Dietary Reference Intake

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The Dietary Reference Intake (or DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the US National Academy of Sciences. The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada and is intended for the general public and health professionals. Applications include:

  • Composition of diets for schools, prisons, hospitals or nursing homes
  • Industries developing new food stuffs
  • Healthcare policy makers and public health officials

The DRI was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI values are not currently used in nutrition labeling, where the older Reference Daily Intake are still used.


[edit] History

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Roberts, Hazel Stiebeling and Helen S. Mitchell, all part of a committee established by the United States National Academy of Sciences in order to investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense" (Nestle, 35).[1] The committee was renamed the Food and Nutrition Board in 1941, after which they began to deliberate on a set of recommendations of a standard daily allowance for each type of nutrient. The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces, for civilians, and for overseas population who might need food relief. Roberts, Stiebeling, and Mitchell surveyed all available data, created a tentative set of allowances for "energy and eight nutrients", and submitted them to experts for review (Nestle, 35). The final set of guidelines, called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances, were accepted in 1941. The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel, so they included a "margin of safety." Because of food rationing during the war, the food guides created by government agencies to direct citizens' nutritional intake also took food availability into account.

The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years. In the early 1950s, United States Department of Agriculture nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient.

[edit] Current recommendations

The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intake (AI), where no RDA has been established, but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin D) that can be harmful in large amounts.

The RDA is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U.S. and Canada.

[edit] Vitamins and minerals

EARs, RDA/AIs and ULs for a 25-year old male are shown below. EARs shown as "NE" have not yet been established or not yet evaluated. ULs shown as "ND" could not be determined, and it is recommended that intake from these nutrients be from food only, to prevent adverse effects. Amounts and "ND" status for other age and gender groups, pregnant women, lactating women, and breastfeeding infants are different.[2]

Nutrient EAR RDA/AI UL Unit
Vitamin A 2083 3000 10000 IU
Vitamin C 75 90 2000 mg
Vitamin D NE 200 2000 IU
Vitamin K NE 120 ND µg
Vitamin B6 1.1 1.3 100 mg
α-tocopherol (E) 12 15 1000 IU
Biotin NE 30 ND µg
Boron NE - 20 mg
Calcium NE 1000 2500 mg
Chloride NE 2300 3600 mg
Chromium NE 35 ND µg
Choline NE 550 3500 mg
Copper 700 900 10000 µg
Cyanocobalamin (B12) 2.0 2.4 ND µg
Fluoride NE 4 10 mg
Folate (B9) 320 400 1000 µg
Iodine 95 150 1100 µg
Iron 6 8 45 mg
Magnesium 330 420 350a mg
Manganese NE 2.3 11 mg
Molybdenum 34 45 2000 µg
Niacin (B3) 12 16 35 mg
Nickel NE - 1.0 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) NE 5 ND mg
Phosphorus 580 700 4000 mg
Potassium NE 4700 ND mg
Thiamin (B1) 1.0 1.2 ND mg
Riboflavin (B2) 1.1 1.3 ND mg
Selenium 45 55 400 µg
Sodium NE 1500 2300 mg
Sulfate NE - ND -
Zinc 9.4 11 40 mg

a From pill only, not including food and water intake.

EAR: Estimated Average Requirements; RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances; AI: Adequate Intake; UL: Tolerable upper intake levels.

It is also recommended that the following substances not be added to food or dietary supplements. Research has been conducted into adverse effects, but was not conclusive in many cases:

Substance RDA/AI UL units per day
Arsenic - ND -
Silicon - ND -
Vanadium - 1.8 mg

[edit] Macronutrients

RDA/AI is shown below for males and females aged 40-50 years.[2]

Substance Amount (males) Amount (females)
Waterb 3.7 L/day 2.7 L/day
Carbohydrates 130 g/day 130 g/day
Proteinc 56 g/day 46 g/day
Fiber 38 g/day 25 g/day
Fat 20–35% of calories
Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid (polyunsaturated) 17 g/day 12 g/day
alpha-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid (polyunsaturated) 1.6 g/day 1.1 g/day
Cholesterol As low as possible
Trans fatty acids As low as possible
Saturated fatty acids As low as possible
Added sugar No more than 25% of calories
bIncludes water from food, beverages, and drinking water.
cBased on 0.8 g/kg of body weight

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Contributions of Women Scientists in the U.S. to the Development of Recommended Dietary Allowances - Harper 133 (11): 3698 - Journal of Nutrition
  2. ^ a b

[edit] External links

[edit] References

Nestle, Marion. "Food Politics." Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

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