Roller derby

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Charm City Roller Girls (Baltimore, Maryland).
ROGUE Rollergirl (Fayetteville, North Carolina) and Soul City Siren (Augusta, Georgia) jammers.

Roller derby is an American-invented contact sport—and historically, a form of sports entertainment—based on formation roller skating around an oval track. In past decades, roller derby had been primarily a professional or paid sport for both women and men. Contemporary roller derby is international,[1][2]predominantly female, typically operates on an amateur (or unpaid) circuit, and has a strong do it yourself ethic [3] which often features both athleticism[4] and a satirical punk[5] third-wave feminism [6] aesthetic.


[edit] History

The term roller derby dates at least as far back as 1922, when the Chicago Tribune used it to describe multi-day, flat-track roller skating races, similar to banked-track marathons reported on by the New York Times in 1885 (a six-day race) and 1914 (a 24-hour championship), among others.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Promoter Leo Seltzer[25] and sportswriter Damon Runyon are credited with modifying the endurance competitions of the 1930s by emphasizing the physical contact—and thus the more spectacular aspects of the sport. Seltzer trademarked the name Roller Derby, reserving it for use by his traveling troupe of professional skaters. Roller Derby took root as an icon of popular culture as matches were held in numerous cities throughout the U.S. and sometimes broadcast on radio[26] and, eventually, on television.[27]

Rival organizations such as Roller Games came and went as the sport/spectacle endured several boom-and-bust cycles throughout the second half of the 20th century. The initial business model of roller derby finally collapsed in the mid-1970s, but the sport underwent several professional, on-and-off TV revivals which were spearheaded by veteran skaters, including a continuation of Roller Games under new management, a 10-year International Roller Skating League (IRSL), and the short-lived, TV-only spectacles RollerGames and RollerJam.

[edit] Contemporary roller derby

Over 3,700 fans attend the debut bout of the 2007 Minnesota RollerGirls season.

While a small number of for-profit organizations, consisting largely of veterans from earlier revivals, continued to organize one-off matches in California into the early '00s using paid skaters, an international grassroots DIY revival occurred that was organized by young women unaffiliated with previous incarnations of the sport. The contemporary revival restored a focus on athleticism, albeit with modern-day campy accoutrements. The balance of athletics and camp –which are not necessarily mutually exclusive– varies from league to league.

Roller derby has since spread beyond its American roots, with leagues extant in Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. [2]

[edit] All-female, grassroots leagues

Windy City Rollers (Chicago, Illinois).

Nearly all contemporary roller derby leagues are all-female and self-organized, and were formed in an indie, DIY spirit by relatively new roller derby enthusiasts.[28] These leagues deploy traditional quad roller skates, and a punk aesthetic and/or ethic is often prominent. Many, if not most, are legally incorporated as limited liability companies, and a few are non-profit organizations. Most compete on flat tracks.

Each league typically features two or more local teams which compete in public matches, called bouts, for a diverse fan base.[29] Members of fledgling leagues often practice and strategize together, regardless of team affiliation, between bouts. Moreover, as the business and infrastructure of the sport matures, successful local leagues form travel teams to compete with the roller derby leagues of other cities and regions.

Most players in these leagues skate under aliases, many of which are creative examples of word play with satirical, mock-violent or sexual puns, alliteration, and allusions to pop culture. Examples include Sandra Day O'Clobber (Sandra Day O'Connor), Skid'n Nancy (Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen), Goldie Knoxx (Goldilocks and the Three Bears), and Anna Mosity (animosity).[30] Some players claim their names represent alter egos which they adopt whilst skating.[citation needed] By late 2008, however, a small number of players on at least two leagues had dropped their aliases.[31]

The names of the bouts themselves are typically as sardonic and convoluted — for example, Nightmare on Hull Street (Nightmare on Elm St.), Seasons Beatings, (Seasons Greetings), Night of the Rolling Dead (Night of the Living Dead); Spanksgiving (Thanksgiving), Grandma Got Run Over By a Rollergirl (Grandma Got Run Over by a Reindeer), Skate & Destroy Her, Cupids Quarrel, Shamrock and Roll, Pushin' Daisies, Cinco de May-hem (Cinco de Mayo), and War of the Wheels (War of the Worlds).[32]

A Denver (Colorado) Roller Doll stretches before a bout.

The camp can extend to players' uniforms as well. Costumes are often inspired by or comparable with rockabilly or burlesque fashions[33][34], and tattoos and tutus are commonly in evidence. In some roller derby leagues, showy on-track behavior, half-time entertainment and randomly selected "penalty games" emphasize the "entertainment" in sports entertainment. The extent to which such non-athletic stylizations are embraced varies from league to league, and continues to be a source of some contention.[35]

Inasmuch as roller derby is a contact sport, the risk of injury is non-trivial.[36] Injuries range from common bruises and sprains to broken bones and beyond.[37][38] As is the case with many sporting events and other large public gatherings, many modern roller derby games are required to be played with EMTs on hand.[39] Some leagues prominently display their injuries,[40][41] and safety and injuries are a perennial topic on skating blogs and other forums.[42][43][44]

[edit] WFTDA

A number of all-female leagues (77, as of March 2009) are members of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA, formed in 2004), which coordinates and sets the rules that govern inter-league competition among its members. The WFTDA member leagues create "travel" teams who play against each other in regional matches, although some leagues that are not WFTDA members have independently arranged their own travel teams and inter-league bouts.

WFTDA also publishes rankings and organizes annual championship tournaments for its members in good standing.

While not directly affiliated, many independent leagues around the world have adopted the WFTDA rules and standards either completely or as a foundation for their own rules.

[edit] Other evolutions of roller derby

Although the 2000s revival of roller derby was initially all-female, some leagues later introduced all-male teams, and co-ed games.

In May 2007, a handful of leagues formed the Old School Derby Association (OSDA), which promotes, for inter-league play among its members, a set of rules inspired by earlier, banked-track incarnations of the sport. OSDA combines aspects of both old and modern rule sets to create a fast-moving, ultra-defensive game. The organization membership is open to all; men, women, co-ed, flat track and banked track.

[edit] Mixed-gender, for-profit leagues

A handful of leagues, mostly mixed-gender, have origins in earlier incarnations of the sport and heavily promote themselves as professional due to their history, management, membership, style of play and marketing considerations. As of the mid-2000s, most of these leagues do not compete in regular seasons, but rather schedule infrequent special-event games, drawing from a relatively small pool of skaters to form the roster of two teams put together just for the event, or on one team that plays against a similar club from another league. Team names typically pay homage to memorable Roller Derby and Roller Games teams of the past.

Such leagues include Roller Game (Japan), National Roller Derby League (California), American Roller Derby League (California), American Roller Skating Derby (California), and Roller Games International (California).

[edit] Defining amateur and professional

A Bay Area Derby Girl (San Francisco, California) blocker prepares to block.

In the United States, under the provisions of the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act, the definition of an amateur athlete is up to the national governing body for each sport. The U.S. national governing body for all amateur roller skating sports is USA Roller Sports (USARS), which defines an "amateur competitive roller skater" very broadly as anyone who is a good sport when competing in USARS events and who does not misrepresent their previous competitive experience; USARS does not formally exclude anyone on the basis of occupational status or, apparently, any other criteria.[45] USARS also does not yet acknowledge roller derby by name in its bylaws; it only acknowledges "artistic, speed, and hockey", although its membership application for individuals has additional categories "noncompetitive", "recreation" and "aggressive"—roller derby was listed under the latter in 2005, and is its own category in 2006. However, USARS might accept not-for-profit (as shown by statements of funds disbursement) amateur roller derby leagues as members, at the discretion of the USARS Board of Directors.[46]

The only other governing body for roller derby in the U.S. is WFTDA, but defining amateur and professional are not within the scope of its charter; it exists primarily to facilitate competition and goodwill among its member leagues, and has no authority.

Currently, the delineation between "professional" and "amateur" levels of competition in roller derby is essentially a matter of self-identification by those leagues claiming both that they are professional and the others are amateur. However, organizations that want to bill themselves as one or the other are free to do so without consequence. Most contemporary leagues don't use such terms at all.

As of 2006, there are, however, notable differences between the organizations that heavily promote themselves as professional and those that do not. While these differences do not necessarily define what is "professional" and what is "amateur," observable trends include:

  • Professional leagues tend to favor mixed-gender teams. As of mid-2007, the majority of the current wave of other leagues are all-female.[47]
  • Professional leagues tend to have teams that represent and train in different cities, whereas other leagues tend to train within and identify with a single metropolitan area.
  • Professional leagues tend to be owned by individual promoters, investors, sponsors, and/or external corporations. In cases of "skater-owned" (owned by individuals who have a skating background) professional leagues, primary management of the league is not in the hands of the organization's members. Other leagues have a variety of business structures, ranging from for-profit LLCs under outside management to fully non-profit, all-skater-managed organizations.
  • Today's professional leagues tend to have roots in earlier Roller Derby revivals like RollerGames, and are composed partly of athletes and promoters who were active in those eras of the sport. Non-professional leagues tend to have no connection to any historical leagues, a distinction that is often deliberate.
  • Historically, skaters in professional leagues were full-time employees of the league, and received financial compensation for their service. Skaters in other leagues are generally not compensated.
  • Professional leagues tend to be vocal proponents of banked-track competition. Most other leagues tend to favor flat-track competition, although some do favor banked tracks and some use both. Different track types lead to different styles of play, which are in turn sometimes associated with professionalism or amateurism. The merits and drawbacks of flat vs. banked tracks are sources of heated debates and strong opinions throughout the sport.

Some do not consider any form of roller derby to be "professional" since the sport is not covered by major sports media outlets and because its historical promotional style has been more akin to "professional wrestling" than a sport such as professional hockey.

The relative lack of reliable, published, and Internet-accessible information about the activities of both historic and modern "professional" roller derby leagues makes it difficult to make qualitative assessments of other possible differences, such as types of training facilities, competition venues, rules and regulations, and training schedules.

[edit] Rules

The Texas Rollergirls in action. A jammer wearing a white t-shirt and a red helmet with a black star can be seen in the lower right having maneuvered through the pack.

Most current roller derby leagues use rules developed by the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA).[48] A summary of the WFTDA rules[49] follows:

Roller derby takes place on a circuit track. It is somewhat unusual among competitive sports in that offense and defense are played simultaneously. The two teams playing send five players each onto the track — three blockers (defense), one pivot (last line of defense) and one jammer (scorer). Helmet covers are used to display the players' positions: a striped cover is used for pivots, a cover with two stars is used for jammers, and no cover is used for blockers.

A Treasure Valley Rollergirl jammer (Boise, Idaho).

Pivots and blockers from both teams start the game by forming a single pack. In a pack, all players face counterclockwise. The pivots line up next to each other, followed by a layer of four blockers, followed by a layer of two blockers. The two jammers, who are not considered to be part of the pack, are positioned 20 feet behind the pack. At this point, no differentiation need be made between the two teams; as long as the pack formation is as described above, it does not matter if the team members are interspersed randomly in the pack.

The referee signals the start of jam formation by blowing a whistle. During jam formation, the entire pack moves counterclockwise, during which time players can change position. All pivots/blockers must remain in the pack (i.e., no more than 20 feet in front of or behind the largest group containing blockers from both teams ). Jammers remain stationary during jam formation. When the last person in the pack has passed where the front of the pack was initially lined up, the referee blows the whistle twice, signaling the jammers to take off, and play begins in earnest with a jam.

A jam is a 2-minute countdown period during which both teams attempt to score points. Points can only be scored by the jammers, who, moving counter-clockwise, attempt to pass the pack and lap around as many times as possible. After passing the pack the first time, jammers earn one point each time they legally pass an opposing blocker/pivot. During a jam, all pivots/blockers must remain in the pack. Pivot/blockers attempt to assist their jammer through and out of the pack while simultaneously stopping the opposing jammer from exiting the pack. If a pivot/blocker falls or otherwise becomes separated from the pack, she is out of play (i.e., cannot block or assist the jammers) until she catches up to the pack.

The first jammer to pass all pivots and blockers once the jam begins wins the status of lead jammer for the remainder of the jam. The lead jammer can decide to end the jam at any time before the 2 minutes are up. She does this by placing her hands on her hips repeatedly, which signals the referee to officially call off the jam.

After a lead jammer has been established, both jammers have the option of passing their positions to their teams' respective pivots (passing the star). This is done by removing the 2-star helmet cover and handing it to the pivot. The pivot then becomes the jammer, and the jammer becomes the pivot for the remainder of the jam. If the original jammer was the lead jammer, the position of lead jammer is not passed on; the position is forfeited for the remainder of the jam.

A Charm City All Stars blocker (Baltimore, Maryland) vs. a Rhode Island Riveter (Providence) jammer.

To impede the progress of the opposing team's jammer, players may block using body parts above the mid-thigh, excluding forearms, hands, and head. Elbows may not be used in blocking, and cannot be swung at other players or used to hook an opponent's or teammate's arm.

Each game consists of two 30-minute or three 20-minute periods. At the end of each jam, players re-form the pack and continue play.

Penalties are given to skaters who block illegally, fight or behave in an unsporting manner, or otherwise break the rules. Possible penalties include sending players to a penalty box (during which time opposing jammers can score points by passing the penalty box) and expulsion of players.

[edit] Trademarks

As of 2008, several trademarks for "Roller Derby" are registered with the USPTO.

Three were registered by Roller Derby Skate Corporation, a manufacturer of wheeled skates, based in Litchfield, Illinois:

  • An entertainment exhibition involving a contest between teams of roller skaters, first used in commerce in 1935. This USPTO trademark registration is the subject of a cancellation proceeding with the Trademark Trial and Appeals Board and the cancellation is pending.[50][51]
  • A brand name and logo for roller skates, wheels, and repair parts, first used in commerce in 1935.[52]
  • A brand name and logo for t-shirts, jackets, and trousers, first used in commerce in 1987.[53]

In July 2008, the attorney for the Gotham Girls Roller Derby filed a petition to cancel the registration of the mark "Roller Derby" for entertainment exhibitions.[51] The petition to cancel alleges that "roller derby" is merely descriptive of the services it intends to identify and therefore is not eligible for trademark protection. In addition, the petition alleges that "roller derby" is a generic term referring to the sport of competitive skating, that the registrant engaged in fraud when it filed its trademark renewal, and that Roller Derby Skate Corp abandoned the trademark because it had not used the trademark in connection with skating exhibitions for over a decade.[51]

Other USPTO-registered trademarks still in effect that contain the phrase "Roller Derby" include the following:

  • "American Roller Derby League" an organizer of sporting events, namely, roller derby competitions, first used in commerce in 1998.[54]
  • "Gotham Girls Roller Derby", first used in commerce in 2005.[55]
  • "Texas Rollergirls Rock n Roller Derby", an entertainment exhibition involving a contest between teams of roller skaters, first used in commerce in 2003.[56]

From 1950 to 1980, "Roller Derby" was a trademark registered in Canada by Leo & Jerry Seltzer's companies for printed matter, skates, merchandise, and ratings systems relating to roller skating races.[57] However, that registration was expunged in 1980 and has not been active since then.

The common noun "roller derby" is generically used to refer to the sport in all its forms.

[edit] Nonfiction literature

[edit] Documentary film and television

  • In 1949, Roller Derby Girl, a 10-minute short film produced and directed by Justin Herman was released as part of Paramount's Pacemaker series. It was nominated for, but did not win, an Academy Award in 1950.
  • In 1971, the documentary film Derby (titled Roller Derby in the United Kingdom) was released. Directed by Robert Kaylor and produced by Jerry Seltzer's own company,[58] the film follows skater Mike Snell as he becomes immersed in the world of 1970s professional Roller Derby, and provides competition footage as well as a behind-the-scenes look at the lives of several Roller Derby pros.
  • In 1986, the 57-minute documentary Roller Derby Mania was released direct to video (NTSC VHS) in North America. It features the L.A. T-Birds roller games team, and includes archival footage of the game's previous incarnations. A Region 1 DVD edition was released in 2003.
  • In 1991, the 30-minute documentary Roller Derby Wars was released direct to video (NTSC VHS) in North America. It was released on video in the UK in 1993 (PAL VHS).
  • In 2001, Demon Of The Derby, a biographical documentary about aging roller derby star Ann Calvello, was released.
  • In 2004, the 32nd episode of the sports documentary series "Woodie's World" aired on ESPN and contained a segment on a 1971 roller derby revival.
  • In 2005, the 9th episode of the sports documentary series "Timeless" aired on ESPN and spotlighted the LA Derby Dolls.
  • Jam, a film about the lives of derby skaters and promoters, premiered in 2006. The film won best documentary at the South by Southwest film festival. A Jam trailer was made available on the Film Threat web site.
  • Hell On Wheels, a documentary about the creation of the all-female roller derby league in Austin, Texas in 2001 that sparked the modern derby revival premiered in March 2007 at the South by Southwest Film Festival.
  • In 2007 and 2008, several league-specific documentaries premiered (or were scheduled to), including Talk Derby To Me[59], Blood on the Flat Track: The Rise of the Rat City Rollergirls[60], and The Dames: The Story of the Boston Roller Derby League.[61][62]
  • In 2008, ESPN SportsCenter aired and published on the Internet Roller Derby Revival, a short feature about the current roller derby revival.
  • In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation aired Roller Derby Dolls, a short documentary about the recent revival of Roller Derby in Australia.

[edit] Feature films and computer games

Roller Derby was a major influence for the futuristic Rollerball motion picture from 1975 and the 1980s computer game Rocketball.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Pidd, Helen (2007-07-27), "Look out - it's the rollergirls!", The Guardian: 16 (G2 features),, retrieved on 2008-06-18 
  2. ^ a b Roller derby leagues worldwide.
  3. ^ Wilcox, Lauren (2007-10-07), "[ /02/AR2007100201366.html Fight Club]", Washington Post: W14, /02/AR2007100201366.html, retrieved on 2008-06-18 
  4. ^ Cisar, Katjusa (2008-05-09), "Women on wheels: Roller derby grows up", The Capital Times,, retrieved on 2008-06-18 
  5. ^ Wells, Steven (2005-05-23), "Roller derby gets a good punking", The Guardian,, retrieved on 2008-06-18  (This article ran on the Web site only.)
  6. ^ Roller Derby: Uniting Younger Women, One Bout at a Time, Younger Women's Task Force, 2006-10-26,, retrieved on 2008-06-18  (This is a post on the main YWTF blog.)
  7. ^ "Roller derby on tomorrow", Chicago Daily Tribune: 20, 1922-04-24  “Roland Cloni of Akron, world’s champion roller skater, who yesterday tried out the track in the Broadway armory, where the national roller skating derby will be held this week, asserted new world’s records can be established for flat tracks. The derby will open tomorrow and run until Saturday.”
  8. ^ "Ed Krahn and Launey share roller firsts", Chicago Daily Tribune: 13, 1922-04-29 
  9. ^ "Von Hof first in ten mile roller derby", Chicago Daily Tribune: 21, 1922-12-01 
  10. ^ "Skaters whirling around big track", New York Times, 1914-12-18 
  11. ^ "Roller skating on banked track", New York Times, 1922-12-17 
  12. ^ "24-hour roller race", New York Times, 1914-12-17 
  13. ^ "A six-day roller skate race.", Chicago Daily Tribune: 10, 1885-03-02 
  14. ^ "On rollers for six days: beginning the race at the Madison-Square Garden. Thirty-six entries, including Frank Hart and several champions--cheering the start.", New York Times: 10, 1885-03-02 
  15. ^ "Victim of roller skates: death of Donovan, winner of the last tournament. Weakened by his exertions and disease--his backer says the boy's father overworked him.", New York Times: 5, 1885-04-11 
  16. ^ "Killed by roller skating: death of one of the contestants in the Madison-Square race.", New York Times: 5, 1885-03-18 
  17. ^ "Roller skating rinks: the jury in the inquest of Cohen's case protest against six-day races.", New York Times: 8, 1885-04-15 
  18. ^ "The six-day race. Refusing the entries of all except skilled roller skaters.", New York Times: 8, 1885-04-30 
  19. ^ "Roller marathon thrills and jars: 100 boys meet with adventures and tumbles in West Side Boulevard race. Dodge cars and autos. But records are smashed by contestants in red tights, overalls, etc.", Chicago Daily Tribune: 5, 1908-11-27 
  20. ^ "Skating rink men organize. Meeting is held and temporary committees are appointed--talk of roller marathon is started.", Chicago Daily Tribune: 10, 1908-11-06 
  21. ^ "Local skaters in long grind. Woodworth and Moore enter 24-hour championship race in Milwaukee.", The Washington Post: S3, 1913-03-23 
  22. ^ "Skaters whirling around big track: several spills mark early hours of 24-hour race at the Garden", New York Times: 11, 1914-12-18 
  23. ^ "Roller skating on banked track: old-time sport is revived with speed contests at the Garden", New York Times: 11, 1922-12-17 
  24. ^ "24-hour roller race: Ollie Moore will be teamed with Willie Blackburn at Garden", New York Times: S2, 1914-12-17 
  25. ^,9171,755740,00.html 1936 TIME magazine article
  26. ^ "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 16, 1939-06-05 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 14, 1939-07-01 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 12, 1940-08-24 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 9, 1940-08-26 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: C8, 1940-09-01 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 6, 1940-09-02 ; "Your Radio Today", Los Angeles Times: 17, 1940-09-05 
  27. ^ "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-06-18 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-07 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-09 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-14 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-16 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-19 ; "Television Schedule", Los Angeles Times: A5, 1949-07-21 
  28. ^ (2008-02-22). The Dames: The Story of the Boston Roller Derby League (QuickTime). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Community Television. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. Event occurs at 26:50. See also the accompanying blog post.
  29. ^ Jones, Sarah Beth (2006-05-03), "Roller derby feminism", Greensboro News & Record,, retrieved on 2008-06-22 
  30. ^ "International Rollergirls' Master Roster". 2008-06-09. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. 
  31. ^ Tracy "Justice Feelgood Marshall" Williams (2008-12-08). "Killbox retires (sort of)". Derby News Network. Retrieved on 2008-12-30.  — this source mentions one Detroit Derby Girls skater and 14 members of the Denver Roller Dolls intend to skate under their real names.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Larkin, Laura (2008-06-06), "That's just how they roll: Red Stick Roller Derby skaters are on the track and preparing to play teams from other cities", The Advocate (Baton Rouge),, retrieved on 2008-06-15  The skating attire expresses each woman’s personality in a manner somehow both burlesque and empowered at the same time. Short skirts, tight T-shirts, punk hair and knee socks are combined with a determined stance and padding tough enough to protect a football player. One mini-skirted skater takes a tumble, revealing a defiant message printed on her undies: “Kiss My Skates.”
  34. ^ Carey, Steve (2008-06-12), "Thrills and spills on four wheels score a comeback", Victoria Times Colonist,, retrieved on 2008-06-15  Skating on old-time quad skates, the typical roller girl could be described as hard-rock, tattooed, new-wave-burlesque or rockabilly.
  35. ^ Oler, Tammy (Fall 2005), "Holy Rollers: Is roller derby the new burlesque?", Bitch (30),, retrieved on 2008-06-15  Like mud wrestling, roller derby has historically been seen as a way to entertain largely male audiences with hot, dirty catfights. And with its bad-gal costumes and prospect of girl-on-girl bruising, roller derby still skates a fine line between sport and spectacle. Though modern skaters have reimagined the sport as a form of self-expression and performance (not unlike the recent feminist revival of burlesque), as well as an athletic contest, the titillation factor threatens to undermine the legitimacy of the game. And not surprisingly, recent media coverage of the sport has focused on the novelty of sexy girls in fishnets on four wheels. Spin called the sport “the best catfight on earth,” while the Tucson Citizen quoted a male fan who opined, ‘“For some spectators, the chance of getting a roller derby girl in their lap is a part of the attraction.”
  36. ^ Wilson, Tracy, How Roller Derby Works, HowStuffWorks, Inc.,, retrieved on 2008-06-22 
  37. ^ Launder, William (2006-02-28), Women's roller derby leagues are bashing their way back into style, Columbia News Service,, retrieved on 2008-06-22  "injuries range from sprained ankles and dislocated shoulders to torn eyelashes and “fishnet burn” from sliding across the floor of the rink."
  38. ^,, retrieved on 2008-06-22  (Web site calling for donations to help a roller derby player who suffered a spinal cord injury).
  39. ^ WFTDA rules require the home team to provide "at least two licensed or certified medical professionals with expertise in emergency and urgent medical care" to be present during the warm-up and game (according to WFTDA Standardized Flat Track Roller Derby Rules, Version 3.0, sec. 9.2; Version 2.x and 2006 rules sec. 9.3). OSDA rules require "a medical trainer, EMT, or doctor present or immediately available at all times," at least for banked track games (according to OSDA 2007 Banked Track Rules; the 2008 flat track rules don't have such a provision).
  40. ^ "Injury Gallery". Rat City Rollergirls. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 
  41. ^ "Pabst Bruise Gallery". Minnesota RollerGirls. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 
  42. ^ Ryder, Kari. "PCL Injuries in Roller Derby". Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 
  43. ^ Derby injuries? - SkateLog Forum
  44. ^ "Roller Derby Crutch Crew (MySpace group)". Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 
  45. ^ USARS bylaws Article III, §1.C.1. Accessed April 23, 2006.
  46. ^ USARS bylaws Article III, §1.C.5 and §3.B.1; and Article XIX. Accessed April 23, 2006.
  47. ^ Although the majority are all-female, there are several all-male amateur teams and leagues, linked in some cases to female DIY leagues: the Hell City Hooligans all-male league in New Jersey, for example, are associated with the Penn Jersey She-Devils. There is also Baltimore, Maryland's Harm City Homicide, the New York Shock Exchange, and Pioneer Valley's Dirty Dozen from Western Massachusetts.
  48. ^ Ross, John (2006-04-13), "Demolition Derby", Columbus Alive,, retrieved on 2007-01-19 
  49. ^ "Women's Flat Track Derby Association Standardized Flat Track Roller Derby Rules" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. 
  50. ^ U.S. Trademark 72,184,109
  51. ^ a b c USPTO TTAB Cancellation Proceeding
  52. ^ U.S. Trademark 71,386,128
  53. ^ U.S. Trademark 73,786,297
  54. ^ U.S. Trademark 78,937,414
  55. ^ U.S. Trademark 77,393,303
  56. ^ U.S. Trademark 78,534,613
  57. ^ Registration # UCA38059.
  58. ^ Deford 1971:110.
  59. ^ Premiere date: April 4, 2007 in Denver, Colorado, according to
  60. ^ Seattle International Film Festival premiere date: June 14, 2007, according to
  61. ^ ""The Dames" Premieres at CCTV on February 21st". Cambridge Community Television. 2008-02-19. 
  62. ^ "The Dames: The Story of the Boston Roller Derby League (QuickTime video)". 

[edit] External links

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