Fourier transform
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In mathematics, the Fourier transform is an operation that transforms one complexvalued function of a real variable into another. The new function, often called the frequency domain representation of the original function, describes which frequencies are present in the original function. This is in a similar spirit to the way that a chord of music can be described by notes that are being played. In effect, the Fourier transform decomposes a function into oscillatory functions. The Fourier transform (FT) is similar to many other operations in mathematics which make up the subject of Fourier analysis. In this specific case, both the domains of the original function and its frequency domain representation are continuous and unbounded. The term Fourier transform can refer to both the frequency domain representation of a function or to the process/formula that "transforms" one function into the other.
Fourier transforms 

Continuous Fourier transform 
Fourier series 
Discrete Fourier transform 
Discretetime Fourier transform 

Contents 
[edit] Definition
There are several common conventions for defining the Fourier transform of an integrable function ƒ : R → C (Kaiser 1994). This article will use the definition:
 for every real number ξ. (This letter is the lowercase Greek letter Xi).
When the independent variable x represents time (with SI unit of seconds), the transform variable ξ represents ordinary frequency (in hertz). Under suitable conditions, ƒ can be reconstructed from by the inverse transform:
 for every real number x.
For other common conventions and notations see the sections Other conventions and Other notations below.
[edit] Introduction
The motivation for the Fourier transform comes from the study of Fourier series. In the study of Fourier series, complicated periodic functions are written as the sum of simple waves mathematically represented by sines and cosines. Due to the properties of sine and cosine it is possible to recover the amount of each wave in the sum by an integral. In many cases it is desirable to use Euler's formula, which states that e^{2πiθ} = cos 2πθ + i sin 2πθ, to write Fourier series in terms of the basic waves e^{2πiθ}. This has the advantage of simplifying many of the formulas involved and providing a formulation for Fourier series that more closely resembles the definition followed in this article. This passage from sines and cosines to complex exponentials makes it necessary for the Fourier coefficients to be complex valued. The usual interpretation of this complex number is that it gives you both the amplitude (or size) of the wave present in the function and the phase (or the initial angle) of the wave. This passage also introduces the need for negative "frequencies". If θ were measured in seconds then the waves e^{2πiθ} and e^{−2πiθ} would both complete one cycle per second, but they represent different frequencies in the Fourier transform. Hence, frequency no longer measures the number of cycles per unit time, but is closely related.
We may use Fourier series to motivate the Fourier transform as follows. Suppose that ƒ is a function which is zero outside of some interval [−L/2, L/2]. Then for any T ≥ L we may expand ƒ in a Fourier series on the interval [−T/2,T/2], where the "amount" (denoted by c_{n}) of the wave e^{2πinx/T} in the Fourier series of ƒ is given by
and ƒ should be given by the formula
If we let ξ_{n} = n/T, and we let Δξ = (n + 1)/T − n/T = 1/T, then this last sum becomes the Riemann sum
By letting T → ∞ this Riemann sum converges to the integral for the inverse Fourier transform given in the Definition section. Under suitable conditions this argument may be made precise (Stein & Shakarchi 2003). Hence, as in the case is Fourier series, the Fourier transform can be thought of as a function that measures how much of each individual frequency is present in our function, and we can recombine these waves by using an integral (or "continuous sum") to reproduce the original function.
The following images provide a visual illustration of how the Fourier transform measures whether a frequency is present in a particular function. The function depicted oscillates at 3 hertz (if t measures seconds) and tends quickly to 0. This function was specially chosen to have a real Fourier transform which can easily be plotted. The first image contains its graph. In order to calculate we must integrate e^{−2πi(3t)}ƒ(t). The second image shows the plot of the real and imaginary parts of this function. The real part of the integrand is almost always positive, this is because when ƒ(t) is negative, then the real part of e^{−2πi(3t)} is negative as well. Because they oscillate at the same rate, when ƒ(t) is positive, so is the real part of e^{−2πi(3t)}. The result is that when you integrate the real part of the integrand you get a relatively large number (in this case 0.5). On the other hand, when you try to measure a frequency that is not present, as in the case when we look at , the integrand oscillates enough so that the integral is very small. The general situation may be a bit more complicated than this, but this in spirit is how the Fourier transform measures how much of an individual frequency is present in a function ƒ(t).
[edit] Properties of the Fourier transform
An integrable function is a function ƒ on the real line that is Lebesguemeasurable and satisfies
[edit] Basic properties
Given integrable functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) denote their Fourier transforms by , , and respectively. The Fourier transform has the following basic properties (Pinsky 2002).
 Linearity
 For any complex numbers a and b, if h(x) = aƒ(x) + bg(x), then
 Translation
 For any real number x_{0}, if h(x) = ƒ(x − x_{0}), then
 Modulation
 For any real number ξ_{0}, if h(x) = e^{2πixξ0}ƒ(x), then .
 Scaling
 For all nonzero real numbers a, if h(x) = ƒ(ax), then . The case a = −1 leads to the timereversal property, which states: if h(x) = ƒ(−x), then .
 Conjugation
 If , then
 Convolution
 If , then
[edit] Uniform continuity and the RiemannLebesgue lemma
The Fourier transform of integrable functions have additional properties that do not always hold. The Fourier transform of integrable functions ƒ are uniformly continuous and (Katznelson 1976). The Fourier transform of integrable functions also satisfy the RiemannLebesgue lemma which states that (Stein & Weiss 1971)
The Fourier transform of an integrable function ƒ is bounded and continuous, but need not be integrable. It is not possible in general to write the inverse transform as a Lebesgue integral. However, when both ƒ and are integrable, the following inverse equality holds true for almost every x:
Almost everywhere, ƒ is equal to the continuous function given by the righthand side. If ƒ is given as continuous function on the line, then equality holds for every x.
A consequence of the preceding result is that the Fourier transform is injective on L^{1}(R).
[edit] The Plancherel theorem and Parseval's theorem
Let f(x) and g(x) be integrable, and let and be their Fourier transforms. If f(x) and g(x) are also squareintegrable, then we have Parseval's theorem (Rudin 1987, p. 187):
where the bar denotes complex conjugation.
The Plancherel theorem, which is equivalent to Parseval's theorem, states (Rudin 1987, p. 186):
The Plancherel theorem makes it possible to define the Fourier transform for functions in L^{2}(R), as described in Generalizations below. The Plancherel theorem has the interpretation in the sciences that the Fourier transform preserves the energy of the original quantity. It should be noted that depending on the author either of these theorems might be referred to as the Plancherel theorem or as Parseval's theorem.
See Pontryagin duality for a general formulation of this concept in the context of locally compact abelian groups.
[edit] Uncertainty principle
Generally speaking, the more concentrated f(x) is, the more spread out its Fourier transform must be. In particular, the scaling property of the Fourier transform may be seen as saying: if we "squeeze" a function in x, its Fourier transform "stretches out" in ξ. It is not possible to arbitrarily concentrate both a function and its Fourier transform.
The tradeoff between the compaction of a function and its Fourier transform can be formalized in the form of an Uncertainty Principle. Suppose ƒ(x) is an integrable and squareintegrable function. Without loss of generality, assume that ƒ(x) is normalized:
It follows from the Plancherel theorem that is also normalized.
The spread around x = 0 may be measured by the dispersion about zero (Pinsky 2002) defined by
In probability terms, this is the second moment of about zero.
The Uncertainty principle states that, if ƒ(x) is absolutely continuous and the functions x·ƒ(x) and ƒ′(x) are square integrable, then
 (Pinsky 2002).
The equality is attained only in the case (hence ) where σ > 0 is arbitrary and C_{1} is such that ƒ is L^{2}–normalized (Pinsky 2002). In other words, where ƒ is a (normalized) Gaussian function, centered at zero.
In fact, this inequality implies that:
for any in R (Stein & Shakarchi 2003).
In quantum mechanics, the momentum and position wave functions are Fourier transform pairs, to within a factor of Planck's constant. With this constant properly taken into account, the inequality above becomes the statement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (Stein & Shakarchi 2003).
[edit] Poisson summation formula
The Poisson summation formula provides a link between the study of Fourier transforms and Fourier Series. Given an integrable function ƒ in L^{1}(R^{n}) we can consider the periodization of ƒ given by
Then the Poisson summation formula relates the Fourier series of to the Fourier transform of ƒ. Specifically it states that the Fourier series of is given by:
The Poisson summation formula maybe used to derive Landau's asymptotic formula for the number of lattice points in a large Euclidean sphere. It can also be used to show that if an integrable function, ƒ, and both have compact support then ƒ = 0 (Pinsky 2002).
[edit] Convolution theorem
The Fourier transform translates between convolution and multiplication of functions. If ƒ(x) and g(x) are integrable functions with Fourier transforms and respectively, and if the convolution of ƒ and g exists and is absolutely integrable, then the Fourier transform of the convolution is given by the product of the Fourier transforms and (under other conventions for the definition of the Fourier transform a constant factor may appear).
This means that if:
where ∗ denotes the convolution operation, then:
In linear time invariant (LTI) system theory, it is common to interpret g(x) as the impulse response of an LTI system with input ƒ(x) and output h(x), since substituting the unit impulse for ƒ(x) yields h(x) = g(x). In this case, represents the frequency response of the system.
Conversely, if ƒ(x) can be decomposed as the product of two square integrable functions p(x) and q(x), then the Fourier transform of ƒ(x) is given by the convolution of the respective Fourier transforms and .
[edit] Crosscorrelation theorem
In an analogous manner, it can be shown that if h(x) is the crosscorrelation of ƒ(x) and g(x):
then the Fourier transform of h(x) is:
[edit] Eigenfunctions
One important choice of an orthonormal basis for L^{2}(R) is given by the Hermite functions
where H_{n}(x) are the "probabilist's" Hermite polynomials, defined by H_{n}(x) = (−1)^{n}exp(x^{2}/2) D^{n} exp(−x^{2}/2). Under this convention for the Fourier transform, we have that
In other words, the Hermite functions form a complete orthonormal system of eigenfunctions for the Fourier transform on L^{2}(R) (Pinsky 2002). However, this choice of eigenfunctions is not unique. There are only four different eigenvalues of the Fourier transform (±1 and ±i) and any linear combination of eigenfunctions with the same eigenvalue gives another eigenfunction. As a consequence of this, it is possible to decompose L^{2}(R) as a direct sum of four spaces H_{0}, H_{1}, H_{2}, and H_{3} where the Fourier transform acts on H_{k} simply by multiplication by i^{k}. This approach to define the Fourier transform is due to N. Wiener (Duoandikoetxea 2001). The choice of Hermite functions is convenient because they are exponentially localized in both frequency and time domains, and thus give rise to the fractional Fourier transform used in timefrequency analysis^{[citation needed]}.
[edit] Spherical harmonics
Let the set of homogeneous harmonic polynomials of degree k be denoted by . The set are known as the solid spherical harmonics. The solid spherical harmonics play a similar role to the Hermite polynomials in higher dimensions. Specifically, if f(x) = e^{−πx2}P(x) for some P(x) in , then . Let the set be the closure in L^{2}(R^{n}) of linear combinations of functions of the form f(x)P(x) where P(x) is in . The space L^{2}(R^{n}) is then a direct sum of the spaces and the Fourier transform maps each space to itself and is possible to characterize the action of the Fourier transform on each space (Stein & Weiss 1971). Let ƒ(x) = ƒ_{0}(x)P(x) (with P(x) in ), then where
Here J_{(n + 2k − 2)/2} denotes the Bessel function of the first kind with order (n + 2k − 2)/2. When k = 0 this gives a useful formula for the Fourier transform of a radial function (Grafakos 2004).
[edit] Generalizations
[edit] Fourier transform on other function spaces
It is possible to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to other spaces of functions. Since compactly supported smooth functions are integrable and dense in L^{2}(R), the Plancherel theorem allows us to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to general functions in L^{2}(R) by continuity arguments. Further : L^{2}(R) → L^{2}(R) is a unitary operator (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. 2.3). Many of the properties remain the same for the Fourier transform. The HausdorffYoung inequality can be used to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to include functions in L^{p}(R) for 1 ≤ p ≤ 2. Unfortunately, further extensions become more technical. The Fourier transform of functions in L^{p} for the range 2 < p < ∞ requires the study of distributions (Katznelson 1976). In fact, it can be shown that there are functions in L^{p} with p>2 so that the Fourier transform is not defined as a function (Stein & Weiss 1971).
[edit] Multidimensional version
The Fourier transform can be in any arbitrary number of dimensions n. As with the onedimensional case there are many conventions, for an integrable function ƒ(x) this article takes the definition:
where x and ξ are ndimensional vectors, and x · ξ is the dot product of the vectors. The dot product is sometimes written as .
All of the basic properties listed above hold for the ndimensional Fourier transform, as do Plancherel's and Parseval's theorems. When the function is integrable, the Fourier transform is still uniformly continuous and the RiemannLebesgue lemma holds. (Stein & Weiss 1971)
In higher dimensions it becomes interesting to study restriction problems for the Fourier transform. The Fourier transform of an integrable function is continuous and the restriction of this function to any set is defined. But for a squareintegrable function the Fourier transform could be a general class of square integrable functions. As such, the restriction of the Fourier transform of an L^{2}(R^{n}) function cannot be defined on sets of measure 0. It is still an active area of study to understand restriction problems in L^{p} for 1 < p < 2. Surprisingly, it is possible in some cases to define the restriction of a Fourier transform to a set S, provided S has nonzero curvature. The case when S is the unit sphere in R^{n} is of particular interest. In this case the ThomasStein restriction theorem states that the restriction of the Fourier transform to the unit sphere in R^{n} is a bounded operator on L^{p} provided 1 ≤ p ≤ (2n + 2) / (n + 3).
One notable difference between the Fourier transform in 1 dimension versus higher dimensions concerns the partial sum operator. For a given integrable function ƒ, consider the function ƒ_{R} defined by:
Suppose in addition that ƒ is in L^{p}(R^{n}). For n = 1 and 1 < p < ∞, if one takes S_{R} = (−R, R), then ƒ_{R} converges to ƒ in L^{p} as R tends to infinity, by the boundedness of the Hilbert Transform. Naively one may hope the same holds true for n > 1. In the case that S_{R} is taken to be a cube with side length R, then convergence still holds. Another natural candidate is the Euclidean ball S_{R} = {ξ : ξ < R}. In order for this partial sum operator to converge, it is necessary that the multiplier for the unit ball be bounded in L^{p}(R^{n}). For n ≥ 2 it is a celebrated theorem of Charles Fefferman that the multiplier for the unit ball is never bounded unless p = 2 (Duoandikoetxea 2001). In fact, when p ≠ 2, this shows that not only may ƒ_{R} fail to converge to ƒ in L^{p}, but for some functions ƒ ∈ L^{p}(R^{n}), ƒ_{R} is not even an element of L^{p}.
[edit] Fourier–Stieltjes transform
The Fourier transform of a finite Borel measure μ on R^{n} is given by (Pinsky 2002):
This transform continues to enjoy many of the properties of the Fourier transform of integrable functions. One notable difference is that the RiemannLebesgue lemma fails for measures (Katznelson 1976). In the case that dμ = ƒ(x) dx, then the formula above reduces to the usual definition for the Fourier transform of ƒ.
The Fourier transform may be used to give a characterization of continuous measures. Bochner's theorem characterizes which functions may arise as the FourierStieltjes transform of a measure (Katznelson 1976).
Furthermore, the Dirac delta function is not a function but it is a finite Borel measure. Its Fourier transform is a constant function (whose specific value depends upon the form of the Fourier transform used).
[edit] Tempered distributions
The Fourier transform maps the space of Schwartz functions to itself, and gives a homeomorphism of the space to itself (Stein & Weiss 1971). Because of this it is possible to define the Fourier transform of tempered distributions. These include all the integrable functions mentioned above and have the added advantage that the Fourier transform of any tempered distribution is again a tempered distribution.
The following two facts provide some motivation for the definition of the Fourier transform of a distribution. First let ƒ and g be integrable functions, and let and be their Fourier transforms respectively. Then the Fourier transform obeys the following multiplication formula (Stein & Weiss 1971),
Secondly, every integrable function ƒ defines a distribution T_{ƒ} by the relation
 for all Schwartz functions φ.
In fact, given a distribution T, we define the Fourier transform by the relation
 for all Schwartz functions φ.
It follows that .
Distributions can be differentiated and the above mentioned compatibility of the Fourier transform with differentiation and convolution remains true for tempered distributions.
[edit] Locally compact abelian groups
The Fourier transform may be generalized to any locally compact Abelian group. A locally compact abelian group is an abelian group which is at the same time a locally compact Hausdorff topological space so that the group operations are continuous. If G is a locally compact abelian group, it has a translation invariant measure μ, called Haar measure. For a locally compact abelian group G it is possible to place a topology on the set of characters so that is also a locally compact abelian group. For a function ƒ in L^{1}(G) it is possible to define the Fourier transform by (Katznelson 1976):
[edit] Applications
[edit] Analysis of differential equations
Fourier transforms, and the closely related Laplace transforms are widely used in solving differential equations. The Fourier transform is compatible with differentiation in the following sense: if f(x) is a differentiable function with Fourier transform , then the Fourier transform of its derivative is given by . This can be used to transform differential equations into algebraic equations. Note that this technique only applies to problems whose domain is the whole set of real numbers. By extending the Fourier transform to functions of several variables partial differential equations with domain R^{n} can also be translated into algebraic equations.
[edit] Domain and range of the Fourier transform
It is often desirable to have the most general domain for the Fourier transform as possible. The definition of Fourier transform as an integral naturally restricts the domain to the space of integrable functions. Unfortunately, there is no simple characterizations of which functions are Fourier transforms of integrable functions (Stein & Weiss 1971). It is possible to extend the domain of the Fourier transform in various ways, as discussed in generalizations above. The following list details some of the more common domains and ranges on which the Fourier transform is defined.
 The space of Schwartz functions is closed under the Fourier transform. Schwartz functions are rapidly decaying functions and do not include all functions which are relevant for the Fourier transform. More details may be found in (Stein & Weiss 1971).
 The space L^{1} of Lebesgue integrable functions maps into C_{0}, the space of continuous functions that tend to zero at infinity.
 The space L^{2} is closed under the Fourier transform, but here the Fourier transform is no longer defined by integration.
 The space L^{p} maps into the space L^{q}, where 1/p + 1/q = 1 and 1 ≤ p ≤ 2 (HausdorffYoung inequality).
 The set of tempered distributions is closed under the Fourier transform. Tempered distributions are also a form of generalization of functions. It is in this generality that one can define the Fourier transform of objects like the Dirac comb.
[edit] Other notations
Other common notations for are: , , , , , , and Though less commonly other notations are used. Denote the Fourier transform by a capital letter corresponding to the letter of function being transformed (such as f(x) and F(ξ)) is especially common in the sciences and engineering. In electronics, the omega (ω) is often used instead of ξ due to its interpretation as angular frequency, sometimes it is written as F(jω), where j is the imaginary unit, to indicate its relationship with the Laplace transform, and sometimes it is replaced with 2πf in order to use common frequency.
The interpretation of the complex function may be aided by expressing it in polar coordinate form: in terms of the two real functions A(ξ) and φ(ξ) where:
is the amplitude and
is the phase (see arg function).
Then the inverse transform can be written:
which is a recombination of all the frequency components of ƒ(x). Each component is a complex sinusoid of the form e^{2πixξ} whose amplitude is A(ξ) and whose initial phase angle (at x = 0) is φ(ξ).
The Fourier transform maybe thought of as a mapping on function spaces. This mapping is here denoted and is used to denote the Fourier transform of the function f. This mapping is linear, which means that can also be seen as a linear transformation on the function space and implies that the standard notation in linear algebra of applying a linear transformation to a vector (here the function f) can be used to write instead of . Since the result of applying the Fourier transform is again a function, we can be interested in the value of this function evaluated at the value ξ for its variable, and this is denoted either as or as . Notice that in the former case, it is implicitly understood that is applied first to f and then the resulting function is evaluated at ξ, not the other way around.
In mathematics and various applied sciences it is often necessary to distinguish between a function f and the value of f when its variable equals x, denoted f(x). This means that a notation like formally can be interpreted as the Fourier transform of the values of f at x. Despite this flaw, the previous notation appears frequently, often when a particular function or a function of a particular variable is to be transformed. For example, is sometimes used to express that the Fourier transform of a rectangular function is a sinc function, or is used to express the shift property of the Fourier transform. Notice, that the last example is only correct under the assumption that the transformed function is a function of x, not of x_{0}.
[edit] Other conventions
There are three common conventions for defining the Fourier transform. The Fourier transform is often written in terms of angular frequency: ω = 2πξ whose units are radians per second.
The substitution ξ = ω/(2π) into the formulas above produces this convention:
Under this convention, the inverse transform becomes:
Unlike the convention followed in this article, when the Fourier transform is defined this way it no longer a unitary transformation on L^{2}(R^{n}). There is also less symmetry between the formulas for the Fourier transform and its inverse.
Another popular convention is to split the factor of (2π)^{n} evenly between the Fourier transform and its inverse, which leads to definitions:
Under this convention the Fourier transform is again a unitary transformation on L^{2}(R^{n}). It also restores the symmetry between the Fourier transform and its inverse.
Variations of all three conventions can be created by conjugating the complexexponential kernel of both the forward and the reverse transform. The signs must be opposites. Other than that, the choice is (again) a matter of convention.
ordinary frequency ξ (hertz)  unitary  

angular frequency ω (rad/s)  nonunitary  
unitary 
[edit] Tables of important Fourier transforms
The following tables record some closed form Fourier transforms. For functions ƒ(x) , g(x) and h(x) denote their Fourier transforms by , , and respectively. Only the three most common conventions are included.
[edit] Functional relationships
The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Erdélyi 1954) or the appendix of (Kammler 2000)
Function  Fourier transform unitary, ordinary frequency 
Fourier transform unitary, angular frequency 
Fourier transform nonunitary, angular frequency 
Remarks  

101  Linearity  
102  Shift in time domain  
103  Shift in frequency domain, dual of 102  
104  If is large, then is concentrated around 0 and spreads out and flattens.  
105  Here needs to be calculated using the same method as Fourier transform column. Results from swapping "dummy" variables of and .  
106  
107  This is the dual of 106  
108  The notation f * g denotes the convolution of f and g — this rule is the convolution theorem  
109  This is the dual of 108  
110  For f(x) a purely real even function  , and are purely real even functions.  
111  For f(x) a purely real odd function  , and are purely imaginary odd functions. 
[edit] Squareintegrable functions
The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Campbell & Foster 1948), (Erdélyi 1954), or the appendix of (Kammler 2000)
Function  Fourier transform unitary, ordinary frequency 
Fourier transform unitary, angular frequency 
Fourier transform nonunitary, angular frequency 
Remarks  

f(x)  
201  The rectangular pulse and the normalized sinc function, here defined as sinc(x) = sin(πx)/(πx)  
202  Dual of rule 201. The rectangular function is an ideal lowpass filter, and the sinc function is the noncausal impulse response of such a filter.  
203  The function tri(x) is the triangular function  
204  Dual of rule 203.  
205  The function u(x) is the Heaviside unit step function and a>0.  
206  This shows that, for the unitary Fourier transforms, the Gaussian function exp(−αx^{2}) is its own Fourier transform for some choice of α. For this to be integrable we must have Re(α)>0.  
207  For a>0.  
208 



The functions J_{n} (x) are the nth order Bessel functions of the first kind. The functions U_{n} (x) are the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind. See 315 and 316 below.  
209  Hyperbolic secant is its own Fourier transform 
[edit] Distributions
The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Erdélyi 1954) or the appendix of (Kammler 2000)
Function  Fourier transform unitary, ordinary frequency 
Fourier transform unitary, angular frequency 
Fourier transform nonunitary, angular frequency 
Remarks  

f(x)  
301  1  δ(ξ)  2πδ(ν)  The distribution δ(ξ) denotes the Dirac delta function.  
302  1  1  Dual of rule 301.  
303  e^{iax}  2πδ(ν − a)  This follows from 103 and 301.  
304  cos(ax)  This follows from rules 101 and 303 using Euler's formula:  
305  sin(ax)  This follows from 101 and 303 using  
306  cos(ax^{2})  
307  
308  Here, n is a natural number and is the nth distribution derivative of the Dirac delta function. This rule follows from rules 107 and 301. Combining this rule with 101, we can transform all polynomials.  
309  − iπsgn(ξ)  − iπsgn(ν)  Here sgn(ξ) is the sign function. Note that 1/x is not a distribution. It is necessary to use the Cauchy principal value when testing against Schwartz functions. This rule is useful in studying the Hilbert transform.  
310  Generalization of rule 309.  
311  
312  sgn(x)  The dual of rule 309. This time the Fourier transforms need to be considered as Cauchy principal value.  
313  u(x)  The function u(x) is the Heaviside unit step function; this follows from rules 101, 301, and 312.  
314  This function is known as the Dirac comb function. This result can be derived from 302 and 102, together with the fact that as distributions.  
315  J_{0}(x)  The function J_{0}(x) is the zeroth order Bessel function of first kind.  
316  J_{n}(x)  This is a generalization of 315. The function J_{n}(x) is the nth order Bessel function of first kind. The function T_{n}(x) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind. 
[edit] Twodimensional functions
Function  Fourier transform unitary, ordinary frequency 
Fourier transform unitary, angular frequency 
Fourier transform nonunitary, angular frequency 
Remarks  

f(x,y)  The variables ξ_{x}, ξ_{y}, ω_{x}, ω_{y}, ν_{x} and ν_{y} are real numbers. The integrals are taken over the entire plane.  
401  Both functions are Gaussians, which may not have unit volume.  
402  The function is defined by circ(r)=1 0≤r≤1, and is 0 otherwise. This is the Airy distribution and is expressed using J_{1} (the order 1 Bessel function of the first kind). (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. IV.3.3) 
[edit] Formulas for general ndimensional functions
Function  Fourier transform unitary, ordinary frequency 
Fourier transform unitary, angular frequency 
Fourier transform nonunitary, angular frequency 
Remarks  

501  χ_{[0,1]}(  x  )(1 −  x  ^{2})^{δ}  π ^{− δ}Γ(δ + 1)  ξ  ^{− (n / 2) − δ} 
The function χ_{[0,1]} is the characteristic function of the interval [0,1]. The function Γ(x) is the gamma function. The function J_{n/2 + δ} a Bessel function of the first kind with order n/2+δ. Taking n = 2 and δ = 0 produces 402. (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. 4.13) 
[edit] See also
[edit] References
This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (February 2008) 
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 Stein, Elias; Shakarchi, Rami (2003), Fourier Analysis: An introduction, Princeton University Press, ISBN 069111384X.
 Stein, Elias; Weiss, Guido (1971), Introduction to Fourier Analysis on Euclidean Spaces, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 9780691080789.
 Wilson, R. G. (1995), Fourier Series and Optical Transform Techniques in Contemporary Optics, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0471303577.
 Yosida, K. (1968), Functional Analysis, SpringerVerlag, ISBN 3540586547.
[edit] External links
 Fourier Series Applet (Tip: drag magnitude or phase dots up or down to change the wave form).
 Tables of Integral Transforms at EqWorld: The World of Mathematical Equations.
 Eric W. Weisstein, Fourier Transform at MathWorld.
 Fourier Transform Module by John H. Mathews
 The DFT “à Pied”: Mastering The Fourier Transform in One Day at The DSP Dimension