent injunction in 1984 by a Los Angeles judge and ordered to "cease operation until the school could comply with state education laws." The school offered degrees in osteopathic medicine, religious studies, hydrotherapy and physical sciences
  28. ^ John B. Bear and Mariah P. Bear, Bears' Guide to Earning College Degrees Nontraditionally, p.331. Ten Speed Press, 2003.
  29. ^ a b Streissguth 1995, p. 67
  30. ^ 173' subchasers from Navsource
  31. ^ a b Miller 1988, p. 102-105
  32. ^ a b Streeter, Michael (2008). Behind Closed Doors, New Holland Publishers, ISBN 9781845379377, p. 208
  33. ^ Miller 1988, p. 106-107
  34. ^ Miller 1988, p. 98-99
  35. ^ a b Mallia, Joseph (1 Mar 1998). "Judge Found Hubbard lied about achievements". The Boston Herald. 
  36. ^ N G Christakos, "Three By Thirteen: The Karl Edward Wagner Lists" in Black Prometheus: A Critical Study of Karl Edward Wagner, ed. Benjamin Szumskyj, Gothic Press 2007
  37. ^ (Miller 1987, op.cit., p.141)
  38. ^ Pendle 2005, p. 28
  39. ^ Frenschkowski, Marco (July 1999). "L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature". Marburg Journal of Religion 4 (1). http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/frenschkowski.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. 
  40. ^ de Camp, L. Sprague. " El-Ron Of The City Of Brass". "Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers" series, Fantastic, August 1975
  41. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2004). Science Fiction Television. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 5. ISBN 0275981649. http://books.google.com/books?id=WyJf3m1G0ksC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA5,M1. 
  42. ^ Williamson, Jack (1984). Wonder's Child: My Life in Science Fiction. Bluejay Books. 
  43. ^ Wallis, Roy (1977). The Road to Total Freedom: A Sociological Analysis of Scientology. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04200-0. 
  44. ^ Clareson, Thomas D. (1992). Understanding contemporary American science fiction the formative period (1926-1970). Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 71. ISBN 0-87249-870-0. 
  45. ^ Atack 1990, p. 107—9
  46. ^ Tucker, Ruth (2004). Another Gospel : Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan. p. 302. ISBN 0-310-25937-1. 
  47. ^ a b Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads and Fallacies: in the name of science (Second ed.). Dover Publications. pp. 263—272. ISBN 0-486-20394-8. 
  48. ^ Atack 1990, p. 113
  49. ^ Kent, Stephen A. (1999). "The Creation of 'Religious' Scientology". Religious Studies and Theology 18 (2): 97-126. 
  50. ^ Freeman, Lucy (September 9, 1950). "Psychologists Act Against Dianetics". New York Times: p. 19. 
  51. ^ "Dianetics Review". Consumer Reports. August 1951. 
  52. ^ Doward, Jamie (2004-05-16). "Lure of the celebrity sect". Special reports. The Observer. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1217884,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 
  53. ^ Miller 1988, p. 170
  54. ^ Leiby, Richard (1994-12-25). "The Church's War Against Its Critics — and Truth". Washington Post: p. C1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/06/AR2005070601351_4.html. 
  55. ^ The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, ed. Brian Ash, Harmony Books, 1977
  56. ^ Harlan Ellison, Time Out, UK, No 332
  57. ^ Kim Johnson (2008). The Funniest One in the Room: The Lives and Legends of Del Close. Chicago, Ill: Chicago Review Press. p. 29. ISBN 1-55652-712-8. 
  58. ^ Atack 1990, p. 138
  59. ^ Banville, Jule (2007-09-11). "The L. Ron Hubbard House: Get There Before Travolta". Washington City Paper. http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/blogs/citydesk/2007/09/11/the-l-ron-hubbard-house-get-there-before-travolta/. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. 
  60. ^ Atack 1990, p. 145
  61. ^ Atack 1990, p. 146
  62. ^ Atack 1990, p. 142
  63. ^ Enquiry into the Practice and Effects of Scientology, Report by Sir John Foster, K.B.E., Q.C., M.P., Published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London December 1971. Cited at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Cowen/audit/fosthome.html .
  64. ^ Atack 1990, p. 204
  65. ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (September 2003). "Scientology: Religion or racket?". Marburg Journal of Religion 8 (1). http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/beit.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-07. 
  66. ^ [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Cowen/audit/andrhome.html Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology by Kevin Victor Anderson, Q.C. Published 1965 by the State of Victoria, Australia]
  67. ^ Atack 1990, p. 166
  68. ^ Atack 1990, p. 166
  69. ^ Atack 1990, p. 245
  70. ^ Atack 1990, p. 209
  71. ^ Wakefield, Margery. Understanding Scientology, Chapter 9. Reproduced at David S. Touretzky's Carnegie Mellon site.
  72. ^ Atack 1990, p. 180—1
  73. ^ a b In L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? Corydon, expanded 1992 paperback edition, page 59
  74. ^ Miller 1988, p. 266
  75. ^ Miller 1988, p. 59
  76. ^ "Scientologists told by Greece to leave". New York Times: p. 33. March 19, 1969. 
  77. ^ Robert W. Welkos; Joel Sappell (24 June 1990). "Burglaries and Lies Paved a Path to Prison". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientologysidec062490,0,7034344.story. Retrieved on 2006-05-22. 
  78. ^ The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power 1991 Page 3, Time Magazine. During the early 1970s, the IRS conducted its own auditing sessions and proved that Hubbard was skimming millions of dollars from the church, laundering the money through dummy corporations in Panama and stashing it in Swiss bank accounts.
  79. ^ Morgan, Lucy (1999-03-29). "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimes.com/News/32999/Worldandnation/Abroad__Critics_publi.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. 
  80. ^ Reuters wire service, printed in Sunday Star (Toronto), 2 March 1980, also in International Herald Tribune, 3 March 1980:"The Paris Court of Appeal has recognized the U.S.-based Church of Scientology as a religion and cleared a former leader of the movement's French branch of fraud. ... The court's president indicated that the three others, who were sentenced in their absence, might be acquitted if they appealed."
  81. ^ "Scientology leader is ordered: Stay away". Daily Mail. 1984-07-29. 
  82. ^ Home Office, Letter of Tim Renton, 24 Feb 1989: "I can indeed confirm that the ban on Scientologists entering this country ... was removed on 16 July 1980."
  83. ^ The Sunday Times, 13 July 1980 "Ministers to lift ban on Scientology," by Michael Jones and John Whale
  84. ^ Atack 1990, p. 342
  85. ^ a b Martin, George (July 28, 1968). "Master Mind". Sunday Mirror: pp. 1, 4-5. 
  86. ^ Kevin Victor Anderson (1965). Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology. State of Victoria, Australia. . Online at Operation Clambake
  87. ^ Lee, J.A.; I.R. Dowie (1966). Sectarian Healers and Hypnotherapy. Ontario Committee on the Healing Arts. pp. 87. . Online at Operation Clambake
  88. ^ HCO POLICY LETTER OF 21 JULY 1968, quoted in the Foster Report, cancels the earlier HCO POLICY LETTER OF 18 OCTOBER 1967, Issue IV
  89. ^ Hubbard, HCOPL 21 October 1968, Cancellation of Fair Game
  90. ^ Hubbard, affidavit of 22 March 1976, quoted in David V Barrett, The New Believers: A Survey of Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions, p. 464 (Octopus Publishing Group, 2003)
  91. ^ J. Gordon Melton, The Church of Scientology, Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City 2000, p. 36
  92. ^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (June 29 1990). "On the Offensive Against an Array of Suspected Foes work=The Los Angeles Times". p. 5. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990x,0,5646473.story?page=5On. "Church spokesmen maintain that Hubbard rescinded the policy three years after it was written...But various judges and juries have concluded that while the actual labeling of persons as "fair game" was abandoned, the harassment continued unabated." 
  93. ^ a b c d Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (1990-06-24). "Staking a Claim to Blood Brotherhood". The Scientology Story (Los Angeles Times): pp. A38:5. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/60090133.html?dids=60090133:60090133&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+24%2C+1990&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&edition=&startpage=38. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  94. ^ World in Action. (1968). The Shrinking World of L. Ron Hubbard [Television Interview]. North Africa: Granada Television (England).
  95. ^ D'Arc 2000, p. 131
  96. ^ Russell Miller, Barefaced Messiah (Michael Joseph, 1987) pp.139-141
  97. ^ The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power Page 2, Time Magazine. The founder of this enterprise was part storyteller, part flimflam man. Born in Nebraska in 1911, Hubbard served in the Navy during World War II and soon afterward complained to the Veterans Administration about his "suicidal inclinations" and his "seriously affected" mind.
  98. ^ "Inside The Church of Scientology: An Exclusive Interview with L. Ron Hubbard, Jr.". Penthouse. June 1983. 
  99. ^ Richard B. Spence Secret Agent 666: Aleister Crowley, British Intelligence and the Occult, Feral House, 2008 ISBN-10: 1932595333
  100. ^ Pendle 2005
  101. ^ Aleister Crowley The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: an autohagiography, Penguin, 1989 ISBN-10: 0140191895
  102. ^ Aleister Crowley Moonchild, Weiser Books, 1975 ISBN-10: 0877281475
  103. ^ Scientology: A new light on Crowley, Sunday Times, December 28, 1969
  104. ^ Atack 1990, p. 98—99
  105. ^ Atack 1990, p. 101
  106. ^ Miller 1988, p. 305–306
  107. ^ a b Lattin, Don. "Scientology Founder's Family Life Far From What He Preached", San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 2001
  108. ^ "A Ringing In The Ears". TIME Magazine. 1951-05-07. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,856774,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 
  109. ^ Atack 1990, p. 213-214
  110. ^ a b Siker, Jeffrey S. (2007). Homosexuality and religion: an encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-313-33088-3. 
  111. ^ Corydon 1987, p. 435
  112. ^ Atack 1990, p. 275
  113. ^ Welkos, Robert W.; Sappell, Joel (1990-06-28). "Costly Strategy Continues to Turn Out Bestsellers". The Scientology Story. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062890,1,737186,full.story?coll=la-news-comment&ctrack=5&cset=true. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  114. ^ McIntyre, Mike (April 15, 1990). Hubbard Hot-Author Status Called Illusion. San Diego Union, p. 1.
  115. ^ "L. Ron Hubbard, Church of Scientology founder, dies". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1986-01-28. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/archives/1986/8601020951.asp. Retrieved on 2007-12-27. 
  116. ^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (June 24, 1990). "The Mind Behind the Religion". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/la-scientology062490,0,7456884.story. Retrieved on 2009-02-11. 
  117. ^ Hammer, Olav; Lewis, James P. (2007). The invention of sacred tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-521-86479-8. 
  118. ^ Pendle 2005, p. 253
  119. ^ "Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize". Improbable Research. http://improbable.com/ig/ig-pastwinners.html#ig1994. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  120. ^ Mirsky, Steve; Mervin Stykes (1994). "The annual Ig Nobel Prizes.". Scientific American 271 (6): 22(2). ISSN 0036-8733. 
  121. ^ http://www.voxmagazine.com/stories/2006/12/07/guinness-gracious/ Guinness Gracious; Vox - Columbia Missourian; Sean Ludwig; December 7, 2006; accessed 2007-02-11
  122. ^ Maul, Kimberly (2005-11-09). "Guinness World Records: L. Ron Hubbard Is the Most Translated Author". The Book Standard. http://www.thebookstandard.com/bookstandard/news/author/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001476331. Retrieved on 2007-02-12. 


External links

Official biographical sites
Unofficial biographies (online)
Further mention of Hubbard

NAME Hubbard, L. Ron
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hubbard, Lafayette Ronald
SHORT DESCRIPTION Speculative fiction Author, Founder, Scientology
DATE OF BIRTH March 13, 1911
PLACE OF BIRTH Tilden, Nebraska
DATE OF DEATH January 24, 1986
PLACE OF DEATH San Luis Obispo County, California
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