Japanese name

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This article contains Japanese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.
Yamada Tarō (山田太郎), a typical or stereotype Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. Jane Smith would be Yamada Hanako (山田花子).

Japanese names (人名 jinmei?) in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name. This order is common in countries that have long been part of the Sinosphere, including among the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese cultures. "Middle names" are not generally used. Japanese names are usually written in kanji, which are characters of usually Chinese origin in Japanese pronunciation. The kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, but parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana don't really bear a meaning, in contrast to given names expressed in kanji.

Japanese family names are extremely varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan. This is due to the recent origin of family names in Japan (1870s), hence there have been few generations in which family names could become extinct.[1] Common family names in Japan include Satō (佐藤) (most common), Suzuki (鈴木) (second most common), Takahashi (高橋) (third most common), and Katō (加藤) (tenth most common).[2] Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions; for example, the names Chinen (知念), Higa (比嘉), and Shimabukuro (島袋) are common in Okinawa but not in other parts of Japan; this is mainly due to differences between the language and culture of Yamato people and Okinawans. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape; for example, Ishikawa (石川) means "stone river," Yamamoto (山本) means "the base of the mountain," and Inoue (井上) means "above the well."

Given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. Male names often end in -rō ( "son", but also "clear, bright"; e.g. "Ichirō") or -ta ( "great, thick"; e.g. "Kenta"), or contain ichi ( "first [son]"; e.g. "Ken'ichi"), kazu (also written with 一 "first [son]", along with several other possible characters; e.g. "Kazuhiro"), ji ( "second [son]" or "next"; e.g. "Jirō"), or dai ( "great, large"; e.g. "Dai'ichi") while female names often end in -ko ( "child"; e.g. "Keiko") or -mi ( "beauty"; e.g. "Yumi"). Other popular endings for female names include -ka ( "scent, perfume" or "flower"; e.g. "Reika") and -na (, or , meaning greens; e.g. "Haruna").


[edit] Structure

All Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no middle name, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The surname is called myōji (苗字 or 名字), uji () or sei (), and the given name is called the "name" (名前 namae) or "lower name" (下の名前 shita no namae). The family name precedes the given name.

Historically, myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was originally the matrilineal surname. Later it became granted only by the emperor. There were relatively few sei, and most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei. Uji was first used to designate patrilineal descent, but later merged with myōji around the same time sei lost its matrilineal significance. Myōji was, simply, what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See also Kabane.

There are a few names that can be used as either surnames or given names (for example Mayumi 真弓, Kaneko 金子, Masuko 益子, or Arata ). In addition, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and which is the given name is usually apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in. This thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example when writing in English using the order family name, given name. However, due to the variety of pronunciations and differences in languages, some common surnames and given names may coincide when Romanized: e.g., Shoji (昌司, 昭次, or 正二 ?) (given name) and Shoji (庄司, 庄子, 東海林, or 小路 ?) (surname).

[edit] Characters

Japanese names are usually written in kanji (Chinese characters), although some names use hiragana or even katakana, or a mixture of kanji and kana. While most "traditional" names use kun'yomi (native Japanese) kanji readings, a large number of given names and surnames use on'yomi (Chinese-based) kanji readings as well. Many others use readings which are only used in names (nanori), such as the female name Nozomi (). The majority of surnames comprise one, two or three kanji characters. There are also a small number of four or five kanji surnames, such as Teshigawara (勅使河原) and Kutaragi (久多良木), Kadenokōji (勘解由小路), but these are extremely rare.[citation needed]

As mentioned above, female given names often end in the syllable ko, written with the kanji meaning "child" (). This was much more common up to about the 1980s, but the practice does continue today. Male names occasionally end with the syllable ko, but very rarely using the kanji (most often, if a male name ends in ko, it ends in hiko, using the kanji ). Common male name endings are -shi and -o; names ending with -shi are often adjectives, e.g., Atsushi which might mean, for example, "(to be) faithful." In the past (before World War II), names written with katakana were common for women, but this trend seems to have lost favour. Hiragana names for women are not unusual. Kana names for boys, particularly those written in hiragana, have historically been very rare. This may be in part because the hiragana script is seen as feminine; in medieval Japan, women generally were not taught kanji and wrote exclusively in hiragana.

Names, like other Japanese words, cannot begin with the syllable n (, ). Some names end in n: the male names Ken, Shin, and Jun are examples. The syllable n should not be confused with the consonant "n," which names can begin with; for example, the female name Naoko (尚子) or the male Naoya (直哉). (The consonant "n" needs to be paired with a vowel to form a syllable.)

One large category of family names can be categorized as "-tō" names. The kanji , meaning wisteria, has the on'yomi (or, with rendaku, ). Many Japanese people have surnames that include this kanji as the second character. This is because the Fujiwara clan (藤原家) gave their samurai surnames ending with the first character of their name, to denote their status in an era when commoners were not allowed surnames. Examples include Atō, Andō, Itō (although a different final kanji is also common), Udō, Etō, Endō, Gotō, Jitō, Katō, Kitō, Kudō, Kondō, Saitō, Satō, Shindō, Sudō, Naitō, Bitō, and Mutō. As already noted, some of the most common family names are in this list.

[edit] Difficulty of reading names

A name written in kanji may have more than one common pronunciation, only one of which is correct for a given individual. For example, the surname written in kanji as 東海林 may be read either Tōkairin or Shōji. Conversely, any one name may have several possible written forms, and again, only one will be correct for a given individual. The character 一 when used as a male given name may be used as the written form for "Hajime," "Hitoshi," "Ichi- / -ichi" "Kazu- / -kazu," and many others. The name "Hajime" may be written with any of the following: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , or . This many-to-many correspondence between names and the ways they are written is much more common with male given names than with surnames or female given names, but can be observed in all these categories. This can make the collation, pronunciation, and romanization of a Japanese name a very difficult problem. For this reason, business cards often include the pronunciation of the name as furigana, and forms and documents always have spaces to write the reading of the name in kana (usually katakana). At restaurants in Japan it is common to wait to be seated by writing one's name on a list and waiting to be called, and at the top of the list there is usually a request to write one's name in katakana, rather than kanji.

A few Japanese names, particularly family names, include old-fashioned versions of characters. For example the very common character shima, island, may be written as or instead of the usual . Some names also feature very uncommon kanji, or even kanji which no longer exist in modern Japanese. Japanese people who have such names are likely to compromise by substituting similar or simplified characters.

An example of such a name is Saitō. There are two common kanji for sai here. The two sai characters have different meanings: means "together" or "parallel", but means "to purify". These names can also exist written in old-fashioned characters, as 齊藤 and 齋藤 respectively.

Family names are sometimes written with idiosyncratic characters, called ateji, that relate indirectly to the name as spoken. For example, 四月一日 would normally be read as shigatsu tsuitachi ("April 1st"), but as a family name it is read watanuki ("unpadded clothes"), because April 1st is the traditional date to switch from winter to summer clothes.

Most Japanese people and agencies have adopted customs to deal with these issues. Address books, for instance, often contain furigana or ruby characters to clarify the pronunciation of the name. Japanese nationals are also required to give a romanized name for their passport. The recent use of Japanese media using katakana when referring to Japanese celebrities who have gained international fame has started a fad among young socialites attempting to invoke a cosmopolitan flair who use katakana names as a badge of honor. All of these complications are also found in Japanese place names.

Not all names are complicated. Some common names are summarized by the phrase tanakamura ("the village in the middle of the rice fields"): the three kanji: (ta, rice field), (naka, middle) and (mura, village), together in any pair, form a simple, reasonably common surname: Tanaka, Nakamura, Murata, Nakata (Nakada), Muranaka, Tamura.

Despite these difficulties, there are enough patterns and recurring names that most native Japanese will be able to read virtually all family names they encounter and the majority of personal names.

[edit] Regulations

Kanji names in Japan are governed by the government's rules on kanji use. As of October 2004 there are 2,232 "name kanji" (the jinmeiyō kanji) and "commonly used characters" (the jōyō kanji) used in personal names, and the government plans to increase this list by 578 kanji in the near future. This would be the largest increase since World War II. Only kanji which appear on the official list may be used in given names. This is to ensure that names can be written and read by those literate in Japanese. Rules also govern names considered to be inappropriate; for example, in 1993 two parents who tried to name their child Akuma, which literally means "devil," were prohibited from doing so.[3]

Though there are regulations on the naming of children, many old characters can still be found in adults' names. Because these restrictions have been confusing to say the least, many recent changes have been made to increase rather than to reduce the number of kanji allowed for use in names. Moreover, the Sapporo High Court held that it was unlawful for the government to deny registration of a child's name because it contained a kanji character that was relatively common but not included in the official list of name characters compiled by the Ministry of Justice. Subsequently, the Japanese government promulgated plans to increase the number of "permitted" kanji.

The use of a space in given names (to separate first and middle names) is not allowed, because technically, a space is not an allowed character.

The plan to increase the number of name kanji has been controversial, largely because Chinese characters meaning "cancer" (癌 gan), "hemorrhoids" (痔 ji), "corpse" (骸 gai) and "excrement" (糞 fun / kuso), as well as those used in jukugo (words which are compounds of two or more kanji) meaning "curse" (呪 ju / noro[i]), "prostitute" (娼 shō) and "(immoral) sex" (姦 kan), are among the proposed additions to the list. This is because no measures were taken to determine the appropriateness of the kanji proposed. An example is "hip" or "buttock" (尻 shiri), which is felt odd by majorities but its prohibition may be controversial because it is not uncommon for family name. The government will seek input from the public before approving the list.

[edit] Customs

In ancient times, people in Japan were considered the property of the Emperor and their surname reflected the role in the government they served. An example is Ōtomo (おおとも 'great attendant, companion'). Names would also be given in the recognition of a great achievement and contribution.

Until the Meiji restoration, Japanese common people (people other than kuge and samurai) had no surnames, and when necessary, used a substitute such as the name of their birthplace. For example, Ichirō born in Asahi mura (Asahi village) in the province of Musashi would say "Ichirō from Asahi-mura of Musashi". Merchants were named after their brands (for example, Denbei, the owner of Sagamiya, would be Sagamiya Denbei), and farmers were named after their fathers (for example, Isuke, whose father was Genbei, would be "Isuke, son of Genbei"). After the Meiji restoration, the government ordered all commoners to assume surnames in addition to their given names: many people adopted historical names, while others simply made names up or had a local sage make up a surname. This explains, in part, the large number of surnames in Japan, as well as their great diversity of spellings and pronunciations.

During the period when typical parents had several children, it was a common practice to name sons by numbers suffixed with (, "son"). The first son would be known as "Ichirō", the second as "Jirō", and so on. Girls were often named with ko (, "child") at the end of the given name; this should not be confused with the less common male suffix hiko (). Both practices have become less common, although many children still have names along these lines.

[edit] Speaking to and of others

The way in which a name is used in conversation depends on the circumstances and the speaker's relationships with the listener and the bearer of the name. Typically the family name is used, with given names largely restricted to informal situations and cases where the speaker is older than, superior to, or very familiar with the named individual. When addressing someone, or referring to a member of one's out-group, a title such as さん -san is typically added.

Japanese people avoid often referring to their seniors or superiors by name at all, using just a title: within a family this might be a kinship relation such as お母さん okāsan ("mother"), in a school it could be 先生 sensei ("teacher"), while a company president would be addressed as 社長 shachō ("company president").

On the other hand, pronominals meaning "you" ( あなた anata, きみ kimi, お前 omae ) are used rather little in Japanese. Using such words sometimes sounds disrespectful, and people will commonly address each other by name, title and honorific even in face-to-face conversations.

Calling someone's name (family name) without any title or honorific is called yobisute (呼び捨て), and may be considered rude even in the most informal and friendly occasions. This faux pas, however, is readily excused for foreigners.

[edit] Nicknames

The common Japanese practice of forming abbreviations by concatenating the first two morae of two words is sometimes applied to names (usually those of celebrities). For example, Takuya Kimura (木村 拓哉 Kimura Takuya?), a famous Japanese actor and singer, becomes Kimutaku (キムタク ?). This is sometimes applied even to non-Japanese celebrities: Brad Pitt, whose full name in Japanese is Buraddo Pitto (ブラッド ピット ?) is commonly known as Burapi (ブラピ ?), and Jimi Hendrix is abbreviated as Jimihen (ジミヘン ?). Some Japanese celebrities have also taken names combining kanji and katakana, such as Terry Itō (テリー伊藤).

Corresponding to any given name there are one or more hypocoristics, affectionate nicknames. These are formed by adding the suffix -chan ちゃん to a stem. There are two types of stem. One consists of the full given name. Examples of this type are Tarō-chan from Tarō, Kimiko-chan from Kimiko, and Yasunari-chan from Yasunari. The other type of stem is a modified stem derived from the full given name. Examples of such names are: Taro-chan from Tarō, Kii-chan from Kimiko, and Yā-chan from Yasunari. Hypocoristics with modified stems are more intimate than those based on the full given name.

Hypocoristics with modified stems are derived by adding -chan to a stem consisting of an integral number, usually one but occasionally two, of feet, where a foot consists of two moras. A mora 音節 is the unit of which a light syllable contains one and a heavy syllable two. For example, the stems that may be derived from Tarō are /taro/, consisting of two light syllables, and /taa/, consisting of a single syllable with a long vowel, resulting in Taro-chan and Tā-chan. The stems that may be derived from Hanako are /hana/, with two light syllables, /han/, with one syllable closed by a consonant, and /haa/, with one syllable with a long vowel, resulting in Hanachan, Hanchan, and Hāchan. The segmental content is usually a left substring of that of the given name. However, in some cases it is obtained by other means, including the use of another reading of the Chinese characters used to write the name. For example, a girl named Keiko may be called Meguchan because the character sometimes used to write the /kei/ of Keiko, , can also be read /megu/.

In general, one may use a hypochoristic only if he or she has known the person since he or she was a child. Thus, they may be used for children or for adults whom one has known since they were children.

[edit] Names from other ethnic groups in Japan

Many ethnic minorities, mostly Korean and Chinese, living in Japan adopt Japanese names. The roots of this custom go back to the colonial-era policy of sōshi-kaimei, which permitted many Koreans to change their names to Japanese names. Nowadays, ethnic minorities, mostly Korean, who immigrated to Japan after the WWII, take on Japanese names, sometimes called pass names, to ease communication and, more importantly, to avoid discrimination. A few of them (e.g., Chang Woo Han, founder and chairman of Maruhan Corp.) still keep their native names.

Japanese citizenship used to require adopting a Japanese name. In recent decades, the government has allowed individuals to simply adopt katakana versions of their native names when applying for citizenship: Parliament member Tsurunen Marutei (ツルネン マルテイ), originally Martti Turunen, is a famous example. Others transliterate their names into phonetically similar kanji compounds, such as immigrant's-rights activist Arudou Debito (有道 出人), previously David Aldwinckle. Still others have abandoned their native names entirely in favor of traditional Japanese names, such as Lafcadio Hearn, who used the name "Koizumi Yakumo" (小泉 八雲). At the time, to gain Japanese citizenship, it was necessary to be adopted by a Japanese family (in Hearn's case, it was his wife's family) and take their name.

Ethnic Chinese and Koreans in Japan sometimes have to change the characters in their names to apply for citizenship, because of the restrictions on which kanji can be used.

Individuals born overseas with Western given names and Japanese surnames are usually given a katakana name in Western order when referred to in Japanese. Eric Shinseki, for instance, is referred to as エリック シンセキ (Erikku Shinseki). But sometimes this doesn't happen. Sometimes Japanese parents decide to use Japanese order when mentioning their name in Japanese language. Also, Japanese parents tend to give their children a name in kanji, hiragana or katakana, especially if it's a Japanese name.

There is a restriction (as of 2001) on the use of the "v" character in a name unless at least one of the parent is of foreign origin.[citation needed] The closest corresponding katakana is , which can be romanized as v or b. This affects issuing of Japanese passports or other documentation where a romaji representation of the name is given; the letter v is replaced with b. This affects names such as Kevin (ケヴィン), which would be written as Kebin.[citation needed]

[edit] Imperial names

Akishino-dera in Nara, from which Prince Akishino took his name

The Japanese emperor and his families have no surname for historical reasons, only a given name such as Hirohito (裕仁), which is rarely used in Japan: Japanese prefer to say "the Emperor" or "the Crown Prince", out of respect and as a measure of politeness.

When children are born into the Imperial family, they are given a standard given name, as well as a special title. For instance, the title of Akihito (current Emperor, Tsugu-no-miya Akihito (継宮明仁)) is Tsugu-no-miya (継宮 "Prince Tsugu"), and was referred to as "Prince Tsugu" during his childhood. This title is generally used until the individual becomes heir to the throne or inherits one of the historical princely family names (常陸宮 Hitachi-no-miya, 三笠宮 Mikasa-no-miya, 秋篠宮 Akishino-no-miya, etc.).

When a member of the Imperial family becomes a noble or a commoner, the emperor gives him or her a family name. In medieval era, a family name "Minamoto" was often used. In modern era, princely family names are used. For example, many members of the extended Imperial family became commoners after World War II, and adopted their Imperial surnames as regular surnames. Conversely, at the time that a noble or a commoner become a member of the Imperial family, such as through marriage, his or her family name is lost. An example is Empress Michiko, whose name was Michiko Shōda before she married prince Akihito.

[edit] Historical names

The current structure (family name + given name) did not materialize until the 1870s when the government made the new family registration system.

In feudal Japan, names reflected a person's social status. They also reflect a person's affiliation to Buddhist, Shintō, feudatory-military, Confucian-scholarly, mercantile, peasant, slave and imperial orders.

Before feudal times, Japanese clan names figured prominently in history: names with no fall into this category. (No means of, although the association is in the opposite order in Japanese, and is not generally explicitly written in this style of name.) Thus, Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝) was Yoritomo (頼朝) of the Minamoto () clan. Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原 鎌足), Ki no Tsurayuki (紀 貫之), and Taira no Kiyomori (平 清盛) are additional examples.

Historically, a Japanese person could maintain several names to use in different occasions. Among those that were common are Azana, Imina or Okurina (either translate to posthumous name) and () (a pen name, Haigō or Haimei for Haiku poet, Kagō for Waka poet). It was not uncommon for one to have more than 10 names. [2] Imina is the same as one's real name and the real name would be called Imina posthumously. It is called so because after one's death, he would be referred by his Okurina while the pronunciation of Imina is being avoided. Azana (字), which is given at Genpuku (元服), is used by others and one himself uses his real name to refer to him. is commonly named after places or houses; e.g., Basho, as in the Haiku poet Matsuo Basho (松尾 芭蕉), is named after his house, Basho-an (芭蕉庵).

In the late shogunate period, many anti-government activists used several false names to hide their activities from the shogunate. Examples are Saitani Umetarō (才谷 梅太郎) for Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬), Niibori Matsusuke (新堀 松輔) for Kido Takayoshi (木戸 孝允) and Tani Umenosuke (谷 梅之助) for Takasugi Shinsaku (高杉 晋作). The famous writer Kyokutei Bakin (曲亭 馬琴) is known to have had as many as 33 names.

[edit] Professional names

Actors and actresses in Western and Japanese dramatic forms, comedians, sumo wrestlers, and practitioners of traditional crafts often use professional names. Kabuki actors take one of the traditional surnames such as Nakamura (中村), Bandō or Onoe. Many stage names of television and film actors and actresses are unremarkable, being just like ordinary Japanese personal names, but a few are tongue-in-cheek. For example, Kamatari Fujiwara (藤原 釜足) chose the name of the aforementioned founder of the Fujiwara family, while Hino Yōjin (日野 陽仁)'s name sounds like be careful with fire (although written differently). Many stand-up comics like the duo Beat Takeshi and Beat Kiyoshi choose a Western name for the act, and use their own (or stage) given names. Writers also tend to be clever about their names, for example Edogawa Ranpo which is designed to sound like "Edgar Allan Poe".

Sumo wrestlers take wrestling names called shikona (醜名 or 四股名). While a shikona can be the wrestler's own surname, most upper-division rikishi have a shikona different from their surname. A typical shikona consists of one, two or three kanji. Often, part of the name comes from the wrestler's master, a place name (such as the name of a province, a river, or a sea), the name of a weapon, an item identified with Japanese tradition (like a koto or nishiki), or a term indicating superiority. Often, waka indicates a wrestler whose father was also in sumo; in this case, the meaning is junior. Wrestlers can change their shikona, as Takahanada did when he became Takanohana (貴ノ花) and then Takanohana (貴乃花). Another notable example is the wrestler Sentoryu, which means fighting war dragon but is also homophonous with St. Louis, his city of origin.

Geisha and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts such as pottery, the tea ceremony, calligraphy, irezumi (tattooing) and ikebana (flower arranging) often take professional names. In many cases, these come from the master under whom they studied.

[edit] Japanese names in English

As is the case for other transliterations, writing Japanese names in English poses several issues, mainly romanization and name order issues.

As this differs from the ordering used in many other parts of the world, some, particularly academics, adopt the convention of writing the family name in upper case when the name is romanized: for example, Takuya MURATA or MURATA Takuya. Artists whose works are distributed in English outside of Japan often opt for a Western ordering on the English editions of their works: e.g., Ryuichi Sakamoto (坂本 龍一 Sakamoto Ryūichi), Shunji Iwai (岩井 俊二 Iwai Shunji), and Haruki Murakami (村上 春樹 Murakami Haruki). Japanese living overseas, such as Yoko Ono (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko) and Ichiro Suzuki (鈴木 一朗 Suzuki Ichirō), usually use the Western order as well.

Most foreign scholars of Japanese history and literature use the Japanese order, so historical and literary figures are usually referred to in that order: e.g., Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部) and Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川 家康). However, English publications tend to prefer the Western order when discussing contemporary individuals, especially politicians, businessmen and athletes. There is no reason to do so except that the Japanese used to choose to write their names in the Western order in Western language in the past, thinking that it was the correct way. English publication merely followed this tradition. It should be noted that there is a tendency to respect foreign customs, including the preservation of original pronunciations of foreign names in Japanese. Adopting the Western order could have been the reverse of this respect. In contrast, when written in kanji characters, the order of Japanese names is never reversed.

The following English publications tend to use the western order to refer to Japanese figures:

  • Credits in movies
  • Characters in comics (if the names of the characters have not been completely changed)
  • Books concerning contemporary Japanese culture like J-pop
  • Sports media
  • Scientific publications

But, in recent years (since the beginning of the 21st century), Japanese order in English writing is rising. For example, in NHK's TV programs (e.g. "Eigo de Shabera Night", "Salaryman NEO", "Bakusho Mondai no Nippon no Kyoyo"), credits (Japanese names in English Alphabets) are written using Japanese order.

The following tend to keep the original Japanese order:

  • Japanese passports
  • Scholarly articles
  • Books concerning historical Japanese activities like Go and Waka

Characters in translated Japanese manga, anime and video games are special cases. They are sometimes given new Western names (as in Pokémon for example), or they may keep their original Japanese names in either Japanese or Western name order. They may also have non-Hepburn transliterations of their names, or even different transliterations between different editions or between manga, anime and/or video game versions (as in Yu-Gi-Oh!, for example).

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ This is in stark contrast to the small number of family names in nearby China and Korea, which have used family names for far longer; see Galton-Watson process for mathematical details.
  2. ^ [1] (.XLS file).
  3. ^ Legal Regulations on the Advanced Science and Technology 15

Some materials taken from Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, article on "names"

[edit] Further reading

  • Koop, Albert J., Hogitaro Inada. Japanese Names and How to Read Them 2005 ISBN 0-7103-1102-8 Kegan Paul International Ltd.
  • O'Neill, P.G. Japanese Names 1972 ISBN 0-8348-0225-2 Weatherhill Inc.
  • Plutschow, Herbert. Japan's Name Culture 1995 ISBN 1-873410-42-5 Routledge/Curzon
  • Poser, William J. (1990) "Evidence for Foot Structure in Japanese," Language 66.1.78-105. (Describes hypochoristic formation and some other types of derived names.)
  • Throndardottir, Solveig. Name Construction in Medieval Japan 2004 ISBN 0-939329-02-6 Potboiler Press
  • Society of Writers, Editors and Translators. Japan Style Sheet 1998 ISBN 1-880656-30-2 Stone Bridge Press

[edit] External links

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