Compressed natural gas

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Blue diamond symbol used on CNG-powered vehicles in North America

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), diesel, or propane fuel. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released).

CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4]), to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, at a normal pressure of 200–220 bar (2900–3200 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.

CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in Europe and South America due to rising gasoline prices.

In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in light-duty passenger vehicles and pickup trucks, medium-duty delivery trucks, transit and school buses, and trains.

CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of LNG's (because it is not liquefied), and 25% of diesel's.[1]


[edit] Technology

A CNG powered high-floor Neoplan AN440A, operated by ABQ RIDE in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

CNG can be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines. Lean-burn Otto-cycle engines can achieve higher thermal efficiencies when compared with stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines at the expense of higher NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. Electronically-controlled stoichiometric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output, especially when combined with exhaust gas recirculation, turbocharging and intercooling, and three-way catalytic converters, but suffer in terms of heat rejection and fuel consumption. A suitably designed natural gas engine may have a higher output compared with a petrol engine because the octane number of natural gas is higher than that of petrol as this would allow for an engine design with a higher compression ratio.

CNG may be refueled from low-pressure ("slow-fill") or high-pressure ("fast-fill") systems. The difference lies in the cost of the station vs. the refueling time. There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line during the night, but this is forbidden in some countries. Fueling a vehicle from a home natural gas fuel line is becoming more popular in the United States, especially in California and New York, and tax credits are available for installing the necessary appliance.

CNG cylinders can be made of steel, aluminum, or plastic. Lightweight composite (fiber-wrapped thin metal "ISO 11439 CNG-3"/fibre-wrapped plastic "ISO 11439 CNG-4") cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation steel and aluminum cylinders, which leads to lower fuel consumption. The CNG cylinders bundled with safety-valve generally follow the ISO 11439 standard. [2]

The equipment required for CNG to be delivered to an Otto-cycle engine includes a pressure regulator (a device that converts the natural gas from storage pressure to metering pressure) and a gas mixer or gas injectors (fuel metering devices). Earlier-generation CNG conversion kits featured venturi-type gas mixers that metered fuel using the Venturi effect. Often assisting the gas mixer was a metering valve actuated by a stepper motor relying on feedback from an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. Newer CNG conversion kits feature electronic multi-point gas injection, similar to petrol injection systems found in most of today's cars.

[edit] Drawbacks

Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Therefore, the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle, thanks to a more rational disposition of components, leaving the trunk free (eg. Fiat Multipla, New Fiat Panda, Volkswagen Touran Ecofuel,Chevy Taxi (sold in countries such as Peru) etc). CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. [3][4][5]

[edit] CNG cars

CNG pumps at a Brazilian gasoline service station

CNG cars available in Europe are bi-fuel vehicles burning one fuel at a time. Their engine is a standard gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE). This means that they can indifferently run on either gasoline from a gasoline tank or CNG from a separate cylinder in the trunk. The driver can select what fuel to burn by simply flipping a switch on the dashboard.

Several manufacturers (Fiat, Opel(General Motors), Peugeot, Volkswagen, Toyota, Honda and others) sell bi-fuel cars. In 2006, Fiat introduced the Siena Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market, equipped with a 1.4L FIRE engine that runs on E100, E25 (Standard Brazilian Gasoline), Gasoline and CNG.

CNG automobiles are commonly used in South America, representing 48% of the world total,[6] where these vehicles are commonly used as taxicabs in the main cities of Argentina and Brazil. Argentina has some 1.69 million NGV's as of 2008, with 1767 refuelling stations across the nation, or 15% of all vehicles, highly concentrated in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[6] By July 2008 there were 1.56 million retrofitted vehicles in Brazil, or about 5% of the total light vehicle fleet, with 1585 refuelling stations.[6][7]

Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a bi-fuel (gasoline/CNG) vehicle. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting, this involves installing a CNG cylinder in the trunk, installing the plumbing, installing a CNG injection system and the electronics.

[edit] CNG Locomotives

CNG Locomotives are operated by several railroads. The Napa Valley Wine Train successfully retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002[8]. This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, and is now the Napa Valley Wine Train's primary locomotive[9]. Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG Locomotive on a freight line since 2005[10]. CNG locomotives are usually diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the motors of the train. Some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power, which, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines.

[edit] CNG compared to LNG

CNG is often confused with liquefied natural gas (LNG). While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is in compressed form, while LNG is in liquefied form. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive cooling process and cryogenic tanks. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of gasoline or petrol and the use of very high pressures (3000 to 4000 psi, or 205 to 275 bar).

[edit] Worldwide

[edit] Asia

One of the many CNG propelled autorickshaws on the streets of New Delhi, Delhi. A fleet of twelve also operates in Brighton, England.
A CNG powered Volvo B10BLE bus, operated by SBS Transit in Singapore.

CNG costs are at Rupees 18.90(USD $0.46) per kg compared with Rs.56.00 (US$ 1.45) per liter of petrol. The cost saving is immense along with reduced emissions and environmentally friendlier cars.

CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Iran. The use of CNG is mandated for the public transport system of India's capital New Delhi as well as for the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat. The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses. Today many rickshaws as well as personal vehicles in India and Bangladesh are being converted to CNG powered technology, the cost of which is in the range of $800-$1000. In the Bangladesh capital of Dhaka not a single auto rickshaw without CNG has been permitted since 2003. [11]

In Pakistan the majority of private vehicles have converted to CNG because of cheaper price as compared to petrol. Only luxury cars and official vehicles now run on petrol. Almost all car manufacturers in Pakistan now produce company fitted CNG kit versions. Recent hikes in CNG prices has downplayed the ambitious vantures of some of the stakeholders in this sector. It is expected that price of the CNG and Kits will come down as competition among manufacturers grows. LandiRenzo Pakistan is also exporting CNG kits to various countries including China, Brazil and Italy. Almost 2 million vehicles on the country's roads have dual fuel options.

In Iran Some 650,000 vehicles have been converted to dual-fuel system either in the production process in factories or at specialized workshops since 2007. There are close to 400 refueling stations in operation country wide and plans to expand the network to more than 800 stations. There is also a government mandate that 60% of locally produced cars be equipped with the dual fuel system.

In the Middle East and Africa, Egypt is a top ten country in the world with more than 63000 CNG vehicles and 95 fueling stations nationwide. Egypt was also the first nation in Africa and the Middle East to open a public CNG fueling station in January 1996.[12]

In Singapore CNG is increasingly being used by public transport vehicles like buses and taxis, as well as goods vehicles. However, according to Channel NewsAsia on April 18, 2008, more owners of private cars in this country are converting their petrol-driven vehicles to also run on CNG - motivated no doubt by fiercely-escalating petrol prices these days. The initial cost of converting a regular car to bi-fuel at the German conversion workshop of C. Melchers, for example, is around S$3,800 (US$2,500); with the promise of real cost-savings bi-fuel cars bring in the long term.

Singapore currently has three operating filling stations for natural gas. SembCorp Gas Pte Ltd runs the station on Jurong Island, and jointly with Singapore Petroleum Company, the filling station at Jalan Buroh. Both these stations are in the western part of the country. Another station on the mainland is in Mandai Link to the north and is operated by SMART Energy. SMART also plans a second station on Serangoon North Ave 5 which will be set up by end of March 2009; another station, the second largest in the world will be build by UNION GAS. This station will be located in Toh Tuck and will start opertions by August 2009.

As a key incentive for using this eco-friendly fuel Singapore has a Green Vehicle Rebate (GVR) for users of CNG technology. First introduced in January 2001, the GVR grants a 40% discount on the Open Market Value (OMV) cost of newly-registered green passenger vehicles. This initiative will end at the end of 2012 as the government believes the 'critical mass' of CNG vehciles would then have been built up.

In Malaysia, the use of CNG was originally introduced for taxicabs and airport limousines during the late-1990s, when new taxis were launched with CNG engines while taxicab operators were encouraged to send in existing taxis for full engine conversions. The practice of using CNG remained largely confined to taxicabs predominantly in the Klang Valley and Penang due to a lack of interest. No incentives were offered for those besides taxicab owners to use CNG engines, while government subsidies on petrol and diesel made conventional road vehicles cheaper to use in the eyes of the consumers. Petronas, Malaysia's state-owned oil company, also monopolises the provision of CNG to road users. As of July 2008, Petronas only operates about 150 CNG refueling stations, most of which are concentrated in the Klang Valley. At the same time, another 50 was expected by the end of 2008.[13]

As fuel subsidies were gradually removed in Malaysia starting June 5, 2008, the subsequent 41% price hike on petrol and diesel led to a 500% increase in the number of new CNG tanks installed.[14][15] National car maker Proton considered fitting its Waja, Saga and Persona models with CNG kits from Prins Autogassystemen by the end of 2008,[16] while a local distributor of locally assembled Hyundai cars offers new models with CNG kits.[17] Conversion centres, which also benefited from the rush for lower running costs, also perform partial conversions to existing road vehicles, allowing them to run on both petrol or diesel and CNG with a cost varying between RM3,500 to RM5,000 for passenger cars.[18][14]

In China, companies such as Sino-Energy are active in expanding the footprint of CNG filling stations in medium-size cities across the interior of the country, where at least two natural gas pipelines are operational.

An initiative, known as Pickens Plan, calls for the expansion of the use of CNG as a standard fuel for heavy vehicles has been recently started by oilman and entrepreneur T. Boone Pickens. California voters defeated Proposition 10 in the 2008 General Election by a significant (59.8% to 40.2%) margin. Proposition 10 was a $5 Billion bond measure that, among other things, would have given rebates to state residents that purchase CNG vehicles.

Congress has encouraged conversion of cars to CNG with a tax credits of up to 50% of the auto conversion cost and the CNG home filling station cost. However, while CNG is much cleaner fuel, the conversion requires a type certificate from the EPA. Meeting the requirements of a type certificate can cost up to $50,000.

[edit] Europe

Italy currently has the largest number of CNG vehicles in Europe and is the 4th country in the world for number of CNG-powered vehicles in circulation.

The use of methane (CNG) for vehicles started in the 1930s and has continued off and on until today.

Currently (06/2008) there is a large market expansion for natural gas vehicles (CNG and LPG) caused by the rise of gasoline prices and by the need to reduce air pollution emissions.

Before 1995 the only way to have a CNG-powered car was by having the retrofitted with an after-market kit. A large producer was Landi Renzo, Tartarini Auto, Prins Autogassystemen, OMVL, BiGAs,... and AeB for electronic parts used by the most part of kit producer.

Landi Renzo and Tartarini have divisions selling vehicles in Asia and South America.

After 1995 bi-fuel (gasoline/CNG)cars became available from several major manufacturers. Currently Fiat, Opel(GM), Volkswagen, Citroen, Renault, Volvo and Mercedes sell various car models and small trucks that are gasoline/CNG powered. Usually CNG parts used by major car manufacturers are actually produced by after-market kit manufacturers, e.g. Fiat use Tartarini Auto components, Volkswagen use Teleflex GFI[1] and Landi Renzo components.

In Italy, there are more than 800 CNG stations [2].

In Germany, CNG-generated vehicles are expected to increase to two million units of motor-transport by the year 2020. The cost for CNG fuel is between 1/3 and 1/2 compared to other fossil fuels in Europe.[citation needed] in 2008 there are around 800 gas(CNG) stations in Germany

In Portugal there are 4 CNG refueling stations but 3 of them do not sell to the public. Only in Braga you can find it on the local city bus station (TUB).

Ankara has got 1050 CNG Bus.

In Sweden there are currently 90 CNG filling stations available to the public (as compared to approx. 10 LPG filling stations), primarily located in the southern and western parts of Sweden as well the Mälardalen region [3]. Another 70-80 CNG filling stations are under construction or in a late stage of planning (completions 2009-2010). Several of the planned filling stations are located in the northern parts of the country, which will greatly improve the infrastructure for CNG car users [4]. There are approx. 14,500 CNG vehicles in Sweden (2007), of which approx. 13,500 are passenger cars and the remainder includes buses and trucks [5]. In Stockholm, the public transportation company SL currently operates 50 CNG buses but have a capacity to operate 500 [6]. The Swedish government recently prolonged its subsidies for the development of CNG filling stations, from 2009-12-31 to 2010-12-31 [7].

[edit] North America

[edit] Canada

Canada is a large producer of natural gas, so it follows that CNG is used in Canada as an economical motor fuel. Canadian industry has developed CNG-fueled truck and bus engines, CNG-fueled transit buses, and light trucks and taxis. Both CNG and propane refueling stations are not difficult to find in major centres.

[edit] United States of America

In the US, federal tax credits are available for buying a new CNG vehicle. Use of CNG varies from state to state. In California, CNG is used extensively in local city and county fleets, as well as public transportation (city/school buses), and there are 90 public fueling stations in Southern California alone. Compressed natural gas is available at 30-60% less than the cost of gasoline, as a rule of thumb, in much of California. Personal use of CNG is a small niche market currently, though with current tax incentives and a growing number of public fueling stations available, it is experiencing unprecedented growth. The state of Utah offers a subsidised statewide network of CNG filling stations at a rate of $0.85/gge[19], while gasoline is above $4.00/gal. Elsewhere in the nation, retail prices average around $2.50/gge, with home refueling units compressing gas from residential gas lines for approx $1.50/gge. Other than aftermarket conversions, and government used vehicle auctions, the only currently produced CNG vehicle in the US is the Honda Civic GX sedan, which is made in limited numbers and available only in a few states.

[edit] Oceania

A Scania L94UB running on CNG operated by ACTION

During the 1970s and 1980s, CNG was commonly used in New Zealand in the wake of the oil crises, but fell into decline after petrol prices receded.

Brisbane Transport and Transperth in Australia have both adopted a policy of only purchasing CNG buses in future. Transperth is purchasing 451 Mercedes-Benz OC500LE buses and is undertaking trials with articulated CNG buses from Scania, MAN, and Irisbus, while Brisbane Transport has purchased 216 Scania L94UB and 240 MAN 18.310 models as well as 30 MAN NG 313 articulated CNG buses. The State Transit Authority of New South Wales (operating under the name "Sydney Buses") operates 102 Scania L113CRB buses, two Mercedes-Benz O405 buses and 300 Mercedes-Benz O405NH buses and are now taking delivery of 255 Euro 5-compliant Mercedes-Benz OC500LEs.

In the 1990s Benders Busways of Geelong, Victoria trialled CNG buses for the Energy Research and Development Corporation.[20]

Martin Ferguson, Ollie Clark, and Noel Childs featured on ABC 7.30 Report raising the issue of CNG as an overlooked transport fuel option in Australia, highlighting the large volumes of LNG currently being exported from the North West Shelf in light of the cost of importing crude oil to Australia. The opportunity and pathways to industry development are mapped out in summary on the Rosetta Moon news site.

[edit] South America

Gas storage in a car.
CNG station in Rosario, Argentina.

Argentina and Brazil are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles,[6] with a combined total fleet of more than 3 million vehicles by 2008.[7] Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price differential with liquid fuels, locally-produced conversion equipment and a growing CNG-delivery infrastructure. A 'Blue-network' of CNG stations is being developed on the major highways of the Southern Cone (including Chile and Bolivia) to allow for long-haul transportation fueled by CNG.[citation needed]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^
  2. ^ ISO 11439: Gas cylinders -- High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natural gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles
  3. ^ "How Safe are Natural Gas Vehicles?" (PDF). Clean Vehicle Education Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  4. ^ "How Safe is Natural Gas?". Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  5. ^ "Fighting CNG fires" (PDF). Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  6. ^ a b c d R. Fernandes (2008-08-20). "Latin America NGVs: An Update Report". International Association of Natural Gas Vehicles. Retrieved on 2008-10-11. 
  7. ^ a b GNVNews (November 2006). "Montadores Investem nos Carros á GNV" (in Portuguese). Institutio Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  8. ^ "Chugging along: After 13 years, Napa Valley Wine Train rolls to a profit - Jim Doyle - November 22, 2002". Retrieved on 2008-11-09. 
  9. ^ "Napa Valley Wine Train Tests CNG Locomotive - Tech.Winetrain - May 15, 2008". Retrieved on 2008-08-20. 
  10. ^ "The First CNG Train Starts Functioning in Peru - Paula Alvarado - June 21, 2005". Retrieved on 2008-08-20. 
  11. ^ "NGV Statistics". International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  12. ^ Allen, Robin (1999-05-11). "New fuel cleans up: CNG: Compressed natural gas is rapidly gaining popularity with drivers; Surveys edition". Financial Times. p. 17. 
  13. ^ "More natural gas stations needed, say motorists". The Star Online. 2008-06-13. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  14. ^ a b Rashvinjeet S. Bedi (2008-06-08). "Motorists rush to check out NGV system". The Star Online. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  15. ^ Vinesh, Derrick (2008-06-25). "Long queue for NGV kits". The Star Online. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  16. ^ "Proton cars to come with NGV kits". The Star Online. 2008-06-28. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  17. ^ Elaine Ang and Leong Hung Yee (2008-07-07). "Moving towards hybrid vehicles". The Star Online. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  18. ^ Perumal, Elan (2008-06-13). "Rush to fit natural gas gadget". The Star Online. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. 
  19. ^ "Natural Gas Prices in the US". Retrieved on 2008-06-07. 
  20. ^ "NGV Bus Demonstration - H Bender - December 1993" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-07-26. 
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