Chinese Civil War

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Nationalist-Communist Civil War
Part of the Cold War
Victorious soldiers of the People's Liberation Army entering Beijing, June 1949
Soldiers of the victorious People's Liberation Army enter Peiping (now Beijing) in June 1949.
Date Full-scale fighting lasted from April 1927 to December 1936, and clashes from January 1941 resuming full conflict from August 1945 to May 1950; war declared over by the ROC in 1991; [1] no Peace Treaty has been signed between the two sides.
Location China
Result Communist victory (the ROC lost control of all its pre-war territory except the islands of Kinmen and Matsu and other minor islands; PRC was founded in mainland China); or
Stalemate (no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed)[2][3]
The PRC established with control over Mainland China;
The ROC territorial control reduced to some minor Fujianese islands it controlled before the war plus Taiwan and some minor islands that it acquired from Japan during the war.
Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China Communist Party of China
After 1949:
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic Of China
Flag of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong
4,300,000 (July 1945)[4]
3,650,000 (June 1948)
1,490,000 (June 1949)
1,200,000 (July 1945)[4]
2,800,000 (June 1948)
4,000,000 (June 1949)
Casualties and losses
1928-1936: ~2,000,000 Military Casualties

1946-1949: ~1,200,000 Military Casualties [5]

The Chinese Civil War (traditional Chinese: 國共內戰; simplified Chinese: 国共内战; pinyin: Guógòng Nèizhàn; literally "Nationalist-Communist Civil War") or (traditional Chinese: 解放戰爭; simplified Chinese: 解放战争; pinyin: Jiefang Zhanzheng; literally "War of Liberation") was a civil war in China between the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).[6] The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition,[7] and ended in May 1950. The war represented an ideological split between the Western-supported Nationalist KMT, and the Soviet-supported Communist CCP.

The civil war carried on intermittently until the looming Second Sino-Japanese War interrupted it, resulting in an organized and temporary Chinese resistance to the Japanese invasion. The Japanese assault and occupation of Eastern China was an opportunistic attack made possible by China's internal turmoil. Japan's campaign was defeated in 1945, marking the end of World War II, and China's full-scale civil war resumed in 1946. After a further four years, 1950 saw a cessation of major hostilities—with the newly founded People's Republic of China controlling mainland China (including Hainan Island), and the Republic of China's jurisdiction being restricted to Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and several outlying Fujianese islands. To this day, since no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, there is controversy as to whether the Civil War has legally ended,[8] even though the two sides have close economic ties.[9]


[edit] Background

The Qing Dynasty, the last of the ruling Chinese dynasties, collapsed in 1911.[9] China was left under the control of several major and lesser warlords in the Warlord era. To defeat these warlords, who had seized control of much of Northern China, the anti-monarchist and national unificationist Kuomintang party and the president of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen, sought the help of foreign powers. Sun Yat-sen's efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1921 he turned to the Soviet Union. For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Communist Party of China, which would eventually found the People's Republic of China. The Soviets hoped for Communist consolidation, but were prepared for either side to emerge victorious. Thus the struggle for power in China began between the KMT and the CPC.

In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for China's unification.[10] The Sun-Joffe Manifesto was a declaration for cooperation among the Comintern, KMT and the Communist Party of China.[10] Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front.[4]

In 1923, Sun Yat-sen sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of Sun's lieutenants from his Tongmeng Hui days, for several months' military and political study in Moscow.[11] By 1924, Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy, and rose to prominence as Sun's successor as head of the KMT.[11]

The Soviets provided much of the studying material, organization, and equipment including munitions for the academy.[11] The Soviets also provided education in many of the techniques for mass mobilization. With this aid Sun Yat-sen was able to raise a dedicated "army of the party," with which he hoped to defeat the warlords militarily. CPC members were also present in the academy, and many of them became instructors, including Zhou Enlai who was made a political instructor of the academy.[12]

Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis.[10] The CCP itself was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925.[13] The KMT in 1923 had 50,000 members.[13]

[edit] Northern Expedition (1926–1928) and KMT-CPC split

Just months after Sun Yat Sen's death in 1925, Chiang-Kai-Shek, as commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, set out on the Northern Expedition[13]. By 1926, however, the KMT had divided into left and right wing factions.[13] The Communist bloc within it was also growing. In the March 1926 Zhongshan Warship Incident, after thwarting an alleged kidnapping attempt against him, Chiang imposed restrictions on CPC members' participation in the top KMT leadership and emerged as the pre-eminent KMT leader.

Government troops rounding up prisoners.

In early 1927; the KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CCP and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou to Wuhan, where Communist influence was strong.[13] But Chiang and Li Zongren, whose armies defeated warlord Sun Chuanfang, moved eastward toward Jiangxi. The leftists rejected Chiang's demand and Chiang denounced the leftists for betraying Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union. According to Mao Zedong, Chiang's tolerance of the CCP in the KMT camp decreased as his power increased.[14]

On April 7, Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting arguing that communist activities were socially and economically disruptive, and must be undone for the national revolution to proceed. As a result of this, on April 12, Chiang turned on the CCP in Shanghai. The KMT was purged of leftists by the arrest and execution of hundreds of CPC members.[15] This was called the April 12 Incident or Shanghai Massacre by the CPC.[16] The massacre widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Jingwei's Wuhan. Attempts were made by CPC to take cities such as Nanchang, Changsha, Shantou, and Guangzhou. An armed rural insurrection, known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising was staged by peasants, minors and CPC members in Hunan Province led by Mao Zedong.[17] The uprising was unsuccessful.[17] There were now three capitals in China: the internationally recognized republic capital in Beijing,[18] the CPC and left-wing KMT at Wuhan,[19] and the right-wing KMT regime at Nanjing, which would remain the KMT capital for the next decade.[18]

The CPC had been expelled from Wuhan by their left-wing KMT allies, who in turn were toppled by Chiang Kai-shek. The KMT resumed the campaign against warlords and captured Beijing in June 1928.[20] Afterwards most of eastern China was under the Nanjing central government's control, and the Nanjing government received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China. The KMT government announced in conformity with Sun Yat-sen, the formula for the three stages of revolution: military unification, political tutelage, and constitutional democracy.[21]

[edit] CPC vs KMT and the Long March (1927–1937)

During the 1920s, Communist Party of China activists retreated underground or to the countryside where they fomented a military revolt, beginning the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927.[22] They combined the force with remnants of peasant rebels, and established control over several areas in southern China.[22] The Guangzhou commune was able to control Guangzhou for three days and a "soviet" was established.[22] KMT armies continued to suppress the rebellions.[22] This marked the beginning of the ten year's struggle, known in mainland China as the "Ten Year's Civil War" (simplified Chinese: 十年内战; pinyin: Shínían Nèizhàn). It lasted until the Xi'an Incident when Chiang Kai-shek was forced to form the Second United Front against the invading Japanese.

A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors.

In 1930 the Central Plains War broke out as an internal conflict of the KMT. It was launched by Feng Yuxiang, Yan Xishan, and Wang Jingwei. The attention was turned to root out remaining pockets of Communist activity in a series of encirclement campaigns. There were a total of five campaigns.[23] The first and second campaigns failed and the third was aborted due to the Mukden Incident. The fourth campaign (1932-1933) achieved some early successes, but Chiang’s armies were badly mauled when they tried to penetrate into the heart of Mao’s Soviet Chinese Republic. During these campaigns, the KMT columns struck swiftly into Communist areas, but were easily engulfed by the vast countryside and were not able to consolidate their foothold.

Finally, in late 1933, Chiang launched a fifth campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region with fortified blockhouses.[24] Unlike in previous campaigns in which they penetrated deeply in a single strike, this time the KMT troops patiently built blockhouses, each separated by five or so miles to surround the Communist areas and cut off their supplies and food source.[24]

In October 1934, the CPC took advantage of gaps in the ring of blockhouses (manned by the troops of a warlord ally of Chiang Kai-shek's, rather than the KMT themselves) to escape Jiangxi. The warlord armies were reluctant to challenge Communist forces for fear of wasting their own men, and did not pursue the CPC with much fervor. In addition, the main KMT forces were preoccupied with annihilating Zhang Guotao's army, which was much larger than Mao's. The massive military retreat of Communist forces lasted a year and covered 12,500 km (25,000 Li), and was known as the famous Long March.[25] The march ended when the CPC reached the interior of Shaanxi. Zhang Guotao's army, which took a different route through northwest China, was largely destroyed by the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and his Chinese Muslim ally, the Ma clique. Along the way, the Communist army confiscated property and weapons from local warlords and landlords, while recruiting peasants and the poor, solidifying its appeal to the masses. Of the 90,000-100,000 people who began the Long March from the Soviet Chinese Republic, only around 7,000-8,000 made it to Shaanxi.[26] The remnants of Zhang's forces eventually joined Mao in Shaanxi, but with his army destroyed, Zhang, even as a founding member of the CPC, was never able to challenge Mao's authority. Essentially, the great retreat made Mao the undisputed leader of the Communist Party of China.

[edit] Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (pictured here in March 1945) was severely weakened in power by the Second Sino-Japanese War.

During the Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek, who saw the CPC as a greater threat, refused to ally with the CPC to fight against the Japanese. On December 12, 1936, KMT Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to a truce with the CPC. The incident became known as the Xi'an Incident.[27] Both parties suspended fighting to form a Second United Front to focus their energies and fighting against the Japanese.[27] In 1937, Japanese airplanes bombed Chinese cities and well-equipped troops overran north and coastal China.

The alliance of CPC and KMT Second united front was in name only.[28] The CPC engaged the Japanese in major battles but also proved efficient in guerrilla warfare. The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CPC and KMT during World War II was minimal.[28] In the midst of the Second United Front, the CPC and the KMT were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e. areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by Japanese puppet governments).[28] The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces. In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CPC’s New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces. Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied. In 1941 the New Fourth Army Incident led to several thousand deaths in the CPC.[29] It also ended the Second united front formed earlier to fight the Japanese.[29] In general, developments in the Second Sino-Japanese War were to the advantage of the CPC. The KMT's resistance to the Japanese proved costly to Chiang Kai-shek. In 1944 the last major offensive, Operation Ichigo was launched by the Japanese against the KMT.[30]

[edit] Immediate post-war clashes (1945–1946)

From left to right: US diplomat Patrick J. Hurley, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek, Chang Ch'ün, Wang Shi Jie (王世杰), Mao Zedong

Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.[30] Under the terms of the Japanese unconditional surrender dictated by the United States, Japanese troops were ordered to surrender to KMT troops and not to the CPC present in some of the occupied areas.[31] In Manchuria the Japanese surrendered to the Soviet Union. However the KMT had no forces in Manchuria. Chiang Kai-Shek ordered the Japanese troops to remain at their post to receive the Kuomintang and not surrender their arms to the communists.[31]

The first post-war peace negotiation was attended by both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in Chongqing from August 28, 1945 to Oct 10, 1945.[32] Both sides stressed the importance of a peaceful reconstruction, but the conference did not produce any concrete result.[32] Battles between the two sides continued even as the peace negotiation was in progress, until the agreement was reached in January 1946. However, large campaigns and full scale confrontations between the CPC and Chiang's own troops were temporarily avoided.

In the last month of World War II in East Asia, Soviet forces launched the mammoth Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation to attack the Japanese in Manchuria and along the Chinese-Mongolian border.[33] This operation destroyed the fighting capability of the Kwantung Army and left the USSR in occupation of all of Manchuria by the end of the war. Consequently, the 700,000 Japanese troops stationed in the region surrendered. Later in the year, Chiang Kai-shek realized that he lacked the resources to prevent a CPC takeover of Manchuria following the scheduled Soviet departure. He therefore made a deal with the Russians to delay their withdrawal until he had moved enough of his best-trained men and modern material into the region. KMT troops were then airlifted by the United States to occupy key cities in North China, while the countryside was already dominated by the CPC. The Soviets spent the extra time systematically dismantling the extensive Manchurian industrial base (worth up to 2 billion dollars) and shipping it back to their war-ravaged country.[34]

The truce fell apart in June 1946, when full scale war between CPC and KMT broke out on June 26. China then entered a state of civil war that lasted more than three years.[35]

[edit] Fighting on mainland China (1946–1950)

The PLA enters Beijing in the Pingjin Campaign and control the later capital of PRC

With the breakdown of talks, an all out war resumed. This stage is referred to in Communist media and historiography as the "War of Liberation" (simplified Chinese: 解放战争; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng). The United States assisted the KMT with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of new surplus military supplies and generous loans of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of military equipment.[36] They airlifted many KMT troops from central China to the Northeast (once called Manchuria). President Truman was very clear about what he described as "using the Japanese to hold off the Communists". In his memoirs he writes "It was perfectly clear to us that if we told the Japanese to lay down their arms immediately and march to the seaboard, the entire country would be taken over by the Communists. We therefore had to take the unusual step of using the enemy as a garrison until we could airlift Chinese National troops to South China and send Marines to guard the seaports".[37] Over 50,000 Marines were sent to guard strategic sites.

General Marshall himself stated that he knew of no evidence that the CPC were being supplied by the Soviet Union.[38] The CPC did benefit indirectly from the elimination of the Japanese Kwantung Army but the Soviets did not provide direct support to the CPC during this period as they expected either a power-sharing arrangement or a KMT victory. The CPC were able to capture a number of weapons abandoned by the Japanese and KMT including some tanks but it was not until large numbers of well trained KMT troops joined the communist force that the CPC were finally able to master the hardware.[39] Anti-Japanese Koreans also played an important role, with 30-40,000 Korean troops participating in the war on the Communist side. Koreans are also credited with repairing Manchurian railroads and bridges which were used by Mao.[40]

In March 1947 the KMT seized the CPC capital of Yenan. By late 1948 the CPC eventually captured the northern cities of Shenyang and Changchun.[41] The economy between the years 1946-1949 witnessed the growth of enterprises offering welfare services to sustain workers standard of living during the hyperinflation crisis that afflicted the KMT.[42] The KMT position was bleak. Chiang Kai Shek attempted to eliminate the CPC in the North by using troops belonging to northern warlords who had sided with Chiang during the Civil War and then switched sides to join the Japanese during the invasion. This strategy backfired; the peasants remembered the CPC as the enemies of the Japanese and Chiang's usage of troops who had assisted the hated invaders further eroded any base of popular support which Chiang might have hoped for. Although the KMT had an advantage in their numbers and weapons, and benefited from considerable international support, their low morale hindered their ability to fight. Furthermore, though they administered a larger and more populous territory, their corruption effectively stifled any civilian support.

The CPC were ultimately able to seize the Northeast after struggling through numerous set-backs while trying to take the cities, with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign.[43] The capture of large KMT formations provided them with the tanks, heavy artillery, and other combined-arms assets needed to prosecute offensive operations south of the Great Wall. By April 1948 the city of Luoyang fell, cutting the KMT army off from Xi'an.[44] Following a fierce battle, the CPC captured Jinan and Shandong province on September 28, 1948.[44] The Huaihai Campaign of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China for the CPC.[43] The outcome of these encounters were decisive for the military outcome of the civil war.[43] The Beiping-Tianjin Campaign resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China lasting 64 days from November 21, 1948 to January 31, 1949.[45] The People's Liberation Army suffered heavy casualties from securing Zhangjiakou, Tianjin along with its port and garrison at Dagu, and Beiping.[45] The CPC brought 890,000 troops from the Northeast to oppose some 600,000 KMT troops.[44] There were 40,000 CPC casualties at Zhangjiakou alone. They in turned killed, wounded or captured some 520,000 KMT during the campaign.[45]

On April 21, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River, capturing Nanjing, capital of the KMT's Republic of China.[25] In most cases, the surrounding countryside and small towns had come under Communist influence long before the cities. By late 1949, the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China.

[edit] CPC establish People's Republic of China / KMT retreat to Taiwan

Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949.

On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China with its capital at Beiping (Peiping), which was renamed Beijing (Peking). Chiang Kai-shek and approximately 2 million Nationalist Chinese retreated from mainland China to the island of Taiwan.[46] There remained only isolated pockets of resistance, notably in Sichuan (ending soon after the fall of Chengdu on December 10, 1949) and in the far south.

A PRC attempt to take the ROC controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou halting the PLA advance towards Taiwan.[47] In December 1949, Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan, the temporary capital of the Republic of China and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority in China.

Communists' other amphibious operations of 1950 were more successful: they led to the Communist conquest of Hainan Island in April 1950, capture of Wanshan Islands off the Guangdong coast (May-August 1950) and of Zhoushan Island off Zhejiang (May 1950).[48]

[edit] Relationship between the two sides since 1950

Most observers expected Chiang's government to eventually fall in response to a Communist invasion of Taiwan, and the United States initially showed no interest in supporting Chiang's government in its final stand. Things changed radically with the onset of the Korean War in June 1950. At this point, allowing a total Communist victory over Chiang became politically impossible in the United States, and President Harry S. Truman ordered the United States Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan straits to prevent the ROC and PRC from attacking each other.[49]

In June 1949, the ROC declared a "closure" of all mainland China ports and its navy attempted to intercept all foreign ships. The closure covered from a point north of the mouth of Min river in Fujian province to the mouth of the Liao river in Manchuria.[50] Since mainland China's railroad network was underdeveloped, north-south trade depended heavily on sea lanes. ROC naval activity also caused severe hardship for mainland China fishermen.

After losing mainland China, a group of approximately 12,000 KMT soldiers escaped to Burma and continued launching guerrilla attacks into south China. Their leader, General Li Mi, was paid a salary by the ROC government and given the nominal title of Governor of Yunnan. Initially, the United States supported these remnants and the Central Intelligence Agency provided them with aid. After the Burmese government appealed to the United Nations in 1953, the U.S. began pressuring the ROC to withdraw its loyalists. By the end of 1954, nearly 6,000 soldiers had left Burma and Li Mi declared his army disbanded. However, thousands remained, and the ROC continued to supply and command them, even secretly supplying reinforcements at times.

After the ROC complained to the United Nations against the Soviet Union supporting the PRC, the UN General Assembly Resolution 505 was adopted on February 1, 1952 to condemn the Soviet Union.

Though viewed as a military liability by the United States, the ROC viewed its remaining islands in Fujian as vital for any future campaign to defeat the PRC and retake mainland China. On September 3, 1954, the First Taiwan Strait crisis began when the PLA started shelling Quemoy and threatened to take the Dachen Islands.[50] On January 20, 1955, the PLA took nearby Yijiangshan Island, with the entire ROC garrison of 720 troops killed or wounded defending the island. On January 24 of the same year, the United States Congress passed the Formosa Resolution authorizing the President to defend the ROC's offshore islands.[50] The First Taiwan Straits crisis ended in March 1955 when the PLA ceased its bombardment. The crisis was brought to a close during the Bandung conference.[50]

The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis began on August 23, 1958 with air and naval engagements between the PRC and the ROC military forces, leading to intense artillery bombardment of Quemoy (by the PRC) and Amoy (by the ROC), and ended on November of the same year.[50] PLA patrol boats blockaded the islands from ROC supply ships. Though the United States rejected Chiang Kai-shek's proposal to bomb mainland China artillery batteries, it quickly moved to supply fighter jets and anti-aircraft missiles to the ROC. It also provided amphibious assault ships to land supply, as a sunken ROC naval vessel was blocking the harbor. On September 7, the United States escorted a convoy of ROC supply ships and the PRC refrained from firing. On October 25, the PRC announced an "even-day ceasefire" — the PLA would only shell Quemoy on odd-numbered days.

Despite the end of the hostilities, the two sides have never signed any agreement or treaty to officially end the war.

Since the late 1980s, there has been growing economic exchanges on between the areas governed by the ROC and PRC while the Taiwan straits remain a dangerous flash point.[9] The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1995–96 escalated tensions between both sides when the PRC tested a series of missiles not far from Taiwan.[51]

Beginning in the early 21st century, there has been a significant warming of relations between the KMT and the Communist Party of China with high level exchanges such as the 2005 Pan-Blue visit. But despite the improved relations between the two parties, direct talks between the presidents of the ROC and PRC have not yet occurred due to the refusal of the PRC to recognize the sovereignty and existence of the ROC.

[edit] Commanders during the Civil War

[edit] Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang)

[edit] Communist Party of China

[edit] Warlords

[edit] List of Chinese Civil War weapons



Submachine Guns

Machine Guns

Heavy Machine Guns

Anti-Tank Weapons



  • Dadao, Nationalist, Communists

[edit] See also

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[edit] Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^ Tsang, Steve. Government and Politics. pp. 241. 
  3. ^ Tsang, Steve. The Gold War's Odd Couple: The Unintended Partnership Between the Republic of China and the UK, 1950-1958. pp. 62. 
  4. ^ a b c Hsiung, James C. Levine, Steven I. [1992] (1992). M.E. Sharpe publishing. Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945. ISBN 156324246X.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Gay, Kathlyn. [2008] (2008). 21st Century Books. Mao Zedong's China. ISBN 0822572850. pg 7
  7. ^ Hutchings, Graham. [2001] (2001). Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674006585.
  8. ^ Leslie C. Green. The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict. p. 79. 
  9. ^ a b c So, Alvin Y. Lin, Nan. Poston, Dudley L. Contributor Professor, So, Alvin Y. [2001] (2001). The Chinese Triangle of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 0313308691.
  10. ^ a b c March, G. Patrick. Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific. [1996] (1996). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275955664. pg 205.
  11. ^ a b c Chang, H. H. Chang. [2007] (2007). Chiang Kai Shek - Asia's Man of Destiny. ISBN 1406758183. pg 126
  12. ^ Ho, Alfred K. Ho, Alfred Kuo-liang. [2004] (2004). China's Reforms and Reformers. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275960803. pg 7.
  13. ^ a b c d e Fairbank, John King. [1994] (1994). China: A New History. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674116739.
  14. ^ Zedong, Mao. Thompson, Roger R. [1990] (1990). Report from Xunwu. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804721823.
  15. ^ Brune, Lester H. Dean Burns, Richard Dean Burns. [2003] (2003). Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations. Routledge. ISBN 0415939143.
  16. ^ Zhao, Suisheng. [2004] (2004). A Nation-state by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804750017.
  17. ^ a b Blasko, Dennis J. [2006] (2006). The Chinese Army Today: Tradition and Transformation for the 21st Century. Routledge. ISBN 0415770033.
  18. ^ a b Esherick, Joseph. [2000] (2000). Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824825187.
  19. ^ Clark, Anne Biller. Clark, Anne Bolling. Klein, Donald. Klein, Donald Walker. [1971] (1971). Harvard Univ. Biographic Dictionary of Chinese communism. Original from the University of Michigan v.1. Digitized Dec 21, 2006. p 134.
  20. ^ Guo, Xuezhi. [2002] (2002). The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275972593.
  21. ^ Theodore De Bary, William. Bloom, Irene. Chan, Wing-tsit. Adler, Joseph. Lufrano Richard. Lufrano, John. [1999] (1999). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231109385. pg 328.
  22. ^ a b c d Lee, Lai to. Trade Unions in China: 1949 To the Present. [1986] (1986). National University of Singapore Press. ISBN 9971690934.
  23. ^ Lynch, Michael Lynch. Clausen, Søren. [2003] (2003). Mao. Routledge. ISBN 0415215773.
  24. ^ a b Manwaring, Max G. Joes, Anthony James. [2000] (2000). Beyond Declaring Victory and Coming Home: The Challenges of Peace and Stability operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275967689. pg 58
  25. ^ a b Zhang, Chunhou. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [2002] (2002). Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. Lexington books. ISBN 0739104063. p 65, p 58
  26. ^ Bianco, Lucien. Bell, Muriel. [1971] (1971). Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804708274. pg 68
  27. ^ a b Ye, Zhaoyan Ye, Berry, Michael. [2003] (2003). Nanjing 1937: A Love Story. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231127545.
  28. ^ a b c Buss, Claude Albert. [1972] (1972). Stanford Alumni Association. The People's Republic of China and Richard Nixon. United States.
  29. ^ a b Schoppa, R. Keith. [2000] (2000). The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231112769.
  30. ^ a b Lary, Diana. [2007] (2007). China's Republic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521842565.
  31. ^ a b Zarrow, Peter Gue. [2005] (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895-1949. Routledge. ISBN 0415364477. pg 338.
  32. ^ a b Xu, Guangqiu. [2001] (2001). War Wings: The United States and Chinese Military Aviation, 1929-1949. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313320047. pg 201.
  33. ^ Bright, Richard Carl. [2007] (2007). Pain and Purpose in the Pacific: True Reports of War. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1425125441.
  34. ^ Lilley, James. China hands : nine decades of adventure, espionage, and diplomacy in Asia , PublicAffairs, New York, 2004
  35. ^ Hu, Jubin. [2003] (2003). Projecting a Nation: Chinese National Cinema Before 1949. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9622096107.
  36. ^ p23, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, William Blum, Zed Books 2004 London.
  37. ^ Harry S.Truman, Memoirs, Vol. Two: Years of Trial and Hope, 1946-1953 (Great Britain 1956), p.66
  38. ^ New York Times, 12 Jan 1947, p44.
  39. ^ Zeng Kelin, Zeng Kelin jianjun zishu (General Zeng Kelin Tells his story), Liaoning renmin chubanshe, Shenyang, 1997. p. 112-3
  40. ^ Tikhomirov, V.V., & Tsukanov, A. M., "Komandirovka v Manchzhuriyu" (Assignment to Manchuria), in Akimov
  41. ^ Lilley, James R. China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage, and Diplomacy in Asia. ISBN 1586481363.
  42. ^ Howard, Joshua H. Workers at War: Labor in China's Arsenals, 1937-1953. [2004] (2004). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804748969. pg 363.
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