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The latest prototype of the device, named the XO-1
Manufacturer Quanta Computer
Type Subnotebook (Netbook[1])
Media GB flash memory
Operating system Fedora-based (Linux)
Power NiMH or LiFePO4 removable battery pack
CPU AMD Geode LX700@0.8 W + 5536
Memory 256 MB DRAM
Display dual-mode (backlit color/direct-sunlight grayscale) 19.1 cm/7.5" diagonal TFT LCD 1200×900
Input Keyboard
Camera built-in video camera (640×480; 30 FPS)
Connectivity 802.11b/g /s wireless LAN
3 USB 2.0 ports
MMC/SD card slot
Dimensions 242 mm × 228 mm × 32 mm
Weight LiFePO4 battery: 1.45 kg [3.2 pounds]; NiMH battery: 1.58 kg (3.5 pounds)

The XO-1, previously known as the $100 Laptop[2], Children's Machine[3], and 2B1[citation needed], is an inexpensive subnotebook computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world,[4] to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to "explore, experiment and express themselves" (constructionist learning).[5] The laptop is developed by the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) non-profit, 501(c)(3) organization and manufactured by Quanta Computer.

The subnotebooks are designed for sale to government-education systems which then give each primary school child their own laptop. Pricing was set to start at $188 in 2006[citation needed], with a stated goal to reach the $100 mark in 2008[citation needed]. In actual implementation, prices have remained $199 each for both the winter 2007 and winter 2008 Give One, Get One campaigns (and thus $399 per pair).[citation needed]

These rugged, low-power computers use flash memory instead of a hard drive, and come with a distribution of Linux derived from RedHat's Fedora as their pre-installed operating system, which comes stored in both a copy on the flash memory and in the on-board ROM backup.[citation needed][6] Mobile ad-hoc networking via 802.11s WiFi mesh networking protocol is used to allow many machines to share Internet access as long as at least one of them can see and connect to a router or other access point.

This computer design helped to define the emerging (2007) category of Netbooks (subnotebooks).[1][7]


[edit] History

OLPC XO-1 original design proposal

The first early prototype was unveiled by the project's founder Nicholas Negroponte and then-United Nations General Secretary Kofi Annan on November 16, 2005 at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis, Tunisia.[8] The device shown was a rough prototype using a standard development board. Negroponte estimated that the screen alone required three more months of development.[citation needed] The first working prototype was demonstrated at the project's Country Task Force Meeting on May 23, 2006.[citation needed] The production version is expected to have a larger display screen in the same size package.

Approximately 500 developer boards (Alpha-1) were distributed in mid-2006; 875 working prototypes (Beta 1) were delivered in late 2006; 2400 Beta-2 machines were distributed at the end of February 2007;[9] full-scale production started November 6, 2007.[10] Quanta Computer, the project's contract manufacturer, said in February 2007 that it had confirmed orders for one million units. Quanta indicated that it could ship five million to ten million units that year because seven nations had committed to buy the XO-1 for their schoolchildren: Argentina, Brazil, Libya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Thailand, and Uruguay.[11] Quanta plans to offer machines very similar to the XO-1 on the open market.[12]

The OLPC project originally stated that a consumer version of the XO laptop was not planned.[13] The project later established, in 2007 the laptopgiving.org website for outright donations and for a "Give 1 Get 1" offer valid (but only to the United States, its territories, and Canadian addresses) from November 12, 2007 until December 31, 2007.[14] For each computer purchased at a cost of $399, an XO is also sent to a child in a developing nation.[14]As of November 2008, OLPC has restarted the G1G1 program through Amazon.com.[15]

On May 20th, 2008, OLPC announced the next generation of XO, OLPC XO-2.[16] In late 2008, the NYC Department of Education began a project to purchase large numbers of XO computers for use by New York schoolchildren.[17]

[edit] Design

OLPC XO-1 laptop in Ebook-Mode.

The XO-1 is designed to be low-cost, small, durable, and efficient. It is shipped with a slimmed-down version of Fedora GNU/Linux and a GUI called Sugar that is intended to help young children collaborate. The XO-1 includes a video camera, a microphone, long-range Wi-Fi, and a hybrid stylus/touch pad. Human power and solar power sources are available, in addition to allowing operation far from a commercial power grid (which can also be used to power the laptop).

Mary Lou Jepsen has listed the design goals of the device as follows:[18]

  • minimal power consumption, with a design target of 2–3 W total power consumption
  • minimal production cost, with a target of US$100 per laptop for production runs of millions of units
  • a "cool" look, implying innovative styling in its physical appearance
  • e-book functionality with extremely low power consumption
  • open source and free software provided with the laptop

Various use models had been explored by OLPC with the help of Design Continuum and Fuseproject, including: laptop, e-book, theatre, simulation, tote, and tablet architectures. The current design, by Fuseproject, uses a transformer hinge to morph between laptop, e-book, and router modes.[citation needed]

[edit] Hardware

Production version (4th generation) - functional survey
XO-1 motherboard

The hardware specifications as of November 2007 are:[19]

  • CPU: 433 MHz AMD Geode LX-700 at 0.8 watts, with integrated graphics controller
  • 1200×900 7.5 inch diagonal LCD (200 dpi) that uses 0.1 to 1.0 W depending on mode. The two modes are:
    • Reflective (backlight off) monochrome mode for low-power use in sunlight. This mode provides very sharp images for high-quality text.
    • Backlit color mode, with an alternance of red,green and blue pixels. See below for details.
  • 256 MB of Dual (DDR266) 133 MHz DRAM (in 2006 the specification called for 128 MB of RAM)[20]
  • 1024 kB (1 MB) flash ROM with open-source Open Firmware
  • 1024 MB of SLC NAND flash memory (in 2006 the specifications called for 512 MB of flash memory)[21]
  • Internal SD card slot[22]
  • Wireless networking using an “Extended Range” 802.11b/g and 802.11s (mesh) Marvell 8388 wireless chip, chosen due to its ability to autonomously forward packets in the mesh even if the CPU is powered off. When connected in a mesh, it is run at a low bitrate (2 Mbit/s) to minimize power consumption. Despite the wireless chip's minimalism, it supports WPA.[23] An ARM processor is included.
  • Dual adjustable antennas for diversity reception.
  • Water-resistant membrane keyboard, customized to the locale in which it will be distributed.[24] The multiplication and division symbols are included. The keyboard is designed for the small hands of children.
  • Five-key cursor-control pad; four directional keys plus Enter
  • Four "Game Buttons" (functionally PgUp, PgDn, Home, and End)
  • Touchpad for mouse control and handwriting input
  • Built-in color camera, to the right of the display, VGA resolution (640×480)
  • Built-in stereo speakers
  • Built-in microphone
  • Audio based on the AC97 codec, with jacks for external stereo speakers and microphones, Line-out, and Mic-in
  • 3 external USB 2.0 ports.
  • Power sources:
    • DC input, ±11–18 V, maximum 15 W power draw
    • 5-cell rechargeable NiMH battery pack, 3000 mAh minimum 3050 mAh typical 80% usable, charge at 0…45°C
    • 2-cell rechargeable LiFePO4 battery pack, 2800 mAh minimum 2900 mAh typical 100% usable, charge at 0…60°C
    • 4-cell rechargeable LiFePO4 battery pack, 3100 mAh minimum 3150 mAh typical 100% usable, charge at -10…50°C
    • External manual power options include a pull-string generator designed by Potenco[25]
    • External power options include 110-240 Volt AC as well as input from an external solar panel[26]

[edit] Intentionally omitted features

In keeping with its goals of robustness and low power consumption, the design of the laptop intentionally omits all motor-driven moving parts; it has no hard drive, no optical (CD/DVD) media, no floppy drives and no fans. An ATA interface is unnecessary due to the lack of hard drive. There is also no PC card slot, although an SD slot is available, as well as USB ports.

A built-in hand-crank generator, making it self-powered equipment, was part of the original design, but Negroponte stated at a 2006 LinuxWorld talk that it was no longer integrated into the laptop itself, but that a similar device could someday be optionally available as a hand- or foot-operated generator built into a separate power unit.[21]

[edit] Power consumption

XO-1 multi-battery charger

The laptop will consume about 2 W of power during normal use, far less than the 10 W to 45 W of conventional laptops.[9] With build 656 power consumption is between 5 and 8 watts. (Measured on G1G1 laptop) Future software builds should meet the target of 2 watts.

In e-book mode, which is still under development and has not yet been released, all hardware sub-systems are intended to be powered down except the monochrome display. When the user moves to a different page the system will wake up, draw the new page on the display and then go back to sleep. Power consumption in this future "e-book mode" is estimated to be 0.3 W to 0.8 W.

[edit] Display

The first-generation OLPC laptops have a novel low-cost LCD. Later generations of the OLPC laptop are expected to use low-cost, low-power and high-resolution color displays with an appearance similar to electronic paper.

The display is the most expensive component in most laptops. In April 2005, Negroponte hired Mary Lou Jepsen—who was interviewing to join the Media Arts and Sciences faculty at the MIT Media Lab in September 2008[27]—as OLPC Chief Technology Officer. Jepsen developed a new display for the first-generation OLPC laptop, inspired by the design of small LCDs used in portable DVD players, which she estimated would cost about $35. In the OLPC XO-1, the screen is estimated to be the second most expensive component (after the CPU and chipset).[28]

Jepsen has described the removal of the filters that color the RGB subpixels as the critical design innovation in the new LCD. Instead of using subtractive color filters, the display uses a plastic diffraction grating and lenses on the rear of the LCD to illuminate each pixel.[dubious ] This grating pattern is stamped using the same technology used to make DVDs. The grating splits the light from the white backlight into a spectrum. The red, green and blue components are diffracted into the correct positions to illuminate the corresponding pixel with R, G or B. This innovation results in a much brighter display for a given amount of backlight illumination: while the color filters in a regular display typically absorb 85% of the light that hits them, this display absorbs little of that light. Most LCD screens use cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlights which are fragile, difficult or impossible to repair, require a high voltage power supply, are relatively power-hungry, and account for 50% of the screens' cost (sometimes 60%). The LED backlight in the XO-1 is easily replaceable, rugged, and inexpensive.[29][30]

The remainder of the LCD uses existing display technology and can be made using existing manufacturing equipment. Even the masks can be made using combinations of existing materials and processes.

Comparison of the XO-1 display (left) with a typical liquid crystal display (LCD). The images show 1×1 mm of each screen. A typical LCD addresses groups of 3 locations as pixels. The OLPC XO LCD addresses each location as a separate pixel.

[edit] Display resolution

When lit primarily from the rear with the white LED backlight, the display shows a color image composed of both RGB and grayscale information.[31] When lit primarily from the front by ambient light, for example from the sun, the display shows a monochromatic (aka black and white) image composed of just the grayscale information.

"Mode" change occurs by varying the backlight level. Color image display with high backlight levels is expected to be used for laptop mode, whereas the grayscale low backlight display is expected to be used more often in tablet mode for reading pages of text. The portrait, grayscale display is the so-called “curl-up-in-bed mode”[32] to enable reading of e-books for an extended time in bright light such as sunlight.

In color mode (aka lit primarily from the rear), the display does not use the common RGB pixel geometry for liquid crystal computer displays, in which each pixel contains three tall thin rectangles of the primary colors. Instead, the XO-1 display provides one color for each pixel. The colors align along diagonals that run from upper-right to lower left (see diagram on the right). To reduce the color artifacts caused by this pixel geometry, the color component of the image is blurred by the display controller as the image is sent to the screen. Despite the color blurring, the display still has high resolution for its physical size; normal displays as of February 2007 put about 588(H)×441(V) to 882(H)×662(V) pixels in this amount of physical area[citation needed] and support subpixel rendering for slightly higher perceived resolution. A Philips Research study measured the XO-1 display's perceived color resolution as effectively 984(H)×738(V).[33][34][35] A conventional liquid crystal display with the same number of green pixels (green carries most brightness or luminance information for human eyes) as the OLPC XO-1 would be 693×520.[citation needed] Unlike a standard RGB LCD, resolution of the XO-1 display varies with angle. Resolution is greatest from upper-right to lower left, and lowest from upper-left to lower-right. Images which approach or exceed this resolution will lose detail and gain color artifacts. The display gains resolution when in bright light; this comes at the expense of color (as the backlight is overpowered) and color resolution can never reach the full 200 dpi sharpness of grayscale mode because of the blur which is applied to images in color mode.

[edit] Wireless mesh networking

The active antenna

IEEE 802.11b support will be provided using a Wi-Fi “Extended Range” chip set. Jepsen has said the wireless chip set will be run at a low bit rate, 2 Mbit/s maximum rather than the usual higher speed 5.5 Mbit/s or 11 Mbit/s to minimize power consumption. The conventional IEEE 802.11b system only handles traffic within a local cloud of wireless devices in a manner similar to an Ethernet network. Each node transmits and receives its own data, but does not route packets between two nodes that cannot communicate directly. The OLPC laptop will use IEEE 802.11s to form the wireless mesh network.

Whenever the laptop is powered on it will participate in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) with each node operating in a peer-to-peer fashion with other laptops it can hear, forwarding packets across the cloud. If a computer in the cloud has access to the Internet—either directly or indirectly—then all computers in the cloud are able to share that access. The data rate across this network will not be high; however, similar networks, such as the store and forward Motoman project[36] have supported email services to 1000 schoolchildren in Cambodia, according to Negroponte. The data rate should be sufficient for asynchronous network applications (such as email) to communicate outside the cloud; interactive uses, such as web browsing, or high-bandwidth applications, such as video streaming should be possible inside the cloud. The IP assignment for the meshed network is intended to be automatically configured, so no server administrator or an administration of IP addresses is needed.

Building a MANET is still untested under the OLPC's current configuration and hardware environment. Although one goal of the laptop is that all of its software be open source, the source code for this routing protocol is currently closed source. While there are open-source alternatives such as OLSR or B.A.T.M.A.N., none of these options is yet available running at the data-link layer (Layer 2) on the Wi-Fi subsystem's co-processor; this is critical to OLPC's power efficiency scheme. Whether Marvell Technology Group, the producer of the wireless chip set and owner of the current meshing protocol software, will make the firmware open source is still an unanswered question. But this matter will become clearer once the production is in full swing.

[edit] Shell

Yves Behar is the chief designer of the present XO shell. The shell of the laptop is resistant to dirt and moisture, and is constructed with 2 mm thick plastic (50% thicker than typical laptops). It contains a pivoting, reversible display, movable rubber WiFi antennas, and a sealed rubber-membrane keyboard.

[edit] Keyboard and touchpad

Close-up of the OLPC keyboard

More than ten different keyboards have been laid out, to suit local needs to match the standard keyboard for the country in which a laptop is intended. Around half of these have been manufactured for prototype machines.[37][24] There are parts of the world which do not have a standard keyboard representing their language. As Negroponte states this is “because there's no real commercial interest in making a keyboard”.[38] One example of where the OLPC has bridged this gap is in creating an Amharic keyboard[39] for Ethiopia.

Negroponte has demanded that the keyboard not contain a caps lock key, which frees up keyboard space for new keys such as a future “view source” key.[40]

Beneath the keyboard is a large area that resembles a very wide touchpad that Jepsen referred to as the “mousepad”.[citation needed] The central third is a capacitive sensor that can be used with a finger; the full width is a resistive sensor which, while not yet operational, may someday be used with a stylus.

[edit] Software

Mock-up of the “neighborhood view” showing children collaborating on various tasks, within the mesh network. By clicking on the icon, communication by Wi-Fi is activated.

Countries are expected to add and remove software to best adapt the laptop to the local laws and educational needs. As supplied by OLPC, all of the software on the laptop will be free and open source.[40] All core software is intended to be localized to the languages of the target countries.[41] The projected software as of November 2006[42] are:

The laptop will use the Sugar graphical user interface, written in Python, on top of the X Window System and the Matchbox window manager.[44] This interface is not based on the typical desktop metaphor but presents an iconic view of programs and documents and a map-like view of nearby connected users. The current active program is displayed in full-screen mode.[9] Much of the core Sugar interface uses icons, bypassing localization issues. Sugar is also defined as having no folders present in the UI.

Steve Jobs had offered Mac OS X free of charge for use in the laptop, but according to Seymour Papert, a professor emeritus at MIT who is one of the initiative's founders, the designers want an operating system that can be tinkered with: “We declined because it’s not open source.”[46] Therefore Linux was chosen. However, after a deal with Microsoft, the laptop will now be offered with Windows XP along with an open source alternative.[47]

Activity, home, friends and neighborhood software levels

Jim Gettys, responsible for the laptops' system software, has called for a re-education of programmers, saying that many applications use too much memory or even leak memory. “There seems to be a common fallacy among programmers that using memory is good: on current hardware it is often much faster to recompute values than to have to reference memory to get a precomputed value. A full cache miss can be hundreds of cycles, and hundreds of times the power consumption of an instruction that hits in the first level cache.”[20]

On August 4, 2006, the Wikimedia Foundation announced that static copies of selected Wikipedia articles would be included on the laptops. Jimmy Wales, chair of the Wikimedia Foundation, said that “OLPC's mission goes hand in hand with our goal of distributing encyclopedic knowledge, free of charge, to every person in the world. Not everybody in the world has access to a broadband connection.”[48] Negroponte had earlier suggested he would like to see Wikipedia on the laptop. Wales feels that Wikipedia is one of the “killer apps” for this device.[49]

Don Hopkins announced that he is creating a free and open source port of the game SimCity to the OLPC with the blessing of Will Wright and Electronic Arts, and demonstrated SimCity running on the OLPC at the Game Developer's Conference in March 2007.[50] The free and open source SimCity plans were confirmed at the same conference by SJ Klein, director of content for the OLPC, who also asked game developers to create “frameworks and scripting environments—tools with which children themselves could create their own content.”[51][52]

The laptop's security architecture, known as Bitfrost, was publicly introduced in February 2007. No passwords will be required for ordinary use of the machine. Programs are assigned certain bundles of rights at install time which govern their access to resources; users can later add more rights. Optionally, the laptops can be configured to request leases from a central server and to stop functioning when these leases expire; this is designed as a theft-prevention mechanism.

The pre-8.20 software versions were criticized for bad wireless conectivity and other minor issues.[53]

[edit] Software alternatives

Xfce is a lightweight alternative GUI to Sugar. Being only 33 MB (using yum) it does not take up much of an XO's storage space - less than GNOME or KDE. According to the OLPC Wiki: "Xfce is a lightweight but powerful desktop environment that will work well on the XO"[54] It is by far the most common alternative GUI.[citation needed] Information on installation is available at: OLPC Wiki: Xfce.The XO is also now available dual boot and can run a version of MS Windows. Ubuntu Linux can run on the machine.[55]

[edit] Gallery

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b Lanxon first=Nate. "Netbooks: Credit OLPC, not just Asus - Nate Lanxon, MP3 & Digital Music Editor - Technology Blog at CNET.co.uk". reviews.cnet.co.uk. http://reviews.cnet.co.uk/natelanxon/0,139102300,49299931,00.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-17. 
  2. ^ "Give one, get one: '$100 laptop' project to sell to public". http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2007/09/24/xolaptops.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-07. 
  3. ^ Papert, Seymour (1993). The Children's Machine. BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-01830-0. 
  4. ^ "BBC NEWS - Technology - Portables to power PC industry". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7006316.stm. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  5. ^ One Laptop per Child. "Vision: Children in the developing world are inadequately educated". http://laptop.org/vision/index.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  6. ^ "OLPC's Software". The OLPC Wiki. One Laptop per Child. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Our_software#What_software_will_be_used_with_the_.24100_laptop.3F. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  7. ^ http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/columnists/johnson/johnson031.shtml
  8. ^ UN debut for $100 laptop for poor. BBC, 17 November 2005.
  9. ^ a b c d For $150, Third-World Laptop Stirs Big Debate. The New York Times, 30 November 2006.
  10. ^ Jan Melin (November 7, 2007). 100-dollarsdatorn masstillverkas. NYTeknik. Retrieved on December 24, 2007.
  11. ^ IDG News Service (December 15, 2007), One million OLPC laptop orders confirmed. Itworld.com. Retrieved on December 24, 2007.
  12. ^ "OLPC manufacturer to sell $200 laptop". Arstechnica. http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070329-olpc-xo-manufacturer-to-sell-budget-portables-in-developed-countries.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-29. 
  13. ^ "One Laptop per Child has no plans to commercialize XO Computer". Business Wire. http://digital50.com/news/items/BW/2001/07/14/20070112005706/one-laptop-per-child-has-no-plans-to-commercialize-xo-computer.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  14. ^ a b "One Laptop Per Child -- XO Giving". OLPC project. 2007-09-23. http://www.xogiving.org/. 
  15. ^ Nystedt, Dan (2008-11-17). "Amazon launches OLPC 'Give 1 Get 1' laptop drive". IDG. http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9120479&intsrc=news_ts_head. Retrieved on 2008-11-17. 
  16. ^ Talbot, David (2008-05-21). "$100 Laptop Gets Redesigned". Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/20804/?a=f. Retrieved on 2008-12-16. 
  17. ^ http://www.nysun.com/new-york/low-price-laptops-tested-at-city-schools/86861/
  18. ^ "A conversation with Mary Lou Jepsen", ACM Queue journal, November 1, 2007
  19. ^ Hardware specification. The OLPC Wiki. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  20. ^ a b "Interview: Jim Gettys (Part I)". LWN.net. June 28, 2006. http://lwn.net/Articles/188060/. 
  21. ^ a b Stephen Shankland (2006-04-04). "Negroponte: Slimmer Linux needed for $100 laptop". CNET. http://www.news.com/Negroponte-Slimmer-Linux-needed-for-100-laptop/2100-7346_3-6057456.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  22. ^ Tom Sanders and Paul Briggs (December 5, 2006), Microsoft looking to run Windows on OLPC, VNUnet. Vnunet.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  23. ^ "Bug report: WPA/WPA2 not working with Marvell Libertas". http://dev.laptop.org/ticket/584. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. 
  24. ^ a b Keyboard layouts for over a dozen languages.
  25. ^ "Potenco - Products". http://www.potenco.com/products. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  26. ^ "One Laptop Per Child". http://laptop.org/en/laptop/hardware/index.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-11-18. 
  27. ^ "Mary Lou Jepsen Bio". Mary Lou Jepsen, Ph.D.. December 3, 2007. http://www.joeinc.tv/bio/bio.htm. 
  28. ^ ""Companies make 5-10% profit from not for profit initiative"". http://texyt.com/OLPC+profit+$100+laptop+manufacturing+notebook+developing+world+negroponte. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. 
  29. ^ Negroponte, Nicholas (March 2008). "One laptop per child" (Lecture). http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2008/2192536.htm. Retrieved on 1/4 2008. 
  30. ^ "One Laptop Per Child - a Preview of the Hundred Dollar Laptop". Worldchanging. November 3, 2005. http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/003707.html. 
  31. ^ Mary Lou Jepsen. "Our screen, described by its parts". http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Display#Our_screen.2C_described_by_its_parts. Retrieved on 2008-06-16. 
  32. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (2005-11-16). "MIT Is Crafting Cheap -- But Invaluable -- Laptops". Washington Post. p. A03. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/15/AR2005111501546.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  33. ^ http://pixelqi.com/blog1/2008/05/27/higher-resolution-than-we-thought-the-xo-laptop-screen/
  34. ^ Klompenhouwer, Michiel (2008-05-27). "Comparing the Effective Resolution of Various RGB Subpixel Layouts"., Los Angeles, California: Society for Information Display Annual Meeting. SID08. Retrieved on 2008-06-16. 
  35. ^ Margaret Livingstone; David Hubel (2002). Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 208. ISBN 0810904063. http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/47745847. 
  36. ^ "Technology; E-Mail on Wheels - New York Times". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E1D91738F935A15752C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  37. ^ OLPC Keyboard layouts, OLPC Wiki
  38. ^ ABC. (2008, March 22). The Science Show: One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from [1]
  39. ^ OLPC (2008, April 21). OLPC Amharic Keyboard. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from OLPC:OLPC Amharic Keyboard
  40. ^ a b Don Marti (October 27, 2006),Doing it for the kids, man: Children's laptop inspires open source projects, LinuxWorld.com. Retrieved on December 25, 2007.
  41. ^ Localization. The OLPC Wiki. One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved on December 25, 2007.
  42. ^ Software components. The OLPC Wiki. One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved on December 25, 2007.
  43. ^ "Interview with Jim Gettys, part II". LWN.net. July 6, 2006. http://lwn.net/Articles/189544/. 
  44. ^ a b OLPC - Hardware and Software, Michael Gartenberg, Jupiter Research, 27 April 2007
  45. ^ Turtle Art is a visual programming language that, like Logo, manipulates an on-screen turtle.
  46. ^ "The $100 Laptop Moves Closer to Reality". Wall Street Journal. November 14, 2005. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB113193305149696140-442o71jo_IlBrLpyUeeOdsqDs7E_20061113.html. 
  47. ^ "'$100 laptop' platform moves on". BBC News. May 16, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7405346.stm. 
  48. ^ Wikimedia Foundation (4 April 2006). One Laptop Per Child Includes Wikipedia on $100 Laptops; Subset of online encyclopedia to be available in static version to children and teachers in developing world. Press release. http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/One_Laptop_Per_Child_Includes_Wikipedia_on_$100_Laptops. 
  49. ^ "User talk:Jimbo Wales". Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/archivedecember14&oldid=31599168#.24100_computer. 
  50. ^ "SimCity for OLPC". Slashdot.org. 2007-03-08. http://games.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=225694&threshold=1&commentsort=0&mode=thread&cid=18278238. 
  51. ^ GDC: SJ Klein Asks For Serious OLPC Content, Gamasutra Industry News, 6 March 2007
  52. ^ Electronic Arts. "EA Donates Original City-Building Game, SIMCITY, To One Laptop Per Child Initiative". http://www.ea.com/article.jsp?id=olpc118. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  53. ^ http://www.olpcnews.com/software/sugar/criticism_and_rebuttal_on_suga.html
  54. ^ OLPC:OLPC Wiki
  55. ^ http://www.olpcnews.com/software/operating_system/ubuntu_810_intrepid_optimized.html

[edit] References

[edit] External links

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