Rush Limbaugh

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Rush Limbaugh

Rush Limbaugh addressing the 2009 Conservative Political Action Committee.
Born January 12, 1951 (1951-01-12) (age 58)
Cape Girardeau, Missouri
Occupation Radio host, political commentator, author, and television personality
Spouse(s) Roxy Maxine McNeely (1977–1980, div.)
Michelle Sixta (1983–1990, div.)
Marta Fitzgerald (1994–2004, div.)

Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio host and conservative political commentator. His nationally syndicated talk show, The Rush Limbaugh Show, airs throughout the United States on Premiere Radio Networks.

Limbaugh has been credited with reviving AM radio in the United States,[1] and was inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame in 1993. The National Review magazine, in a 1993 cover story, called him "The Leader of the Opposition" during the Clinton administration[2]. He is a bestselling author, with two titles on the New York Times Best Seller list in the 1990s.


Early life

Limbaugh was born in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, the son of Mildred Carolyn "Millie" (née Armstrong), originally from Searcy, Arkansas, and Rush Hudson Limbaugh, Jr. His father was a lawyer and a World War II fighter pilot who served in the China-Burma-India theater. The name "Rush" was chosen for his grandfather to honor the maiden name of family member Edna Rush.[3] His family is filled with a number of lawyers including his grandfather, father and his brother David. His uncle, Stephen N. Limbaugh, Sr. is a Ronald Reagan appointed federal judge in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri and his cousin, Stephen N. Limbaugh, Jr., is currently a judge in the same court, appointed by George W. Bush. Rush Limbaugh, Sr., Limbaugh's grandfather, was a Missouri prosecutor, judge, special commissioner and served on Missouri's state House of Representatives from 1930 to 1932.[4] Limbaugh's grandfather was very well respected as one of the "patriarchs" of the Cape Girardeau community, and longtime president of the Missouri Historical Society. Rush, Sr., died at age 104, and was still a practicing attorney at the time of his death. The Federal Courthouse in Cape Girardeau is named for Limbaugh's grandfather. Limbaugh began his career in radio as a teenager in 1967[5] in his hometown of Cape Girardeau, using the name Rusty Sharpe.[3]


Limbaugh graduated from Cape Central High School, in 1969. His father and mother wanted him to attend college, so he enrolled at Southeast Missouri State University. He dropped out after two semesters and one summer; according to his mother, "he flunked everything", even a modern ballroom dancing class.[3] As she told a reporter in 1992, "He just didn't seem interested in anything except radio."[6]

Draft status

Limbaugh's birthdate was ranked as 175 in the Vietnam War draft lottery. No one was drafted above 125. He was classified as "1-Y" (later reclassified "4-F") due to either a football knee injury or a diagnosis of Pilonidal disease.[7][3]

Professional career and rise to fame


After dropping out of college, Limbaugh moved to McKeesport, Pennsylvania. There he became a Top 40 music radio disc jockey on station WIXZ, a station that covered the Pittsburgh area. In October 1972, he broadcast over Pittsburgh station KQV under the name "Jeff Christie".

For the rest of the decade Limbaugh moved around to several radio stations before settling in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1979, after several years in music radio, he took a break from radio and accepted a position as director of promotions with the Kansas City Royals baseball team.[3] Retired Kansas City Royals star George Brett is one of his best friends.[8]


In 1984, Limbaugh returned to radio as a talk show host at KFBK in Sacramento, California, where he replaced Morton Downey, Jr.[3] The repeal of the Fairness Doctrine — which had required that stations provide free air time for responses to any controversial opinions that were broadcast — by the FCC in 1987 meant stations could broadcast editorial commentary without having to present opposing views. Daniel Henninger wrote, in a Wall Street Journal editorial, "Ronald Reagan tore down this wall (the Fairness Doctrine) in 1987 ... and Rush Limbaugh was the first man to proclaim himself liberated from the East Germany of liberal media domination."[9]

On August 1, 1988, after achieving success in Sacramento and drawing the attention of a former president of ABC Radio, Edward F. McLaughlin, Limbaugh moved to New York City and began his national radio show. His show debuted just weeks after the Democratic National Convention, and just weeks before the Republican National Convention. Limbaugh's radio home in New York City was the talk-format station WABC, 770 AM, and continues to this day as his flagship station.[3]


In December 1990, journalist Lewis Grossberger wrote in the New York Times that Limbaugh had "more listeners than any other talk show host" and described Limbaugh's style as "bouncing between earnest lecturer and political vaudevillian".[10] Limbaugh's rising popularity coincided with the first Gulf War, and his tireless display of patriotic fervor and his relentless ridicule of liberal peace activists during the war months gained him a steadily growing audience.

The program gained in popularity and moved to stations with larger audiences eventually growing to over 650 radio stations nationwide.

In 1992, a liberal Democrat, Bill Clinton, won the Presidency, enabling Limbaugh to spend the rest of the decade satirizing the foibles of the scandal-prone President Clinton and his outspoken First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton. When the Republican Party won control of Congress in the 1994 midterm elections, the freshman Republican class awarded him an honorary membership of their caucus. This event marked his emergence as a serious player on the national political scene. [11]


Limbaugh suffered some personal difficulties in the 2000s. In late 2001, he acknowledged that he had gone almost completely deaf, although he continued doing his show. He was able to regain much of his hearing with the help of cochlear implants. He also suffered from a highly publicized addiction to prescription painkillers, particularly OxyContin.

In 2003, Limbaugh had a brief stint as a pro football commentator with ESPN. He resigned a few weeks into the 2003 NFL season after making comments about quarterback Donovan McNabb, which some construed as racist.[12]

From 2004 to 2007, the liberal Air America Media network scheduled a well-known personality opposite Limbaugh in the early afternoon noon-3 p.m. eastern time slot: Al Franken's ratings were a fraction of Limbaugh's, and Air America suffered from severe financial difficulties, but Franken did find an audience of his own before leaving to run for the United States Senate.

Limbaugh was the keynote speaker at the 2009 Conservative Political Action Conference; his controversial speech attracted widespread attention, especially after the newly-elected chair of the Republican National Committee, Michael Steele, criticized it.

The Rush Limbaugh Show

Limbaugh's radio show airs weekdays for three hours daily, beginning at 12 noon Eastern time in the U.S. It also is carried worldwide over the Armed Forces Radio Network, and in some markets is carried on FM stations.

Radio broadcasting shifted from AM to FM in the late '70s because of the opportunity to broadcast music in stereo in FM, with better range and musical fidelity. Limbaugh's show was first nationally syndicated in August 1988, in a later stage of AM's decline. Limbaugh's popularity paved the way for other conservative talk radio programming to become commonplace on the AM radio. As of 2006, Arbitron ratings indicated that The Rush Limbaugh Show had a minimum weekly audience of 13.5 million listeners, making it the largest radio talk show audience in the United States. In March 2006, WBAL in Baltimore, MD became the first radio station in the country to drop Limbaugh's nationally syndicated radio program.[13] In 2007, Talkers magazine again named him #1 in its "Heavy Hundred" most important talk show hosts. Limbaugh frequently mentions the EIB (Excellence In Broadcasting) network, but this is a mythic construction, as he told the New York Times in 1990.[14] In reality, his show was co-owned and first syndicated by Edward F. McLaughlin, former president of ABC who founded EFM Media in 1988, with Limbaugh's show as his first product. In 1997, McLaughlin sold EFM to Jacor Communications, which was ultimately bought up by Clear Channel Communications. Today, Limbaugh owns a majority of the show, which is syndicated by the Premiere Radio Networks.

According to a 2001 article in U.S. News & World Report, Limbaugh had an eight-year contract, at the rate of $31.25 million a year.[15] On July 2, 2008, Matt Drudge reported that Limbaugh signed a contract extension through 2016 that is worth over $400 million, breaking records for any broadcast medium — television or radio.[16] In 2007, Limbaugh earned $33 million.[17]

Controversial incidents

Michael J. Fox incident

On the October 23, 2006 edition of his radio show, Limbaugh imitated on the "DittoCam" (the webcam for website subscribers to see him on the air) the physical symptoms of actor Michael J. Fox, who has Parkinson's disease.[18][19] He said "(Fox) is exaggerating the effects of the disease. He's moving all around and shaking and it's purely an act ... This is really shameless of Michael J. Fox. Either he didn't take his medication or he's acting."[20]

Michael J. Fox later appeared on CBS with Katie Couric and said he was actually dyskinesic at the time, a condition that results from his medication.[21]

Phony soldiers controversy

During the September 26, 2007 broadcast of Limbaugh's radio show, he used the term "phony soldiers", referring to a September 21 Associated Press story about individuals falsely claiming to be veterans in order to receive benefits.[22] A caller, saying he was currently serving in the Army and has been in 14 years, said, "They never talk to real soldiers. They like to pull these soldiers that come up out of the blue and spout to the media." Limbaugh interrupted, "The phony soldiers." The caller continued, "The phony soldiers. If you talk to a real soldier, they are proud to serve. They want to be over in Iraq. They understand their sacrifice, and they're willing to sacrifice for their country."[23] Several minutes later, after the caller had hung up, Limbaugh read from the AP story describing the story of Jesse Macbeth.[24] Macbeth joined the Army but did not complete basic training, yet claimed in alternative media interviews that he and his unit routinely committed war crimes in Iraq.[25][26] On June 7, 2007, Macbeth pleaded guilty to one count of making false statements to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and was sentenced to five months in jail and three years probation.[27][28] Media Matters noted Limbaugh's use of the term "phony soldiers" in an article on their website. The article suggested that Limbaugh was saying that all soldiers who disagree with the Iraq War were "phony soldiers",[29] and their article received substantial press coverage after it was discussed in speeches by Presidential candidates John Edwards and Chris Dodd.[30] Limbaugh said that, when he had made the comment about "phony soldiers", he had been speaking only of Macbeth and others like him who claim to be soldiers and are not, and that "Media Matters takes things out of context all the time".[31]

Operation Chaos

Limbaugh said there is nothing wrong with Republicans voting in Democratic primaries, as Democrats were able to vote for John McCain in Vermont, New Hampshire, Florida, and other states. "This is getting absurd. If it weren't for independents and Democrats crossing over, Senator McCain would not be our nominee!"[32]

In an attempt to undermine the Democratic campaigns, Limbaugh encouraged his listeners to vote for whoever was behind in the vote, an effort dubbed "Operation Chaos".[33]

In Ohio, Limbaugh similarly encouraged his listeners to register as Democrats and vote for Hillary Clinton. In Ohio, voters changing their registration must attest that they support the principles of the party to which they switch. About 16,000 Ohio Republicans switched parties for the election. The Ohio Attorney General's office stated that it would be hard to prove any voter's fraudulent intent.[34]

Limbaugh has said that "The dream end of this [of Operation Chaos] is that this keeps up to the Convention, and that we have a recreation of Chicago 1968 with burning cars, protests, fire, and literal riots and all of that, that is the objective here."[35]

"Barack the Magic Negro" parody

On March 19, 2007 Limbaugh referred to a Los Angeles Times editorial by David Ehrenstein which claimed that Barack Obama was filling the role of the "magic negro", and that this explained his appeal to voters.[36] Limbaugh then later played a song by Paul Shanklin, "Barack the Magic Negro," sung to the tune of "Puff the Magic Dragon".[37]

Comments on Obama's policies

On January 16, 2009 Limbaugh read a letter on his radio show that he had received a request from a national print outlet: ... "If you could send us 400 words on your hope for the Obama presidency, we need it by Monday night, that would be ideal." He responded, "I don't need 400 words, I need four: I hope he fails." He explained that he didn't want "absorption of as much of the private sector by the US government as possible, from the banking business, to the mortgage industry, the automobile business, to health care. I do not want the government in charge of all of these things. I don't want this to work." He continued, "what is unfair about my saying I hope liberalism fails? Liberalism is our problem. Liberalism is what's gotten us dangerously close to the precipice here." [38]

Limbaugh later said [39] it is President Obama's policies that he wants to see fail, not the man himself. Speaking of Obama, Limbaugh said, "He's my president, he's a human being, and his ideas and policies are what count for me."[38]

"Leader of Republican Party"

On March 1, 2009 CBS's Face the Nation asked White House Chief Of Staff Rahm Emanuel who he thought represented the Republican Party; Emanuel named Limbaugh as his choice. [40][41][42]

On March 2, 2009, Limbaugh responded to Emanuel. [43]

In remarks aired by CNN on March 1, 2009, Republican Party Chairman Michael Steele said that Limbaugh is "an entertainer" and his rhetoric is "incendiary" and "ugly".[44] Steele later telephoned Limbaugh and apologized. Limbaugh stated he would not want to run the RNC in its "sad sack state".[43]

On March 4, 2009, Limbaugh challenged President Barack Obama to a debate, with the caveat that it be on his radio program. Limbaugh offered to pay all of Obama's expenses including travel, food, lodging, and security.[45] On March 6, 2009, Limbaugh told Byron York of the Washington Examiner that his ratings for his radio show had significantly increased during the feud between him and the Obama Administration.[46] As a result, Earl Ofari Hutchinson of the liberal website The Huffington Post urged Obama to "wave the white flag" in their targeting of Limbaugh.[47]

Television show

Limbaugh had a syndicated half-hour television show from 1992 through 1996, produced by Roger Ailes. The show discussed many of the topics on his radio show, and was taped in front of a live audience.

Other media appearances

Limbaugh's first television hosting experience came March 30, 1990, as a guest host on Pat Sajak's CBS late-night talk show, The Pat Sajak Show. ACT UP activists in the audience[48] heckled Limbaugh repeatedly; ultimately the entire studio audience was cleared. In 2001 Sajak said the incident was "legendary around CBS".[49]

On December 17, 1993, Limbaugh appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman.[50] Limbaugh also guest-starred (as himself) on a 1994 episode of Hearts Afire. He appeared in the 1995 Billy Crystal film Forget Paris, and in 1998 on an episode of the The Drew Carey Show.

Most recently, in 2007, Limbaugh has made cameo appearances on Fox News Channel's short lived The 1/2 Hour News Hour in a series of parodies portraying him as the future President of the United States. In the parodies, his vice president is fellow conservative pundit Ann Coulter. He also made a cameo in the Family Guy episode "Blue Harvest". In the episode, a parody of Star Wars, Limbaugh can be heard on the radio claiming that, among other things, the "intergalactic liberal space media" was lying about climate change on the planet Hoth, and that Lando Calrissian's administrative position on Cloud City was a result of affirmative action.

His persona has often been utilized as a template for a stereotypical conservative talk show host on TV shows and in movies, including an episode of The Simpsons (as a conservative talk radio host named Birch Barlow), as "Gus Baker" on an episode of Beavis and Butt-head, as "Lash Rambo" (host of "Perfection in Broadcasting") on an episode of The New WKRP in Cincinnati, and as "Fielding Chase" in the Columbo Mystery Movie Butterfly in Shades of Grey (played by William Shatner).

As a result of his television program, Limbaugh became known for wearing distinctive neckties. In response to viewer interest, Limbaugh launched a series of ties[51] designed primarily by his then-wife Marta.[52] Sales of the ties reached over US$5 million in their initial sales year, but were later discontinued.

In the March 22, 2009, episode of Family Guy "FOX-y Lady", Fox News Channel reporter Lois Griffin discovered that Limbaugh (who was shown as an animated character but did not speak) was actually Fred Savage (who voiced an animated version of himself) in disguise.


Defining the conservative movement

Limbaugh wrote in an op-ed piece in The Wall Street Journal in 2005:

  • I love being a conservative. We conservatives are proud of our philosophy. Unlike our liberal friends, who are constantly looking for new words to conceal their true beliefs and are in a perpetual state of reinvention, we conservatives are unapologetic about our ideals.
  • We are confident in our principles and energetic about openly advancing them. We believe in individual liberty, limited government, capitalism, the rule of law, faith, a color-blind society and national security.
  • We support school choice, enterprise zones, tax cuts, welfare reform, faith-based initiatives, political speech, homeowner rights and the War on Terrorism.
  • And at our core we embrace and celebrate the most magnificent governing document ever ratified by any nation — the U.S. Constitution. Along with the Declaration of Independence, which recognizes our God-given natural right to be free, it is the foundation on which our government is built and has enabled us to flourish as a people.
  • We conservatives are never stronger than when we are advancing our principles.[53]

Balance and point of view

In his first New York Times best seller, Limbaugh describes himself as conservative, and is critical of broadcasters in many media outlets for claiming to be objective. He has criticized political centrists, independents, and moderate conservatives, claiming they are responsible for Democrat Barack Obama's victory over Republican John McCain in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election and inviting them to leave the Republican party. He calls for the sincere and serious adoption of core conservative philosophies in order to ensure the survival of the Republican party.[54][55][56]

Limbaugh is critical of environmentalism and climate science. He has disputed claims of anthropogenic global warming, and the relationship between CFCs and depletion of the ozone layer, saying the scientific evidence does not support them.[57] Limbaugh has argued against the scientific opinion on climate change saying the alleged scientific consensus "is just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition. You can't have consensus in science ... they think consensus is the way to sell it because, 'Oh, but all these wonderful people agree.'"[58] Limbaugh has used the term "environmentalist wacko" when referring to left-leaning environmental advocates.[59] As a rhetorical device, he has also used the term to refer to more mainstream climate scientists and other environmental scientists and advocates with whom he disagrees.[60]

Limbaugh is critical of feminism, saying that "Feminism was established so as to allow unattractive women easier access to the mainstream of society."[61] He also popularized the term "feminazi", referring to radical feminists "to whom the most important thing in life is ensuring that as many abortions as possible occur."[62] He credited his friend Tom Hazlett, a professor of law and economics at George Mason University, with coining the term.[63]

Limbaugh has always taken a hard-line stance on illegal immigration.[64]

Limbaugh supports capital punishment, saying "the only thing cruel about the death penalty is last-minute stays."[57]

On the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal, Limbaugh said, "This is no different than what happens at the Skull and Bones initiation ... And we're going to ruin people's lives over it and we're going to hamper our military effort, and then we are going to really hammer them because they had a good time. You know, these people are being fired at every day [referring to the U.S. Military service members]. I'm talking about people having a good time, these people, you ever heard of emotional release?"[65][66][67]

Limbaugh has asserted that African-Americans, in contrast with other minority groups, are "left behind" socially because they have been systematically trained from a young age to hate America through a widespread movement headed by figures such as Jeremiah Wright, William Ayers, and Barack Obama.[68]

Entertainment props

Limbaugh utilizes props to introduce his monologues on various topics. On his radio show, news about the homeless has often been preceded with the Clarence "Frogman" Henry song "Ain't Got No Home."[69] For a time, Dionne Warwick's song "I Know I'll Never Love This Way Again" preceded reports about people with AIDS.[70] These later became "condom updates" preceded by Fifth Dimension's song, "Up, Up and Away (in My Beautiful Balloon)."[69] For two weeks in 1989, on his Sacramento radio show, Limbaugh performed "caller abortions" where he would end a call suddenly to the sounds of a vacuum cleaner and a scream. He would then deny that he had "hung up" on the caller, which he had promised not to do. Limbaugh claims that he used this gag to illustrate "the tragedy of abortion" as well as to highlight the question of whether abortion constitutes murder.[71]

Claims of inaccuracy

Some groups and individuals have criticized Limbaugh's accuracy. The July/August 1994 issue of Extra!, a publication of the progressive group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), alleges 50 different inaccuracies and distortions in Limbaugh's commentary.[72][73] Others have since joined FAIR in questioning Limbaugh's facts. Al Franken, a liberal comedian-turned-politician, wrote a satirical book (Rush Limbaugh is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations) in which he criticized Limbaugh's lack of accuracy.[74] Media Matters for America, a not-for-profit progressive media watchdog group, has also been critical.[75]

Limbaugh has been criticized for inaccuracies by the Environmental Defense Fund. A defense fund report authored by Princeton University endowed geosciences professor Michael Oppenheimer and Princeton University professor of biology David Wilcove lists 14 significant scientific facts which, the authors allege, Limbaugh misrepresented in his book The Way Things Ought to Be.[76] The authors conclude that "Rush Limbaugh ... allows his political bias to distort the truth about a whole range of important scientific issues."

James Rainey of the Los Angeles Times quoted Limbaugh as saying after the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States that the Democrats will "take your 401(k), put it in the Social Security trust fund." [77] Limbaugh was merely quoting from widespread rumors that were then circulating about that very eventuality [78].

Charitable work

Leukemia and lymphoma telethon

Limbaugh holds an annual fundraising telethon called the "EIB Cure-a-Thon"[79] for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.[80] In 2006 the EIB Cure-a-Thon conducted its 16th annual telethon, raising $1.7 million;[81] totaling over $15 million since the first cure-a-thon.[82] According to Leukemia and Lymphoma Society annual reports, Limbaugh personally contributed between $100,000 and $499,999, or 0.2% to 1% of his yearly income, from 2000–2005 and 2007,[83] and Limbaugh claims to have contributed around $250,000 in 2003, 2004 and 2005.[84] NewsMax reported Limbaugh donated $250,000 in 2006,[85] but the Society's 2006 annual report placed him in the $500,000 to $999,999 category.[83] Limbaugh donated $320,000 during the 2007 Cure-a-Thon[86] which the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society reported had raised $3.1 million.[87] On his radio program April 18, 2008, Limbaugh claimed to pledge $400,000 to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society after being challenged by two listeners to increase his initial pledge of $300,000.[88]

Rush 24/7 Adopt-A-Soldier Program

Limbaugh's website maintains a page where American soldiers can register for a free subscription to Limbaugh's online premium service, Rush 24/7, through memberships purchased by donors who buy a subscription (at a reduced price) as a gift.[89]

Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation

Limbaugh conducts an annual drive to help the Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation collect contributions to provide scholarships for children of Marines and law enforcement officers/agents who have died in the line of duty.[90][91] The foundation was the beneficiary of a record $2.1 million eBay auction in October 2007 after Limbaugh listed for sale a letter critical of him signed by 41 Democratic senators and pledged to match the selling price.[92]

Personal life


Limbaugh was first married on September 24, 1977 to Roxy Maxine McNeely, a sales secretary at radio station WHB in Kansas City, Missouri. They were married at the Centenary United Methodist Church in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. In March 1980, McNeely filed for divorce, citing "incompatibility." They were formally divorced on July 10, 1980.[3]

In 1983, Limbaugh married Michelle Sixta, a college student and usherette at the Kansas City Royals Stadium Club. They were divorced in 1990, and she remarried the following year.[3]

On May 27, 1994, Limbaugh married Marta Fitzgerald, a 35-year-old aerobics instructor. They were married at the house of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, who officiated. They were separated on June 11, 2004.[93] Limbaugh announced on the air, "Marta has consented to my request for a divorce, and we have mutually agreed to seek an amicable separation." The divorce was finalized in December 2004.[94]

Prescription drug addiction

On October 3, 2003 the National Enquirer reported that Limbaugh was being investigated for illegally obtaining the prescription drugs oxycodone and hydrocodone. Other news outlets quickly confirmed the investigation.[95] He admitted to listeners on his radio show on October 10 that he was addicted to prescription painkillers and stated that he would enter inpatient treatment for 30 days, immediately after the broadcast.[96] Limbaugh stated his addiction to painkillers resulted from several years of severe back pain heightened by a botched surgery intended to correct those problems.

A subsequent investigation into whether Limbaugh had violated Florida's doctor shopping laws was launched by the Palm Beach State Attorney, which raised privacy issues when investigators seized Limbaugh's private medical records looking for evidence of crimes. On November 9, 2005, following two years of investigations, Assistant State Attorney James L. Martz requested the court to set aside Limbaugh's doctor-patient confidentiality rights and allow the state to question his physicians, stating it was necessary because "I have no idea if Mr. Limbaugh has completed the elements of any offense yet."[97] Limbaugh's attorney opposed the prosecutor's efforts to interview his doctors on the basis of patient privacy rights, and argued that the prosecutor had violated Limbaugh's Fourth Amendment rights by illegally seizing his medical records. The ACLU issued a statement in agreement and filed an amicus curiae brief in support of Limbaugh.[98][99] On December 12, 2005, Judge David F. Crow delivered a ruling prohibiting the State of Florida from questioning Limbaugh's physicians about "the medical condition of the patient and any information disclosed to the health care practitioner by the patient in the course of the care and treatment of the patient."[100]

On April 28, 2006, Limbaugh and his attorney, Roy Black, went to the Palm Beach County Jail to surrender after a warrant was issued for his arrest on the charge of doctor shopping.[101] According to Teri Barbera, spokeswoman for the Sheriff, during his arrest, Limbaugh was booked, photographed, and fingerprinted, but not handcuffed. He was then released after about an hour on $3,000 bail.[102][103][104] After his surrender, he filed a "not guilty" plea to the charge. Prosecutors agreed to drop the charge if Limbaugh paid $30,000 to defray the cost of the investigation and completed an 18-month therapy regimen with his physician.[105]

Limbaugh asserted that the state's settlement agreement resulted from a lack of evidence supporting the charge of "doctor shopping." Under the terms of the agreement, Limbaugh may not own a firearm for eighteen months and must continue to submit to random drug testing, which he acknowledges having undergone since 2003.[106]

Previously, Limbaugh has condemned illegal drug use on his radio broadcast and has stated that those convicted of drug crimes should be sent to jail.[107][108]

Roy Black, one of Limbaugh's attorneys, stated that "Rush Limbaugh was singled out for prosecution because of who he is. We believe the state attorney's office is applying a double standard."[109]

In June 2006, Limbaugh was detained by drug enforcement agents at Palm Beach International Airport. Customs officials confiscated Viagra from Limbaugh's luggage as he was returning from the Dominican Republic. The prescription was not in Limbaugh's name.

After he was released with no charges filed, Limbaugh joked about the incident on his radio show, claiming that he got the Viagra at the Clinton Library and was told they were blue M&M's. He also stated that "I had a great time in the Dominican Republic. Wish I could tell you about it."[110]


Rush Limbaugh has described himself as being "100%, totally deaf".[111] In 2001, he was diagnosed with a rare Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), which, in the span of three months, left his right ear completely deaf and left ear severely deaf. On December 19, 2001, doctors at the House Ear Clinic in Los Angeles were able to successfully restore a measure of his hearing through a surgical procedure known as a cochlear implant surgery. Limbaugh received a Clarion CII Bionic Ear.[112] In 2005, Limbaugh was forced to undergo "tuning" due to an "eye twitch", an apparent side-effect of cochlear implants.[113]

Cigar aficionado

In the early 1990s, when the cigar boom was gaining momentum, Limbaugh was seen frequently with a cigar in hand and by the end of the 1990s, cigars had become Limbaugh's staple in many public appearances. Often starting segments of his show with the phrase, "Amid billowing clouds of fragrant and aromatic first, second, and sometimes third hand premium cigar smoke" as well as mentioning a story print-out in his "formerly nicotine-stained fingers", cigars became a common topic of discussion. In the spring of 1994, Limbaugh appeared on the cover of the popular magazine Cigar Aficionado and shared the story of his conversion to cigars. He has since been a frequent participant in many events such as "The Big Smoke", hosted throughout the year by the magazine. Limbaugh has participated in many charity cigar auctions hosted by the magazine, and is known to talk frequently with his listeners about his and their cigar interests, preferences and recommendations. "I think cigars are just a tremendous addition to the enjoyment of life."[114]

Awards and recognition

A month after Bill Clinton's defeat of George H.W. Bush in 1992, Ronald Reagan sent Limbaugh a letter in which he thanked him "for all you're doing to promote Republican and conservative principles ... [and] you have become the Number One voice for conservatism in our Country."[115]

Limbaugh was the 1992, 1995, 2000 and 2005 recipient of the Marconi Radio Award for Syndicated Radio Personality of the Year (given by the National Association of Broadcasters), joining the syndicated Bob & Tom Show as the only other four-time winners of a Marconi award. He was inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame in 1993.

In 2002, Talkers magazine ranked him as the greatest radio talk show host of all time.[116] Limbaugh is the highest-paid syndicated radio host.[117]

On March 29, 2007, Limbaugh was awarded the inaugural William F. Buckley, Jr. Award for Media Excellence, by the Media Research Center, a conservative media analysis group.[118]

On January 5, 2008, the conservative magazine Human Events announced Limbaugh as their 2007 Man of the Year.[119]

On December 1. 2008, TV Guide reported that Limbaugh has been selected as one of America’s top ten most fascinating people of 2008 for a Barbara Walters ABC special that aired on December 4, 2008.[120]

On February 28, 2009, following his self-described "first address to the Nation", lasting 90 minutes, carried live, on CNN and FOX NEWS, and recorded for CSPAN, he received CPAC's "Defender of the Constitution Award", a document originally signed by Benjamin Franklin, given to someone "who has stood up for the First Amendment ... Rush Limbaugh is for America, exactly what Benjamin Franklin did for the Founding Fathers ... the only way we will be successful is if we listen to Rush Limbaugh". [121]

Public perceptions

Since 1991, Limbaugh has had the most-listened-to radio show in the United States, with over 14 million listeners a week as of December 2008.[122] In 2003, he peaked with an audience of nearly 20 million a week.[123] In a March 2007 Rasmussen Reports poll, 62% of those surveyed had an unfavorable opinion of Limbaugh, while 33% had a favorable opinion. [124]

Books by Rush Limbaugh

In 1992, Limbaugh published his first book, The Way Things Ought To Be, followed by See, I Told You So in 1993.[125] Both became number one on the New York Times Best Seller list, The Way Things Ought to Be remaining there for 24 weeks.[126] Limbaugh acknowledges in the text of the first book that he taped the book and it was transcribed and edited by Wall Street Journal writer John Fund. In the second book, Joseph Farah of WorldNetDaily is named as his collaborator.[127]


  • Arkush, Michael (1993). Rush!. New York: Avon Books, 1993. ISBN 0380775395. 
  • Colford, Paul D. (1995). The Rush Limbaugh Story: Talent on Loan from God an Unauthorized Biography. St. Martin's. ISBN 0312952724. 
  • Davis, J. Bradford (1994). The Rise of Rush Limbaugh Toward the Presidency. Norcross, Ga.:MacArthur Pub. Group, c1994.. ISBN 0964261901. 
  • Derych, Jim. Confessions of a Former Dittohead. Brooklyn, N.Y. : Ig Pub., c2006.. ISBN 0975251783 (pbk.). 
  • Evearitt, Daniel J. (1993). Rush Limbaugh and the Bible. Camp Hill, Pa.: Horizon House Publishers, c1993.. ISBN 0889651043. 
  • Al Franken (1996). Rush Limbaugh Is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0141018416. 
  • Jacobs, Donald Trent. The Bum's Rush: The Selling of Environmental Backlash : phrases and fallacies of Rush Limbaugh. Boise, Idaho : Legendary Pub., c1994.. ISBN 096250405X. 
  • Keliher, Brian (1994). Flush rush. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, c1994.. ISBN 0898156106. 
  • Kelly, Charles M (1994). The Great Limbaugh Con: And Other Right-Wing Assaults on Common Sense. Fithian Press, 1994.. ISBN 1564741028. 
  • King, D. Howard (1994). Rush to Us. Windsor Pub., c1994.. ISBN 0786000821. 
  • Layne, Tom (2006). The Assassination of Rush Limbaugh. Red Ginger Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN 0976851504. 
  • Mahurin, Cecil (1993). A Public Rebuttal to Rush Limbaugh. Vantage Press, 1993.. ISBN 0533107660. 
  • Perkins, Ray, Jr. (1995). Logic and Mr. Limbaugh: A Dittohead's Guide to Fallacious Reasoning. Open Court Publishing. ISBN 0812692942. 
  • Rahman, Michael. Why Rush Limbaugh is Wrong, or, The Demise of Traditionalism and The Rise of Progressive Sensibility as Perceived. Mighty Pen Pub., 1995.. LCCN 95077891. 
  • Rendall, Steve, Jim Naureckas, Cohen, Jeff (1995). The Way Things Aren't: Rush Limbaugh's Reign of Error : Over 100 Outrageously False and Foolish Statements from America's Most Powerful Radio and TV Commentator. Written for FAIR. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 1-56584-260-X. 
  • Seib, Philip M. (1993). Rush Hour: Talk Radio, Politics, and the Rise of Rush Limbaugh. Summit Group, 1993.. ISBN 1565301005. 
  • Tucker, R. K. (1997). The Rules According to Rush : the American people vs. Rush Limbaugh. Bowling Green, Ohio : OptimAmerica ; Chapel Hill, NC : Professional Press, 1997.. ISBN 1570873399. 
  • Varon, Charles (1997). Rush Limbaugh In Night School. Dramatists Play Service, c1997.. ISBN 0822215349. 

See also


  1. ^ Hot Air: All Talk, All the Time , By Howard Kurtz, Published by Basic Books, 1997 ISBN 0465030742, 9780465030743 432 pages page 231
  2. ^ "The Leader of the Opposition, political commentator Rush Limbaugh", National Review cover story of 6 SEP 1993 by James Bowman [1] accessed 2 MAY 2008
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul D. Colford. The Rush Limbaugh story: talent on loan from God: an unauthorized biography. New York. St. Martin’s Press, 1993. ISBN 0-312-09906-1.
  4. ^ St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The loudest limb on the family tree, radio's Rush Limbaugh is the 'big mouth'; branch of a solid old Cape Girardeau family. September 27, 1992.
  5. ^ "Rush Limbaugh Gives Sean a Rare Interview". Fox News Channel. October 19, 2005.,2933,172675,00.html. 
  6. ^ "Rush is Always Right." USA Weekend, 24-January 26, 1992, p. 7
  7. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara; Mikkelson, David P. "Draft Notice." Snopes. December 16, 2002. Retrieved on October 13, 2006.
  8. ^ Toma, George; Goforth, Alan & Brett, George (2004). Nitty gritty dirt man. pp. 164. ISBN 9781582616469. 
  9. ^ Henninger, Daniel (April 29, 2005) "Rush to Victory". Wall Street Journal.
  10. ^ Grossberger, Lewis (December 16, 1990). "The Rush Hours". New York Times. p. SM58. 
  11. ^ Seelye, Katherine Q. (December 12, 1994). "Republicans Get a Pep Talk From Rush Limbaugh". New York Times. pp. A16. 
  12. ^ King, Peter (September 30, 2003). "Open mouth, insert foot, Limbaugh's comments on McNabb aren't racist, but they are boneheaded". 
  13. ^ Hiaasen, Rob (14 March 2006). "WBAL Radio Cancels Rush Limbaugh: Station is First to Drop Show, Wants to Focus on Local News". The Baltimore Sun. 
  14. ^ Lewis Grossberger, "The Rush Hours", New York Times, December 16, 1990, section 6, p. 58
  15. ^ "Vital Statistics", U.S. News & World Report, July 30, 2001, p. 7
  16. ^ "LIMBAUGH SIGNS THROUGH 2016; $400 MILLION DEAL SHATTERS BROADCAST RECORDS". July 02 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ Election 2004 | Pa. Sen. Specter Focuses on Stem Cell Support To Attract Moderate Voters, Distances Himself From Bush in Re-Election Campaign Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
  19. ^ Michael J. Fox Fires Back at Critics ABC News
  20. ^ "Rush Limbaugh On the Offensive Against Ad With Michael J. Fox", Washington Post, accessed on November 1, 2006
  21. ^ Serrano, Alfonso (Oct. 26, 2006). "Fox: I Was Over-Medicated In Stem Cell Ad". CBS News. 
  22. ^ "Phony soldiers cost VA, tarnished medals". written at Seattle, Washington. Associated Press. September 21, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  23. ^ [The Rush Limbaugh Show, Transcript]
  24. ^ Limbaugh falsely recasts "phony soldiers" smear Media Matters September 28, 2007
  25. ^ "Jessie Macbeth: Former Army Ranger and Iraq War Veteran" video,, retrieved May 23, 2006 (inactive as of May 24, 2006)
  26. ^ "Statement on Jesse MacBeth interview in Justice". Socialist Alternative. May 26, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  27. ^ Seattle Times - Man who lied about actions in Iraq admits faking forms
  28. ^ Seattle Post Intellegencer - Poster soldier for anti-war movement was a fake
  29. ^ Limbaugh: Service members who support U.S. withdrawal are "phony soldiers" Media Matters September 27, 2007
  30. ^ Dems Criticize Limbaugh's Comments AP September 28, 2007
  31. ^ "Phony Soldiers" is a Phony Story Rush Limbaugh Show Transcript, September 28, 2007
  32. ^ The Rush Limbaugh Show March 10, 2008
  33. ^ "Rush to Excellence Speech for WPHT-AM Philadelphia". Transcript. October 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  34. ^ "The Columbus Dispatch - Limbaugh safe from voter-fraud charges". Mark Niquette. March 28, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  35. ^ "Why It's Called Operation Chaos". Transcript. April 23, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  36. ^ Ehrenstein, David (March 19, 2007). "Obama the 'Magic Negro'". Los Angeles Times.,0,5335087.story?coll=la-opinion-center. 
  37. ^ "US DJ criticised over Obama song". BBC. 10 May 2007. 
  38. ^ a b "Limbaugh: I Hope Obama Fails". The Rush Limbaugh Show, Transcript. January 16, 2009. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. 
  39. ^ Bacon, Perry, Jr. (March 4, 2009). "GOP Seeks Balance With Conservative Icon Limbaugh". The Washington Post. pp. A01. 
  40. ^ Transcript: Rahm Emanuel on CBS’s ‘Face the Nation’, CQ Politics, March 1, 2009
  41. ^ Limbaugh the Leader? Obama Chief of Staff Calls Talk Show Host a Barrier to Progress, FOX News, March 1, 2009
  42. ^ White House aide casts Limbaugh as top GOP voice, Associated Press, March 1, 2009
  43. ^ a b "A Few Words for Michael Steele". The Rush Limbaugh Show, Transcript. March 2, 2009. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. 
  44. ^ RNC chief Steele: Limbaugh is more a performer than GOP leader, CNN, March 2, 2009
  45. ^ Rush to the President: Debate Me, Rush Limbaugh transcript, March 4, 2009
  46. ^ Limbaugh: My Ratings are Way, Way Up, Washington Examiner, March 6, 2009
  47. ^ Wave the White Flag in the Limbaugh War, The Huffington Post, March 28, 2009
  48. ^ Gehr, Richard (1990-10-08). "Mouth At Work". Newsday: p. 4. 
  49. ^ Sajak, Pat. CNN Larry King Live [TV series]. CNN.
  50. ^ Maurstad, Tom (1993-12-20). "Stern, Limbaugh meet their match; Hosts Leno, Letterman hold their own in war". The Dallas Morning News: p. 1C. 
  51. ^ Parker, Penny (1996-03-20). "Ties loud, just like Limbaugh.". Denver Post. pp. C-1. 
  52. ^ Vinciguera, Thomas (1996-08-04). "No Talk Show, But a Loud Tie". New York Times. p. 43. 
  53. ^ Limbaugh, Rush (2005-10-17). "Holding Court: There's a crackdown over Miers, not a "crackup."". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2006-10-25. 
  54. ^ "Wednesday Quotes: Your Conservative Rock". November 5, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  55. ^ "Get Off the Ledge, Conservatives! We Have Two Battles on Our Hands". November 6, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  56. ^ "Unconscionable: McCain Staffers Attempting to Destroy Sarah Palin". November 6, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  57. ^ a b On the Rush Limbaugh.
  58. ^ Transcript
  59. ^ See, for instance, "Idiot Bird Extinct, Future of World at Risk (Transcript)". The Rush Limbaugh Show. December 1, 2004. 
  60. ^ Rush Limbaugh, Wednesday Morning Update (January 24, 2001). "Rush Limbaugh on energy & oil". 
  61. ^ Margaret Carlson (October 26, 1992). "An Interview with Rush Limbaugh". Time magazine.,9171,976829,00.html. 
  62. ^ Rush H. Limbaugh, The Way Things Ought to Be, Pocket Books, 1992 p.296
    “Feminazi: Widely misunderstood by most to simply mean ‘feminist’. Not so, boobala [sic]. A Feminazi is a feminist to whom the most important thing in life is ensuring that as many abortions as possible occur. There are fewer than twenty-five known Feminazis in the United States…”
  63. ^ Rush H. Limbaugh, The Way Things Ought to Be, Pocket Books, 1992 p.193
    "I prefer to call the most obnoxious feminists what they really are: feminazis. Tom Hazlett, a good friend who is an esteemed and highly regarded professor of economics at the University of California at Davis, coined the term to describe any female who is intolerant of any point of view that challenges militant feminism. I often use it to describe women who are obsessed with perpetuating a modern-day holocaust: abortion. There are 1.5 million abortions a year ..."
  64. ^ "<The Limbaugh Laws". Rush's Morning Update. April 6, 2006. 
  65. ^ "Regarding the Torture of Others". 
  66. ^ "Rush: MPs Just 'Blowing Off Steam', Limbaugh: Abuse Story 'Media-Generated': CBS' Meyer Says Beware". CBS News. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  67. ^ A.S.; G.W. (May 5, 2004). "Limbaugh on torture of Iraqis: U.S. guards were "having a good time," "blow[ing] some steam off"". Media Matters. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  68. ^ "October 14, 2008 transcript". Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  69. ^ a b Grossberger, Lewis (1990-12-16). "The Rush Hours". The New York Times: p. 58. 
  70. ^ Remnick, David (1990-12-16). "Day of the Dittohead". The Washington Post: p. C1. 
  71. ^ Limbaugh, Rush (1990-12-16). "The Way things Ought To Be". Simon and Schuster. pp. 62-66. 
  72. ^ The Way Things Aren't Extra!, July/August 1994
  73. ^ The Way Things Aren't: Rush Limbaugh's Reign of Error : Over 100 Outrageously False and Foolish Statements from America's Most Powerful Radio and TV commentator, Rendall, Steve; Naureckas, Jim; and Cohen, Jeff; W.W. Norton and Company, 1995
  74. ^ Franken, Al, Rush Limbaugh is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations, Delacorte Press, 1996
  75. ^ Rush Limbaugh overview and search results Media Matters for America
  76. ^ "The way things really are" (PDF). Environmental Defense Fund. 1994. 
  77. ^ Right-wing media feeds its post-election anger, James Rainey, Los Angeles Times, November 9, 2008; accessed November 9, 2008.
  78. ^ [2], Investment News, accessed March 10, 2009.
  79. ^ "EIB Cure-a-Thon". Rush Limbaugh. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  80. ^ "Leukemia and Lymphoma Society". 501(c). Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  81. ^ "EIB Cure-a-Thon". Rush Limbaugh. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. 
  82. ^ Newsweek. Rehabbing Rush. 2006.
  83. ^ a b Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Annual reports.
  84. ^ Rush Limbaugh Show. Transcript. April 28, 2005.
  85. ^ NewsMax Media. Rush Limbaugh Donates $250K for Cancer Cure April 29, 2006.
  86. ^ "Rush Limbaugh Donates $320,000 to Kick Off 2007 Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Cure-A-Thon". Rush Limbaugh. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  87. ^ Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Rush Limbaugh Cure-A-Thon Raises $3.1 Million for Society Mission. May 1, 2007.
  88. ^ "Rush Donates $400,000 to Kick Off Annual Blood Cancer Cure-A-Thon". Rush Limbaugh. Retrieved on 2008-04-18. 
  89. ^ "Rush 24/7 Adopt-A-Soldier Program" (Registration required). Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  90. ^ "Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation Marine Corps-Law Enforcement charity article" (Registration required). Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  91. ^ "Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation Home Page". Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  92. ^ "Reid-Limbaugh spat raises $2.1 million for children", Reuters, October 19, 2007
  93. ^ McCabe, Scott (June 12, 2004). "Limbaugh, third wife parting after 10 years". Palm Beach Post.. Retrieved on 2006-11-04. 
  94. ^ Herald Staff. "Rush's divorce final" The Miami Herald. February 19, 2005. Pg. 4A
  95. ^ Candiotti, Susan (2003-10-03). "Limbaugh mostly mum on reports of drug probe". CNN. 
  96. ^ George Bennett & John Pacenti (2003-10-11). "Talk host Limbaugh to enter drug rehab". Palm Beach Post. p. 1A. 
  97. ^ "Prosecutors Push to Speak with Limbaugh Doctors". The Palm Beach Post. November 9, 2005. pp. 3B. 
  98. ^ "Improbable ally joins Limbaugh privacy fight". The St. Petersburg Times. January 13, 2004. pp. 1B. 
  99. ^ "Palm Beach Appeals Court to Hear Argument in Limbaugh Medical Records Case". written at WEST PALM BEACH. April 7, 2004. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  100. ^ "Judge Limits Limbaugh Inquiry". The Palm Beach Daily News. December 13, 2005. p. 1. 
  101. ^ "Lowry, Newsweek attacked media for reporting that Limbaugh was "arrested"". Media Matters. May 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  102. ^ "Rush Limbaugh Arrested On Drug Charges, Conservative Radio Commentator Turns Himself In But Claims Innocence". CBS News. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  103. ^ "LOU DOBBS TONIGHT" (Transcript). LOU DOBBS TONIGHT. April 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  104. ^ "Rehab, $30,000 to keep Limbaugh out of court". April 29, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  105. ^ "Settlement Agreement Ends State Investigation of Rush Limbaugh". April 28, 2006. 
  106. ^ Skoloff, Brian (2006-05-01). "Limbaugh Facing Drug Tests Under Deal". Associated Press.;_ylt=AoXk6dXtazOH3nAUdJKIsQys0NUE;_ylu=X3oDMTA2Z2szazkxBHNlYwN0bQ--. 
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  108. ^
  109. ^ "Limbaugh may face a rarely used charge". Associated Press. 2004-01-04. 
  110. ^ "Rush Limbaugh Detained With Viagra". CBS News. 2006-06-27. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. 
  111. ^ "Rush to Excellence Speech for WPHT-AM Philadelphia". Transcript. October 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  112. ^ Maier, Timothy W. (January 28, 2002). "Limbaugh learning to listen again: Rush Limbaugh lost most of his hearing because of a rare disease, but the conservative icon says he has not lost his ability to communicate with his audience". Insight on the News. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  113. ^ "Rush to get bionic tune up". Transcript. 4 Hearing Loss. April 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  114. ^ Rothstein, Mervyn. "Rush's Judgment". Cigar Aficionado.,2540,18,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-04. 
  115. ^ Letter from Ronald Reagan, quoted in National Review Cover story [3] accessed 2 MAY 2008
  116. ^ "The 25 Greatest Radio Talk Show Hosts of All Time". Talkers magazine. September 2002. 
  117. ^ Weil, Dan. "Source: Limbaugh's New Radio Contract Worth $285 Million", The Palm Beach Post, July 20, 2001, pp.1D
  118. ^ Media Research Center. Rush Limbaugh to accept media excellence award at MRC 20th anniversary gala. March 20, 2007.
  119. ^ Levin, Mark. Man of the Year: Rush Limbaugh January 7, 2007
  120. ^ Barbara Walters Gets Up Close with 2008's Most Fascinating People" TV Guide. December 1, 2008. Retrieved on December 3, 2008.
  121. ^
  122. ^ "The Top Talk Radio Audiences". Talkers. December 2008. 
  123. ^ Bauder, David. "Rush Limbaugh Returns From Rehab". Newsday (Associated Press).,0,7583221.story. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. 
  124. ^ "Politicians Earn Higher Favorable Ratings Than Journalists". Rasmussen Reports. March 2007. Retrieved on 2008-12-31.  Poll data
  125. ^ Limbaugh, Rush (1993). See, I Told You So. New York: Atria. ISBN 0-671-87120-X. 
  126. ^ Gregory, Ted (1995-08-18). "Right and wrong; Rush Limbaugh critics want to set the facts straight, but it's not easy". Chicago Tribune. 
  127. ^ "Joseph Farah". Speakers and Talk Show Guests. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. 

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NAME Limbaugh, Rush
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Limbaugh, Rush Hudson, III
SHORT DESCRIPTION U.S. radio talk show host, Commentator, Author, and television personality
DATE OF BIRTH January 12, 1951
PLACE OF BIRTH Cape Girardeau, Missouri, USA
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