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Vaccinium corymbosum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Section: Cyanococcus

See text.

Blueberries are flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect. Cyanococcus. The species are native only to North America[1]. They are shrubs varying in size from 10 cm tall to 4 m tall; the smaller species are known as "lowbush blueberries" (synonymous with "wild"), and the larger species as "highbush blueberries". The leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and from 1–8 cm long and 0.5–3.5 cm broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish.

The fruit is a false berry 5–16 mm diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally indigo on ripening. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit from May through June in the Western Hemisphere; blueberry season peaks in July, which is National Blueberry Month in the United States and Germany.[2]

Beginning in 2005, blueberries have been discussed among a category of functional foods called superfruits having the favorable combination of nutrient richness, antioxidant strength, emerging research evidence for health benefits[3] and versatility for manufacturing popular consumer products.[4]


[edit] Origins

All species whose English common names include "blueberry" are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium. Several other plants of the genus Vaccinium also produce blue berries which are sometimes confused with blueberries, mainly the predominantly European bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), which in many languages has a name that means "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information.

Although blueberries are native to North America, they are now grown also in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American countries,[5] and are air-shipped as fresh produce to markets around the world.

[edit] Species

Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium:

[edit] Identification

Wild Blueberry in autumn foliage. Pilot Mtn., NC. 10-30-2008.

True wild blueberries (section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium) occur naturally only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world including western North America, Europe, and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries such as huckleberries, cranberries, bilberries and cowberries. These are sometimes colloquially called blueberries and sold as blueberry jam or other products.

The names of blue berries in languages other than English often translate as "blueberry", e.g. Scots Blaeberry and Norwegian Blåbær, although those berries may belong to another species. For example, Blåbær and French myrtilles usually refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry.

Aside from location of origin, blueberries can be distinguished from bilberries by cutting them in half. Ripe blueberries have white or greenish flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are colored purple throughout.

[edit] Cultivation

Blueberries may be cultivated, or they may be picked from semi-wild or wild bushes. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the Northern highbush blueberry. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U.S. climates are known collectively as Southern highbush blueberries.

Blueberry flowers

So-called "wild" (lowbush) blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, are prized for their intense color. The lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural blueberry barrens, where it is the dominant species covering large areas. Several First Nations communities in Ontario are involved in harvesting wild blueberries. Lowbush species are fire-tolerant and blueberry production often increases following a forest fire as the plants regenerate rapidly and benefit from removal of competing vegetation. Wild has been adopted as a marketing term for harvests of managed native stands of low-bush blueberries. The bushes are not planted or genetically manipulated, but they are pruned or burned over every two years, and pests are "managed".[6]

There are numerous highbush cultivars of blueberries, each of which have a unique and diverse flavor. The most important blueberry breeding program has been the USDA-ARS breeding program based at Beltsville, Maryland, and Chatsworth, New Jersey. This program began when Frederick Coville of the USDA-ARS collaborated with Elizabeth Coleman White of New Jersey. In the early part of the 20th Century, White offered wild pickers cash for large-fruited blueberry plants. 'Rubel', one such wild blueberry cultivar, is the origin of many of the current hybrid cultivars.

Rabbiteye Blueberry (V. virgatum, syn. V. ashei) is a southern type of blueberry produced from the Carolinas to the Gulf Coast states.

Other important species in North America include V. pallidum, the Hillside or Dryland Blueberry. It is native to the eastern U.S., and common in the Appalachians and the Piedmont of the Southeast. Sparkleberry, V. arboreum, is a common wild species on sandy soils in the southeastern U.S. Its fruits are important to wildlife, and the flowers important to beekeepers.

[edit] Growing areas

Significant production of highbush blueberries occurs in British Columbia, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, and Washington. The production of southern highbush varieties in California is rapidly increasing, as varieties originating from the University of Florida and North Carolina State University have been introduced. Southern highbush berries are now also cultivated in the Mediterranean regions of Europe, Southern Hemisphere countries and China.

[edit] United States

Maine produces 25% of all lowbush blueberries in North America, making it the largest producer in the world. Maine's 24,291 hectares (FAO figures, 60,023 acres) of blueberry were propagated from native plants that occur naturally in the understorey of its coastal forests. The Maine crop requires about 50,000 beehives for pollination, with most of the hives being trucked in from other states for that purpose. Many towns in Maine lay claim to being the blueberry capital and several festivals are centered around the blueberry. The wild blueberry is the official fruit of Maine and is often as much a symbol of Maine as the lobster. While Maine is the leader of lowbush blueberry production in the United States, Michigan is the leader in highbush production.[7]

Significant acreages of highbush blueberries are cultivated in the southern states of Florida, Georgia and North Carolina.[8]

[edit] Canada

Canadian exports of blueberries in 2007 were $323 million, the largest fruit crop produced nationally, occupying more than half of all Canadian fruit acreage.[9] Among the most productive growing regions in the world, British Columbia is the largest Canadian producer of highbush blueberries, yielding 63 million pounds (29 million kg) in 2004[10][11] and over $100 million in 2008 revenues.[9]

Quebec produces a large quantity of wild blueberries, especially in the regions of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (where a popular name for inhabitants of the regions is Bleuets, or "blueberries"), and Côte-Nord which together provide 40% of Quebec's total provincial production. Due in part to declining frequency and intensity of spring frosts, Quebec's wild blueberry production (27 million kg in 2008)[12] now rivals that of Maine, creating cross-border tensions on pricing and regional markets.[13]

Nova Scotia, the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada, recognizes the blueberry as its official provincial berry.[14] The town of Oxford is known as the Wild Blueberry Capital of Canada. New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island are other Atlantic provinces with major wild blueberry farming.[15]

Atlantic Canada contributes approximately half of the total North American annual production of 68 million kg of wild blueberries, a three-fold increase since the 1980s.[16] Gains in yield derived from improved field management, including better weed control, fertility management and irrigation methods, increased use of bees for pollination, and application of mechanical harvesters.

[edit] Europe

Highbush blueberries were first introduced to Germany and the Netherlands in the 1930s and have since been spread to Poland, Italy, Hungary and other countries of Europe (Nauman, 1993).

"Many growers in France, Austria, and Italy realized too that it pays to cultivate highbush blueberries, and that good economic gain can be obtained," according to an industry researcher. "Even in Belgium and Norway, some very promising trials with special methods of blueberry cultivation resulted in a limited commercial production which is very successful. ... Except in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain, a blueberry industry is developing in all regions where the production is possible due to the climatic and edaphic conditions ..." (Nauman, 1993).

Black Sea Region of Turkey is one of the main origins of Caucasian whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)and bog blueberry, bog whortleberry or bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum. In this area, the little known blueberries called as different names as likapa, ligarba, kaskanaka, çela, morsvi, lifos, çalı çileği, ayı üzümü, çoban üzümü and so on. This region from Artvin to Kırklareli with some special land of Bursa (including Rize, Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Samsun, Sinop, and some special land of Kastamonu, Zonguldak, İstanbul, İzmit and Adapazari) has rainy, humid growing periods and natural acidic soils which suitable for blueberries (Çelik, 2005, 2006 and 2007). Native Vaccinium species and open pollinated types can grow natively over hundred years around the Black Sea Region of Turkey. These native blueberries consumes as jelly, dried or fresh fruits for local peoples in Turkey and especially by the settlers of Black Sea Region (Çelik, 2005). The cultiveted blueberries fist introduced into Turkey by Dr. Celik in 2000.

[edit] Southern hemisphere

In the Southern hemisphere, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia now export blueberries.

Blueberries were first introduced to Australia in the 1950s, but the effort was unsuccessful. "In the early 1970s David Jones from the Victorian Department of Agriculture imported seed from the U.S. and a selection trial was started. This work was continued by Ridley Bell", who imported more American varieties. In the mid-1970s the Australian Blueberry Growers Association (ABGA) was formed. (Clayton-Greene)

By the early 1980s, the blueberry industry was started in New Zealand and is still growing. (BNZ, n.d)

South Africa exports blueberries to Europe.

The industry is even newer in Argentina: "Argentine blueberry production has increased over the last three years with planted area up to 400 percent," according to a 2005 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. But that increase comes from a tiny base of 400 hectares in 2001 (to 1,600 hectares in 2004). The industry is new in the country and farmers are still learning the business. "Argentine blueberry production has thrived in three different regions: the province of Entre Rios in Northeastern Argentina, the province of Buenos Aires, near the country’s capital city Buenos Aires, and the southern Patagonian valleys," according to the report. (Gain, 2005)

Chile is the biggest producer in South America and the largest exporter to the northern hemisphere, with an estimated surface of 6,800 hectares (as of 2007). Introduction of the first plants started in the early 1980s and production started in the late 80s in the southern part of the country. Today production ranges from Copiapó in the north to Puerto Montt in the south, which allows the country to offer blueberries from October through late March. The main production area today is the Bio Bio region. Production has evolved rapidly in the last decade, becoming the 4th most important fruit exported in value terms. Fresh market blueberries are exported mainly to North America (80%) followed by Europe (18%). Information from the Fruit Export Association,[17] Chile exported in 2007 more than 21 thousand MT of fresh blueberries and more than 1,000 MT of frozen product. Most of the production comes from the highbush type, but several rabbiteye blueberries are grown in the country as well. Information taken from the Chilean Fruit Producers Federation[18] and their Blueberry Committee, stands that there are over 800 blueberry producers with surfaces ranging from 50 to 200 hectares.

[edit] Growing seasons

A maturing Polaris blueberry (vaccinium polaris)

Blueberry production in North America typically starts in mid-May (in Florida) and ends in September, when some fruit is held over in controlled-atmosphere storage in Oregon, Washington, and Canada. (Gaskell, 2006).

Sources give different periods for the growing season in the southern hemisphere. According to the University of California Extension Service, Chile, New Zealand and Argentina begin harvesting in the winter and continue till mid-March, when Chilean blueberries are held over in controlled-atmosphere storage for about six weeks. "As a result, blueberries reach annual peak prices in mid-April."(Gaskell, 2006)

In Chile, San Jose Farms, which says (according to its Web site) that it is one of the oldest blueberry producers in the country (it started in the early 1990s), states that its harvest season starts in November and continues through March. (San Jose, n.d.)

In Argentina: "The marketing year (MY) for blueberries begins in September and ends in February," according to a U.S. Department of Agriculture report. (Gain, 2005) Blueberries grow in April & May.

[edit] Uses

Blueberries at market.

Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods such as jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods, and cereals.

To freeze freshly picked blueberries, place in a single layer on a cookie sheet in the freezer. When frozen, put in freezer containers. It is best to rinse before using, but not before freezing.

Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar, water, and fruit pectin. Premium blueberry jam, usually made from wild blueberries, is common in Maine, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia.

[edit] Nutrients and phytochemicals

Blueberries, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 60 kcal   240 kJ
Carbohydrates     14.5 g
- Dietary fiber  2.4 g  
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 0.7 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1)  0.04 mg   3%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.04 mg   3%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.42 mg   3%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.1 mg  2%
Vitamin B6  0.1 mg 8%
Vitamin C  10 mg 17%
Vitamin E  0.6 mg 4%
Calcium  6 mg 1%
Iron  0.3 mg 2%
Magnesium  6 mg 2% 
Phosphorus  12 mg 2%
Potassium  77 mg   2%
Zinc  0.2 mg 2%
manganese 0.3 mg 20%
vitamin K 19 mcg 24%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Blueberries have a diverse range of micronutrients, with notably high levels (relative to respective Dietary Reference Intakes) of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber (table).[19] One serving provides a relatively low glycemic load score of 4 out of 100 per day.

Especially in wild species, blueberries contain anthocyanins, other antioxidant pigments and various phytochemicals possibly having a role in reducing risks of some diseases,[20] including inflammation and different cancers.[21][22][23]

[edit] Potential anti-disease effects

Researchers have shown that blueberry anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, flavonols, and tannins inhibit mechanisms of cancer cell development and inflammation in vitro.[24][25][26][27] Similar to red grape, some blueberry species contain in their skins significant levels of resveratrol,[28] a phytochemical.

Although most studies below were conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries (V. corymbosum), content of polyphenol antioxidants and anthocyanins in lowbush (wild) blueberries (V. angustifolium) exceeds values found in highbush species.[29]

At a 2007 symposium on berry health benefits were reports showing consumption of blueberries (and similar berry fruits including cranberries) may alleviate the cognitive decline occurring in Alzheimer's disease and other conditions of aging.[20]

Feeding blueberries to animals lowers brain damage in experimental stroke.[30][31] Research at Rutgers[32] has also shown that blueberries may help prevent urinary tract infections.

Other animal studies found that blueberry consumption lowered cholesterol and total blood lipid levels, possibly affecting symptoms of heart disease.[33] Additional research showed that blueberry consumption in rats altered glycosaminoglycans which are vascular cell components affecting control of blood pressure.[34]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ NC State Lecture:Blueberries for local sales and Pick-your-own Operations
  2. ^ "blueberry month". North American Blueberry Council. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  3. ^ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008
  4. ^ Superfruits — superheroes of functionality - Functional Ingredients Magazine
  5. ^ Fresh blueberries, US Highbush Blueberry Council
  6. ^ Wild Blueberry Network Information Centre
  7. ^ Agricultural Marketing Resouce Center
  8. ^ US Highbush Blueberry Council
  9. ^ a b Scrivener L. Economy singing the blues, but berries are booming: Health-conscious consumers can't get enough of Canada's most valuable fruit crop, Toronto Star, Jul 28, 2008
  10. ^ British Columbia Blueberry Council
  11. ^ United States Highbush Blueberry Council
  12. ^ Quebec Wild Blueberries, 2008 harvest update.
  13. ^ Daley B. for the Boston Globe, International Herald Tribune, Climate change brings blueberries - and competition
  14. ^ Nova Scotia: Official emblems and symbols
  15. ^ Wild Blueberries, Carrots, Cranberries, Battered Vegetables
  16. ^ Yarborough DE. Factors contributing to the increase in productivity in the wild blueberry industry, Small Fruits Review, 3(1-2), July 2004, 33-43, Abstract
  17. ^ (ASOEX, 2007)
  18. ^ (FEDEFRUTA, 2007)
  19. ^ In-depth nutrition information on raw blueberries,
  20. ^ a b Scientists Zero In on Health Benefits of Berry Pigments :: News :: Natural and Nutritional Products Industry Center
  21. ^ "Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention". Fact Sheet. National Cancer Institute.
  22. ^ Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, et al (December 2006). "Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 54 (25): 9329–39. doi:10.1021/jf061750g. PMID 17147415. 
  23. ^ Neto CC (June 2007). "Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases". Mol Nutr Food Res. 51 (6): 652–64. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200600279. PMID 17533651. 
  24. ^ Srivastava A, Akoh CC, Fischer J, Krewer G (April 2007). "Effect of anthocyanin fractions from selected cultivars of Georgia-grown blueberries on apoptosis and phase II enzymes". J Agric Food Chem. 55 (8): 3180–5. doi:10.1021/jf062915o. PMID 17381106. 
  25. ^ Schmidt BM, Erdman JW, Lila MA (January 2006). "Differential effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins on androgen sensitive and insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines". Cancer Lett. 231 (2): 240–6. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.02.003. PMID 16399225. 
  26. ^ Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, Akoh CC (September 2005). "Phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis". J Agric Food Chem. 53 (18): 7320–9. doi:10.1021/jf051333o. PMID 16131149. 
  27. ^ Russell WR, Labat A, Scobbie L, Duncan SH (June 2007). "Availability of blueberry phenolics for microbial metabolism in the colon and the potential inflammatory implications". Mol Nutr Food Res. 51 (6): 726–31. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700022. PMID 17487929. 
  28. ^ Rimando AM, Kalt W, Magee JB, Dewey J, Ballington JR (July 2004). "Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries". J Agric Food Chem. 52 (15): 4713–9. doi:10.1021/jf040095e. PMID 15264904. 
  29. ^ Kalt W, Ryan DA, Duy JC, Prior RL, Ehlenfeldt MK, Vander Kloet SP (October 2001). "Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.)". J Agric Food Chem. 49 (10): 4761–7. PMID 11600018. 
  30. ^ Sweeney MI, Kalt W, MacKinnon SL, Ashby J, Gottschall-Pass KT (December 2002). "Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain damage". Nutr Neurosci. 5 (6): 427–31. PMID 12509072. 
  31. ^ Wang Y, Chang CF, Chou J, et al (May 2005). "Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage". Exp Neurol. 193 (1): 75–84. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014. PMID 15817266. 
  32. ^ Philip E. Marucci Center for Blueberry & Cranberry Research & Extension
  33. ^ Kalt W, Foote K, Fillmore SA, Lyon M, Van Lunen TA, McRae KB (July 2008). "Effect of blueberry feeding on plasma lipids in pigs". Br J Nutr. 100 (1): 70–8. doi:10.1017/S0007114507877658. PMID 18081945. 
  34. ^ Kalea AZ, Lamari FN, Theocharis AD, et al (February 2006). "Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta". J Nutr Biochem. 17 (2): 109–16. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.05.015. PMID 16111874. 

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