Semantic reasoner

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A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. The notion of a semantic reasoner generalizes that of an inference engine, by providing a richer set of mechanisms to work with. The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description language. Many reasoners use first-order predicate logic to perform reasoning; inference commonly proceeds by forward chaining and backward chaining. There are also examples of probabilistic reasoners, including Pei Wang's non-axiomatic reasoning system, Novamente's probabilistic logic network, which tip their hat to reasoning Bayesian networks, and Pronto[1] - probabilistic Description logic reasoner.


[edit] Semantic reasoners

Existing semantic reasoners:

  • Bossam (software), an RETE-based rule engine with native supports for reasoning over OWL ontologies, SWRL ontologies, and RuleML rules.
  • Hoolet, reasons over OWL-DL ontologies by translating them to full first-order logic and then applying a first-order theorem prover. [2]
  • Pellet, an open-source Java OWL DL reasoner. [3]
  • SHER, a scalable Pellet-backed OWL DL reasoner. [4]
  • KAON2 is an infrastructure for managing OWL-DL, SWRL, and F-Logic ontologies.
  • RACER system, a semantic web reasoning system and information repository
  • Jena (framework), an open source semantic web framework for Java which includes a number of different semantic reasoning modules.
  • FaCT, a description logic (DL) classifier. [5]
  • FaCT++, the new generation of FaCT OWL-DL reasoner. [6]
  • SweetRules, an integrated set of tools for Semantic web rules and ontologies. [7]
  • OWLIM, a high-performance semantic repository developed in Java and available in two versions: free SwiftOWLIM and commercial BigOWLIM [8]. Supports a subset of OWL-Lite semantics, which can be configured through rule-set definition and selection. [9].

[edit] Reasoner comparison

Bossam Hoolet Pellet KAON2 RacerPro Jena FaCT FaCT++ SweetRules OWLIM
OWL-DL Entailment  ? Yes Yes Yes Yes No complete reasoner included with standard distribution Yes Yes No No
Supported expressivity for reasoning  ?  ? SROIQ(D) SHIQ(D)  ? varies by reasoner (incomplete for nontrivial description logics) SHIQ SROIQ(D)  ? R-entailment
Reasoning algorithm Rule-based First-order prover Tableau Resolution & Datalog Tableau Rule-based Tableau Tableau Rule-based Rule-based
Consistency checking  ? Yes Yes  ? Yes Incomplete for OWL DL Yes Yes No No
DIG Support No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Rule Support Yes (SWRL & own rule format) Yes (SWRL) Yes (SWRL -- DL Safe Rules) Yes (SWRL -- DL Safe Rules) Yes (SWRL -- not fully support SWRL) Yes (Own rule format) No No Yes (SWRL, RuleML, Jess) Yes (Own format)
Version 0.9b45  ? 2.0 RC5  ? 1.9.2 2.5.4  ? 1.1.8 2.1 2.x/3.x
Licencing Free/ closed-source Free/ open-source Free/ open-source & Non-Free/ closed-source Free/ closed-source Non-Free/ closed-source Free/ open-source Free/ open-source Free/ open-source Free/ open-source Free/ open-source & Non-Free/ closed-source

[edit] See also

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