Sierra Leone

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Republic of Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Flag of Sierra Leone Coat of Arms of Sierra Leone
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto"Unity, Freedom, Justice"
AnthemHigh We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free
Location of Sierra Leone
(and largest city)
8°31′N 13°15′W / 8.517°N 13.25°W / 8.517; -13.25
Official languages English
Demonym Sierra Leonean
Government Constitutional republic
 -  President Ernest Bai Koroma
 -  Vice President Samuel Sam-Sumana
 -  from the United Kingdom April 27, 1961 
 -  Republic declared April 19, 1971 
 -  Total 71,740 km2 (119th)
27,699 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.1
 -   estimate 6,294,774[1] 
 -  Density 83/km2 (114th1)
199/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $3.974 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $692[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $1.665 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $290[2] 
Gini (2003) 62.9 (high
HDI (2007) 0.336 (low) (177th)
Currency Leone (SLL)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .sl
Calling code 232
1 Rank based on 2007 figures.

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea in the northeast, Liberia in the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest. Sierra Leone covers a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi)[3] and has a population estimated at 6,296,803.[4] The country has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests.[5] Freetown is the capital, seat of government, and largest city.[3] Bo is the second largest city. Other major cities in the country with a population over 100,000 are Kenema, Koidu Town and Makeni. The country is home to Fourah Bay College, the oldest university in West Africa, established in 1827, and the third largest natural harbour in the world Queen Elizabeth II Quay (also known as the QE II Quay and locally as the Deep Water Quay).[6][7]

Early inhabitants of Sierra Leone included the Sherbro, Temne and Limba, and Tyra peoples, and later the Mende,[8] who knew the country as Romarong, and the Kono who settled in the East of the country.[9] In 1462, it was visited by the Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, who gave it its name Serra de Leão, meaning 'Lion Mountains'.[10] Sierra Leone became an important centre of the transatlantic trade in human beings (i.e., slaves), until 1792 when Freetown was founded by the Sierra Leone Company as a home for formerly enslaved African Americans.[11] In 1808, Freetown became a British Crown Colony, and in 1896, the interior of the country became a British Protectorate;[9] in 1961, the two combined and gained independence. Over two decades of government neglect of the interior followed by the spilling over of the Liberian conflict into its borders eventually led to the Sierra Leone Civil War,[12] which began in 1991 and was resolved in 2000 after the United Nations led by Nigeria defeated the rebel forces and restored the civilian government elected in 1998 to Freetown. Since then, almost 72,500 former combatants have been disarmed[13] and the country has reestablished a functioning democracy.[14] The Special Court for Sierra Leone was set up in 2002 to deal with war crimes and crimes against humanity committed since 1996.[15]

Sierra Leone is the lowest ranked country on the Human Development Index and seventh lowest on the Human Poverty Index,[16] suffering from endemic corruption[17] and suppression of the press.[18]


[edit] History

[edit] Early History

Fragments of prehistoric pottery from Kamabai Rock Shelter

Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years,[19] populated by successive movements from other parts of Africa.[20] The use of iron was introduced to Sierra Leone by the 9th century, and by AD 1000 agriculture was being practiced by coastal tribes.[21] Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest largely protected it from the influence of any precolonial African empires[22] and from further Islamic colonization, which were unable to penetrate through it until the 18th century.[23]

European contacts with Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa. In 1462, Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra mapped the hills surrounding what is now Freetown Harbour, naming shaped formation Serra de Leão (Portuguese for Lion Mountains). The Italian rendering of this geographic formation is Sierra Leone, which became the country's name. Soon after Portuguese traders arrived at the harbour and by 1495 a fort that acted as a trading post had been built.[24] The Portuguese were joined by the Dutch and French; all of them using Sierra Leone as a trading point for slaves.[25] In 1562 the English joined the trade in human beings when Sir John Hawkins enslaved 300 people 'by the sword and partly by other means'.[26]

[edit] Enslavement and Freedom

An 1835 illustration of liberated Africans arriving in Sierra Leone.

In 1787, a plan was implemented to settle some of London's Black Poor in Sierra Leone in what was called the "Province of Freedom". A number of Black Poor and White women arrived off the coast of Sierra Leone on May 15, 1787, accompanied by some English tradesmen. This was organized by the St. George's Bay Company, composed of British philanthropists who preferred it as a solution to continuing to financially support them in London. Many of the Black poor were African Americans, who had been promised their freedom for joining the British Army during the American Revolution, but also included other African and Asian inhabitants of London.

Disease and hostility from the indigenous people nearly eliminated the first group of colonists. Through intervention by Thomas Peters, the Sierra Leone Company was established to relocate another group of formerly enslaved Africans, this time nearly 1,200 Black Nova Scotians, most of whom had escaped enslavement in the United States. Given the most barren land in Nova Scotia, many had died from the harsh winters there. They established a settlement at Freetown in 1792 led by Peters. It was joined by other groups of freed Africans and became the first African-American haven for formerly enslaved Africans.

The colony of Freetown in 1856.

Though the English abolitionist Granville Sharp originally planned Sierra Leone as a utopian community, the directors of the Sierra Leone Company refused to allow the settlers to take freehold of the land. Knowing how Highland Clearances benefited Scottish landlords but not tenants, the settlers revolted in 1799. The revolt was only put down by the arrival of over 500 Jamaican Maroons, who also arrived via Nova Scotia.

Thousands of formerly enslaved Africans were returned to or liberated in Freetown. Most chose to remain in Sierra Leone. These returned Africans were from many areas of Africa, but principally the west coast. They joined the previous settlers and together became known as Creole or Krio people. Cut off from their homes and traditions, they assimilated some aspects of British styles of inhabitants and built a flourishing trade of flowers and beads on the West African coast. The lingua franca of the colony was Krio, a creole language rooted in 18th century African American English, which quickly spread across the region as a common language of trade and Christian mission. British and American abolitionist movements envisioned Freetown as embodying the possibilities of a post-slave trade Africa.

[edit] Colonial era

Bai Bureh, leader of the 1898 rebellion against British rule

In the early 20th century, Freetown served as the residence of the British governor who also ruled the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and the Gambia settlements. Sierra Leone also served as the educational centre of British West Africa. Fourah Bay College, established in 1827, rapidly became a magnet for English-speaking Africans on the West Coast. For more than a century, it was the only European-style university in western Sub-Saharan Africa. During Sierra Leone's colonial history, indigenous people mounted several unsuccessful revolts against British rule and Krio domination. The most notable was the Hut Tax war of 1898. Its first leader was Bai Bureh, a Temne chief who refused to recognize the British-imposed tax on "huts" (dwellings). The tax was generally regarded by the native chiefs as an attack on their sovereignty. After the British issued a warrant to arrest Bai Bureh alleging that he had refused to pay taxes, he brought fighters from several Temne villages under his command, and from Limba, Loko, Soso, Kissi, and Mandinka villages. Bureh's fighters had the advantage over the vastly more powerful British for several months of the war. Hundreds of British troops and hundreds of Bureh's fighters were killed.[27] Bai Bureh was finally captured on November 11, 1898 and sent into exile in the Gold Coast (now Ghana), while 96 of his comrades were hanged by the British.

The defeat of the natives in the Hut Tax war ended large scale organised resistance to colonialism; however resistance continued throughout the colonial period in the form of intermittent rioting and chaotic labour disturbances. Riots in 1955 and 1956 involved "many tens of thousands" of natives in the protectorate.[28]

One notable event in 1935 was the granting of a monopoly on mineral mining to the Sierra Leone Selection Trust run by De Beers, which was scheduled to last 98 years.

[edit] An independent nation

The 1924 Sierra Leone constitution was replaced in November 1951 by a new one which united the formerly separate Colonial and Protectorate legislatures and — most importantly — provided a framework for decolonization. In 1953, an African cabinet was installed (although the expatriate ministers it replaced remained in the legislature as advisers); and Dr. (later Sir) Milton Margai, an ethnic Mende and the leading politician from the Protectorate, was named Chief minister. His title was changed to Prime Minister in 1956. After the completion of constitutional talks in London in 1960, independence came on 27 April 1961, the anniversary of the start of the Hut Tax War of 1898.[29] Sierra Leone opted for a parliamentary system within the Commonwealth of Nations.

Milton Margai's political party, the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), won by large margins in the nation's first general election under universal adult suffrage in May 1962. Upon his death in 1964, his brother, Sir Albert Margai, succeeded him as prime minister. Sir Albert was highly criticized during his three-year rule as prime minister. He was accused of corruption and of favouritism toward his own Mende ethnic group. He also tried to establish a one-party state but met fierce resistance from the opposition All People's Congress (APC) and ultimately abandoned the idea. During Albert Margai's administration, The Mende increased their influence both in the civil service and the army. Most of the top military and government positions were held by Mendes, and Mende country (the South-Eastern part of Sierra Leone) received preferential treatment.

APC political rally in Kabala, Koinadugu District outside the home of supporters of the rival SLPP in 1968

In closely contested general elections in March 1967, Sierra Leone Governor General Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston declared the new prime minister to be Siaka Stevens, candidate of the All People's Congress (APC) and Mayor of Freetown. Hours after taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless coup led by Brigadier David Lansana, the Commander of the Armed Forces, on grounds that the determination of office should await the election of the tribal representatives to the house. Stevens was placed under house arrest and martial law was declared. But a group of senior military officers overrode this action by seizing control of the government on March 23, 1968, arresting Lansana and suspending the constitution. The group constituted itself as the National Reformation Council (NRC) with Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith as its chairman. In April 1968, the NRC was overthrown by a group of military officers who called themselves the Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement (ACRM), led by Brigadier John Amadu Bangura. The ACRM imprisoned senior NRC members, restored the constitution and reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister. After the return to civilian rule, by-elections were held (beginning in autumn 1968) and an all-APC cabinet was appointed. Calm was not completely restored. In November 1968, Stevens declared a state of emergency after provincial disturbances, and in March 1971 the government survived an unsuccessful military coup. On April 19, 1971, parliament declared Sierra Leone a Republic. Siaka Stevens' title was changed from prime minister to president. Guinean troops requested by Stevens to support his government were in the country from 1971 to 1973. The opposition SLPP boycotted the 1973 general election, alleging widespread intimidation and proceedural obstruction. An alleged plot to overthrow president Stevens failed in 1974 and its leaders were executed. In March 1976 he was elected without opposition for a second five-year term as president. In early 1977 a major anti-government demonstration by students occurred but was put down. In the national parliamentary election of May 1977, the APC won 74 seats and the main opposition, the SLPP, won 15. The SLPP, who condemned the election, alleged widespread vote-rigging and voter intimidation. In 1978, parliament approved a new constitution making the country a one-party state. The 1978 referendum made the APC the only legal political party in Sierra Leone.

Under the APC regimes headed by Stevens, the Limba, Stevens' own ethnic group, enjoyed strong influence in the government and civil service. During the 1970s, another major ethnic group, the Temne joined the Mende in opposition to the APC government. But after Stevens appointed a Temne, Sorie Ibrahim Koroma as vice-president in 1978, the Temne appeared to have emerged as the second most influential group in the government, after the Limba. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods and government corruption, but, on a positive note, he reduced the ethnic polarisation in government by incorporating members of various groups into his all-dominating APC.

Siaka Stevens retired in November, 1985 after being President for 14 years, but continued to be chairman of the APC. The APC named a new presidential candidate to succeed Stevens. He was Major General Joseph Saidu Momoh, the commander of the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces, and Stevens' own choice to succeed him. like Stevens, Momoh was also a member of the minority Limba ethnic group. Joseph Saidu Momoh was elected President in a one-party referendum on November 28, 1985. An inauguration was held in January 1986, and a one party parliamentary elections beween APC members were held in May, 1986.

After an alleged attempt to overthrow President Momoh in March 1987, more than 60 senior government officials were arrested, including Vice-President Francis Minah, who was removed from office, convicted for plotting the coup, and executed by hanging in 1989 along with 5 others.

[edit] Multi-party constitution and RUF rebellion

In October 1990, president Momoh set up a constitutional review commission to review the 1978 one-party constitution. Based on the commission recommendations a constitution re-establishing a multi-party system was approved by Parliament, becoming effective on October 1, 1991. But there was great suspicion that Momoh was not serious, and APC rule was increasingly marked by abuses of power.

Civil war broke out, mainly due to government corruption and mismanagement of diamond resources. Besides the internal ripeness, the brutal civil war going on in neighboring Liberia played an undeniable role in the outbreak of fighting in Sierra Leone. Charles Taylor—then leader of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia—reportedly helped form the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) under the command of former Sierra Leonean army corporal Foday Sankoh. In return, Taylor received diamonds from Sierra Leone. The RUF, led by Sankoh and backed by Taylor, launched its first attack in villages in Kailahun District in eastern Sierra Leone from Liberia on March 23, 1991. The government of Sierra Leone, overwhelmed by a crumbling economy and corruption, was unable to put up significant resistance. Within a month of entering Sierra Leone from Liberia, the RUF controlled much of the Eastern Province. Forced recruitment of child soldiers was also an early feature of the rebel strategy.

On April 29, 1992, a group of six young soldiers in the Sierra Leonean army, apparently frustrated by the government's failure to deal with the rebels, launched a military coup which sent president Momoh into exile in Guinea. They were second lieutenant Solomon A.J. Musa, Colonel Tom Nyuma, Brigadier-General Julius Maada Bio, Colonel Yahya Kanu, Captain Samuel Komba Kambo, Lieutenant Colonel Komba Mondeh and were led by 25-year-old captain Valentine Strasser. The soldiers established the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) with Yahya Kanu as its chairman. But Kanu was assassinated by fellow NPRC members, who accused him of trying to negotiate with the toppled APC administration. On May 4, 1992, 25-year-old Valentine Strasser took over as chairman of the NPRC and Head of State of Sierra Leone. S.A.J. Musa, one of the leaders of the coup and a close friend of Strasser, took over as Vice-Chairman of the NPRC. Many Sierra Leoneans nationwide rushed into the streets to celebrate the NPRC's takeover from the 23-year dictatorial APC regime, which they perceived as corrupt. The NPRC junta immediately suspended the 1991 Constitution, declared a state of emergency, limited freedom of speech and freedom of the press, and enacted a rule-by-decree policy. The army and police officers were granted unlimited powers of administrative detention without charge or trial, and challenges against such detentions in court were precluded.

The NPRC proved to be nearly as ineffectual as the Momoh-led APC government in repelling the RUF. More and more of the country fell to RUF fighters, and by 1995 they held much of the diamond-rich Eastern Province and were at the edge of Freetown. In response, the NPRC hired several hundred mercenaries from the private firm Executive Outcomes. Within a month they had driven RUF fighters back to enclaves along Sierra Leone’s borders. During this time corruption had erupted within senior NPRC members. On July 5, Strasser dismissed his childhood friend Musa as deputy charman of the NPRC and appointed Julius Maada Bio to succeed him. Some senior NPRC members, including Bio, Nyuma and Mondeh, were unhappy with Strasser's handling of the peace process. In January 1996, after nearly four years in power, Strasser was ousted in a coup by fellow NPRC members led by his deputy Maada Bio. Bio reinstated the Constitution and called for general elections. In the second round of presidential elections in early 1996, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, candidate of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), defeated John Karefa-Smart of the United National People's Party (UNPP) and a member of the minority Sherbro ethnic group. Bio fulfilled promises of a return to civilian rule, and handed power to Kabbah, who was from the Mende-dominated Kailahun District in the south-east of Sierra Leone and a member of the minority Mandingo ethnic group. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah's SLPP party also won a majority of the seats in Parliament.

In 1996, Major General Johnny Paul Koroma was allegedly involved in an attempt to overthrow the government of president Kabbah. He was arrested, tried, convicted, and imprisoned at Freetown's Pademba Road Prison. But some top-rank Army officers were unhappy with this decision, and on May 25, 1997, a group of soldiers who called themselves the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) overthrew Kabbah. The AFRC released Koroma from prison and installed him as their chairman and Head of State of the country. Koroma suspended the constitution, banned demonstrations, shut down all private radio stations in the country and invited the RUF to join his government. After 10 months in office, the junta was ousted by the Nigeria-led ECOMOG forces, and the democratically elected government of president Kabbah was reinstated in March 1998. Hundreds of civilians who had been accused of helping the AFRC government were illegally detained. Courts-martial were held for soldiers accused of assisting the AFRC government. Twenty-four of these were found guilty and were executed without appeal in October 1998. On January 6, 1999, AFRC made another unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the government, causing many deaths and much destruction of property in and around Freetown.

In October, the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to help restore order and disarm the rebels. The first of the 6,000-member force began arriving in December, and the UN Security Council voted in February 2000 to increase the force to 11,000, and later to 13,000. But in May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, Sankoh's forces clashed with the UN troops, and some 500 peacekeepers were taken hostage as the peace accord effectively collapsed. The hostage crisis resulted in more fighting between the RUF and the government.

Between 1991 and 2001, about 50,000 people were killed in Sierra Leone's civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, and many became refugees in Guinea and Liberia. In 2001, UN forces moved into rebel-held areas and began to disarm rebel soldiers. By January 2002, the war was declared over. In May, Kabbah was reelected president. By 2004, the disarmament process was complete. Also in 2004, a UN-backed war crimes court began holding trials of senior leaders from both sides of the war. In December 2005, UN peacekeeping forces pulled out of Sierra Leone.

In August 2007, Sierra Leone held presidential and parliamentary elections. However, no presidential candidate won a majority of votes. A runoff election was held in September, and Ernest Bai Koroma was elected president.

[edit] Geography and climate

Satellite image of Sierra Leone, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
The road from Kenema to Kailahun District.

Sierra Leone is located on the west coast of Africa, between the 7th and 10th parallels north of the equator. Sierra Leone is bordered by Guinea to the north and northeast, Liberia to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.[30] The country has a total area of 71,740 square kilometers (27,699 square miles), divided into a land area of 71,620 square kilometers and water of 120 square kilometers.[4] The country has four distinct geographical regions. In eastern Sierra Leone is an interior region of large plateaus interspersed with high mountains, where Mount Bintumani reaches 1,948 meters (6,390 ft), the highest point in the country. The upper part of the drainage basin of the Moa River is located in the south of the region. In the central part of the country is a region of lowland plains, containing forests, bush and farmland,[30] that occupies about 43% of Sierra Leone's land area. Starting in the west, Sierra Leone has some 400 kilometres (250 miles) of coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources and attractive tourist potential. This is followed by low-lying mangrove swamps, rain-forested plains and farmland. The national capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula, situated next to the Sierra Leone Harbor, the world's third largest natural harbour. This prime location historically made Sierra Leone the centre of trade and colonial administration in the region.

The climate is tropical, with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, and a dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan, when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert and the night-time temperature can be as low as 16 °C (60.8 °F). The average temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) and varies from around 26 °C (80 °F) to 36 °C (90 °F) during the year.[31][32]

[edit] Environment

Logging, mining, slash and burn, and deforestation for alternative land use - such as cattle grazing - have dramatically decreased forested land in Sierra Leone since the 1980s.

Until 2002, Sierra Leone lacked a forest management system due to a brutal civil war that caused tens of thousands of deaths. Deforestation rates have increased 7.3% since the end of the civil war. On paper, 55 protected areas covered 4.5% of Sierra Leone as of 2003. The country has 2,090 known species of higher plants, 147 mammals, 626 birds, 67 reptiles, 35 amphibians, and 99 fish species.[citation needed]

In June 2005, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and Bird Life International agreed to support a conservation-sustainable development project in the Gola Forest in southeastern Sierra Leone, the most important surviving fragment of rain forest in Sierra Leone.[citation needed]

[edit] Government and politics

Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. The current system of government in Sierra Leone, established under the 1991 Constitution, is modeled on the following structure of government: the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.[33]

Within the confines of the 1991 Constitution, supreme legislative powers are vested in Parliament, which is the law making body of the nation. Supreme executive authority rests in the president and members of his cabinet and judicial power with the judiciary of which the Chief Justice is head.

Ernest Bai Koroma, current president of Sierra Leone

The president is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces and the Sierra Leone Police. The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers, which must be approved by the Parliament. The president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two five-year terms.

To be elected president, a candidate must gain at least 55% of the vote. If no candidate gets 55%, there is to be a second-round runoff between the top two candidates. Presidential candidates must be Sierra Leonean citizens by birth; must be at least 40 years old; must be able to speak, read and write the English language; must be a member of a political party and must not have any past felony criminal conviction. The current president of Sierra Leone is Ernest Bai Koroma, who was sworn in on September 17, 2007, shortly after being declared the winner of a tense run-off election over the incumbent Vice president, Solomon Berewa of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP).[34]

Next to the president is the Vice president, who is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Sierra Leone Government. As designated by the Sierra Leone Constitution, the vice president is to become the new president of Sierra Leone upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president by parliament and to assume the Presidency temporarily while the president is abroad, or otherwise temporarily unable to fulfill his or her duties. The vice president is elected jointly with the president as his or her running mate. Sierra Leone's current vice president is Samuel Sam-Sumana, sworn in on September 17, 2007.

The Parliament of Sierra Leone is unicameral, with 124 seats. Each of the country's fourteen districts is represented in parliament. 112 members are elected concurrently with the presidential elections; the other 12 seats are filled by paramount chiefs from each of the country's 12 administrative districts.

The current parliament in the August 2007 Parliamentary elections is made up of three political parties with the following representations; the All People's Congress (APC) 59 seats, the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) 43 seats, and the Peoples Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC) 10 seats. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on August 11, 2007. The All People's Congress (APC), won 59 of 112 parliamentary seats; the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) won 43; and the People's Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC) won 10. To be qualified as Member of Parliament, the person must be a citizen of Sierra Leone, must be at least 21 years old, must be able to speak, read and write the English language with a degree of proficiency to enable him to actively take part in proceedings in Parliament; and must not have any criminal conviction.[35]

The Sierra Leone Supreme Court in the capital Freetown, the highest and most powerful court in the country

Since independence in 1961, Sierra Leone's politics has been dominated by two major political parties, the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), and the ruling All People's Congress (APC), although other minor political parties have also existed but with no significant supports.

The judicial power of Sierra Leone is vested in the judiciary, headed by the Chief Justice and comprising the Sierra Leone Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country and its ruling therefore cannot be appealed; High Court of Justice; the Court of Appeal; the magistrate courts; and traditional courts in rural villages. The president appoints and parliament approves Justices for the three courts. The Judiciary have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters throughout the country. The current Sierra Leone's Chief Justice is Umu Hawa Tejan Jalloh, who was appointed by President Ernest Bai Koroma and took office on January 25, 2008 upon his confirmation by parliament. She is the first woman in the history of Sierra Leone to hold such position.[36]

[edit] Foreign relations

The Sierra Leone Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Relations, headed by Minister of Foreign Affairs Zainab Hawa Bangura is responsible for foreign policy of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone has diplomatic relations that include China, Libya, Iran, and Cuba. Sierra Leone has good relations with the West, including the United States and has maintained historical ties with the United Kingdom and other former British colonies through membership of the Commonwealth of Nations.[37] Former President Siaka Stevens' government had sought closer relations with other West African countries under the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) a policy continued by the current. Sierra Leone, along with Liberia and Guinea form the Mano River Union (MRU) primarily designed to implement development projects and promote regional economic integration between the three countries.[38] Sierra Leone is also a member of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, the African Union, the African Development Bank (AFDB), the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).[39] Sierra Leone is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US military (as covered under Article 98).

[edit] Provinces and districts

The 14 districts of Sierra Leone.

The Republic of Sierra Leone is composed of three provinces: the Northern Province, Southern province and the Eastern province and one other region called the Western Area. The provinces are further divided into 12 districts, and the districts are further divided into chiefdoms, except for the Western Area.

District Capital Area km2 Province Population (2004 census)[40] Population (2008 estimates)
Bombali District Makeni 7,985 Northern Province 408,390 420,561[41]
Koinadugu District Kabala 12,121 265,758
Port Loko District Port Loko 5,719 453,746 477,978[42]
Tonkolili District Magburaka 7,003 347,197 365,465[43]
Kambia District Kambia 3,108 270,462 295,090[44]
Kenema District Kenema 6,053 Eastern Province 497,948 515,461[45]
Kono District Koidu Town 5,641 335,401
Kailahun District Kailahun 3,859 358,190 382,829[46]
Bo District Bo 5,473.6[47] Southern Province 463,668 515,945[48]
Moyamba District Moyamba 6,902 260,910
Pujehun District Gandorhun 4,105 228,392 262,073[49]
Bonthe District Mattru Jong 3,468 129,947
Western Area Urban District Freetown 3,568 Western Area 772,873 1,173,873
Western Area Rural District Freetown 4,175 174,249

[edit] Major cities

Koidu Town, Sierra Leone's fourth largest city and a major center for diamond trade
City 2004 census[40] Current population estimate
Freetown 772,873 1,070,200[50]
Bo 149,957 269,000[51][52]
Kenema 128,402 164,125 [1].
Koidu Town 80,025 111,800[53]
Makeni 82,840 105,900[54]
  • The populations quoted above for the five largest cities are estimates from the sources cited. Different sources give different estimates. Some claim that Magburaka should be included in the above list, but one source estimates the population at only 14,915,[55] whilst another puts it as high as 85,313.[56]

[edit] Economy

Diamond miners in Kono District

Sierra Leone is slowly emerging from a protracted civil war and is showing signs of a successful transition. Investor and consumer confidence continue to rise, adding impetus to the country’s economic recovery. There is greater freedom of movement and the successful re-habitation and resettlement of residential areas.

Rich in minerals, Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. The country is among the 10th largest diamond producing nations in the world. Mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is a major producer of gem-quality diamonds. Though rich in diamonds, it has historically struggled to manage their exploitation and export. Annual production of Sierra Leone's diamond estimates range between $250-300 million U.S dollar. Some of that is smuggled, where it is possibly used for money laundering or financing illicit activities. Formal exports have dramatically improved since the civil war with efforts to improve the management of them having some success. In October 2000, a UN-approved certification system for exporting diamonds from the country was put in place and led to a dramatic increase in legal exports. In 2001, the government created a mining community development fund, which returns a portion of diamond export taxes to diamond mining communities. The fund was created to raise local communities' stake in the legal diamond trade

Sierra Leone is perhaps best known for its blood diamonds that are mined and sold for high prices during the civil war.[citation needed] In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rate slowed because of a decline in the mining sector and increasing corruption among government officials. By the 1990s economic activity was declining and economic infrastructure had become seriously degraded. Over the next decade much of the formal economy was destroyed in the country’s civil war. Since the end of hostilities in January 2002, massive infusions of outside assistance have helped Sierra Leone begin to recover. Much of the recovery will depend on the success of the government's efforts to limit corruption by officials, which many feel was the chief cause for the civil war. A key indicator of success will be the effectiveness of government management of its diamond sector.

Sierra Leone has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile, a titanium ore used as paint pigment and welding rod coatings. Sierra Rutile Limited, owned by a consortium of United States and European investors, began commercial mining operations near the city of Bonthe, in the Southern Province, in early 1979. It was then the largest non-petroleum US investment in West Africa. The export of 88,000 tons realized $75 million in export earnings in 1990. In 1990, the company and the government made a new agreement on the terms of the company's concession in Sierra Leone. Rutile and bauxite mining operations were suspended when rebels invaded the mining sites in 1995, but exports resumed in 2005.

About two-thirds of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 52.5% of national income. The government is trying to increase food and cash crop production and upgrade small farmer skills. The government works with several foreign donors to operate integrated rural development and agricultural projects.

Despite its successes and development, the Sierra Leone economy still faces significant challenges. There is high unemployment, particularly among the youth and ex-combatants. Authorities have been slow to implement reforms in the civil service, and the pace of the privatisation programme is also slacking and donors have urged its advancement.

[edit] Currency

Sierra Leone’s currency is the Leone. The central bank of the country is the Bank of Sierra Leone which is located in the capital, Freetown.

Sierra Leone operates a floating exchange rate system, and foreign currencies can be exchanged at any of the commercial banks, recognised foreign exchange bureaux and most hotels.

Credit card use is limited in Sierra Leone, though they may be used at some hotels and restaurants. Sierra Leone does not have internationally linked automated teller machines.[citation needed]

[edit] Military

The Military of Sierra Leone officially the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) are the unified armed forces of Sierra Leone responsible for the territorial security of Sierra Leone's border and defending the national interests of Sierra Leone within the framework of its international obligations. The armed forces were formed after independence in 1961, on the basis of elements of the former British Royal West African Frontier Force present in the country. The Sierra Leone Armed Forces currently consist of around 15,500 personnel. The Sierra Leone Army (by far the largest of the three) along with the tiny Sierra Leone Navy along with the moribund Sierra Leone Air Force form the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF).[57](by far the largest of the three branches); along with the The Sierra Leone Navy[2] [3][4]; and the Sierra Leone Air Wing[5]. The president of Sierra Leone is the commander in chief of the military. The Sierra Leone Military of Defense, headed by the Defense Minister, who is a civilian and is the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of the armed forces. Th current Sierra Leone Defense Minister is Ret. Brigadier General Alfred Paolo Conteh.

The Military of Sierra Leone also has a Chief of the Defence Staff who is a uniformed military official responsible for the administration and the operational control of the Sierra Leone military [6]. It is the highest rank military position in the country. Brigadier General Alfred Nelson-Williams who was appointed by president Koroma succeeded the retired Major General Edward Sam M’boma on 12 September 2008 as the Chief of Defense Staff of the Military.[58]

Before Sierra Leone gained independence in 1961 the military was known as the Royal Sierra Leone Military Force. The military seized control in 1968, bringing the National Reformation Council into power. On 19 April 1971, when Sierra Leone became a republic, the Royal Sierra Leone Military Forces were renamed the Republic of Sierra Leone Military Force (RSLMF).[59]

The RSLMF remained a single service organization until 1979 when the Sierra Leone Navy was established. It then remained largely unchanged for 16 years until in 1995 when Defence Headquarters (DHQ) was established and the Sierra Leone Air Wing (SLAW) formed. This gave the need for the RSLMF to be renamed the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone (AFRSL).

[edit] Law enforcement

Law enforcement in Sierra Leone is primarily the responsibility of the Sierra Leone Police (SLP). Sierra Leone Police was established by the British colony back in 1894 and is one of the oldest police forces in West Africa. The key mission of the Sierra Leone Police include to prevent crime, to protect life and property, To detect and prosecute offenders, To maintain public order, To ensure safety and security, To enhance access to justice. The Sierra Leone Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police, the professional head of the Sierra Leone Police force and is appointed by the President of Sierra Leone. Each one of Sierra Leone's fourteen districts is headed by a District Police commissioner who is the professional head of their respective district. The Districts Police Commissioners report directly to the Inspector General of Police at the Sierra Leone Police headquarters in Freetown. The current Inspector General of Police is Brima Acha Kamara who was appointed to the position by former president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.

[edit] Demographics

Sierra Leonean children in Koindu, Kailahun District playing next to a school damaged during the Sierra Leone Civil War by RUF rebel forces

The 2008 CIA estimate of Sierra Leone's population is 6,294,774.[60] Freetown, with an estimated population of 1,070,200, is the capital, largest city and the hub of the economy, commercial, educational and cultural centre of the country. Bo is the second city with an estimated population of 269,000. Other cities with a population over 100,000 are Kenema, Koidu Town and Makeni.

Although English is the official language[61] spoken at schools, government administration and by the media, Krio (language derived from English and several African languages and native to the Sierra Leone Krio people) is the most widely spoken language in virtually all parts of Sierra Leone. The Krio language is spoken by 98% of the country's population and unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other.[62]

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Sierra Leone had a population of 8,700 refugees and asylum seekers at the end of 2007. Nearly 20,000 Liberian refugees voluntarily returned to Liberia over the course of 2007. Of the refugees remaining in Sierra Leone, nearly all were Liberian.[63]

The life expectancy of Sierra Leone is 41 years.[64]

[edit] Ethnic groups

A Mende woman in the village of Jojoima in Kailahun District

The population of Sierra Leone comprises 16 ethnic groups,[65] each with its own language and costume. The two largest are the Mende and Temne, each comprises 30% of the population[66] (about 1,888,432 members each). The Mende predominate in the South-Eastern Provinces; the Temne likewise predominate in the Northern Province. Sierra Leone's national politics centers on the competition between the north, dominated by the Temne and their Neighbourhood and close ally cocopopulation[67] (about 570,529 members). of the coand the south-east dominated by the Mende. The Mende overwhelmingly support the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), while the Temne overwhelmingly support the other major political party, the All People's Congress (APC). This has led to ethnic tensions between the two largest ethnic groups.

The third largest ethnic group in Sierra leone are the Limba who make up 9% of the country's total population. The Limba are primarily found in the Northern Province, particulaly in Bombali District, Koinadugu District and Kambia District. The fourth largest ethnic group are the Kono, they make up 8% of the country's population (about 503,581 members) and are primarily found in the eastern province, particulaly in Kono District, where they form the largest ethnic group. The fifth largest are the Mandingo, they make up 7% of the population (about 465,813 members) and they are primarily found in Koinadugu District in the north and in the diamond-rich Kenema and Kono District, particularly in the cities ofKoidu Town and Yengema. The sixth largest are the Krio (descendants of freed West Indians slaves from the West Indies and freed African American slaves from the United States which landed in Freetown between 1787 and about 1885) make up 5% (about 314,738 members) and they are primarily found in the capital city of Freetown and its surrounding Western Area.

There's also the Fula (about 260,000 members) who live primarily in the north and the diamond areas in the east; there's the Kuranko (about 220,000 members) in north; the Loko (about 171,000 [7] members) in the north, with the Susu (about 165,000 members) and Yalunka (about 75,000 members) in the far north in Kambia District around the border with Guinea. The Kissi (about 160,000 members [8]) and the much smaller group of Vai (about 45,000 members).[68].are further inland in Kailahun District in the East next to the border with Liberia. On the coast in Bonthe District in the south are the Sherbro (201,000 members [9]). The Sierra Leonean-Lebanese (descendants of Lebanese settlers who settled in Sierra Leone during the late 19th century) live mostly in the Western Area.

In the past, Sierra Leoneans were noted for their educational achievements, trading activity, entrepreneurial skills, and arts and crafts work, particularly wood carving. Many are part of larger ethnic networks extending into several countries, which link West African states in the area. But the level of education and infrastructure has declined sharply over the last 30 years.[69]

List of Sierra Leoneans

[edit] Religion

Religions in Sierra Leone
religion percent
Indigenous religions

Followers of Islam are estimated to comprise 60% of Sierra Leone's population, those of Christianity 30%, and those of African indigenous religion, 10%.[10]

The Sierra Leone constitution provides freedom of religion and the government generally protects this right and does not tolerate its abuse. Unlike many other African countries, the religious diversity of Sierra Leone has seldom led to conflict.

[edit] Media

Radio listener in Kailahun

Media in Sierra Leone began with the introduction of the first printing press in Africa at the start of the nineteenth century. A strong journalistic tradition developed with the creation of a number of newspapers. In the 1860s, the country became a journalist hub for Africa, with professionals travelling to the country from across the continent. At the end of the nineteenth century, the industry went into decline, and when radio was introduced in the 1930s, it became the primary communication media in the country. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) was created by the government in 1934 making it the earliest English language radio broadcaster service in West Africa. The service began broadcasting television in 1963, with coverage extended to all the districts in the country in 1978.

Print media is not widely read in Sierra Leone, especially outside Freetown, partially due to the low levels of literacy in the country.[70] In 2007 there were 15 daily newspapers in the country, as well as those published weekly.[71] Among newspaper readership, young people are likely to read newspapers weekly and older people daily. The majority of newspapers are privately-run and are often critical of the government. The standard of print journalism tends to be low due to lack of training, and people trust the information published in newspapers less than that found on the radio.[70]

Isata Mahoi shown editing radio programmes in Talking Drum studio Freetown, she is also an actress in Sierra Leone radio soap opera Atunda Ayenda

Radio is the most-popular and most-trusted media in Sierra Leone, with 85% of people having access to a radio and 72% of people in the country listening to the radio daily.[70] These levels do vary between areas of the country, with the Western Area having the highest levels and Kailahun the lowest. Stations mainly consist of local commercial stations with a limited broadcast range, combined with a few stations with national coverage. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) runs one of the most popular stations in the country, broadcasting programs in a range of languages. Content includes news of UN activities and human rights information, as well as music and news. The UN missions will withdraw in 2008 and the UN Radio's future is uncertain. There is also a government station run by the SLBS that transmits on FM and short-wave. FM relays of BBC World Service, Radio France Internationale and Voice of America are also broadcast.

Outside the capital Freetown television is not watched by a great many people. There are two national, free terrestrial television stations in Sierra Leone, one run by the government SLBS and the other a private station, ABC Television-Africa (ABC). In 2007, a pay-per-view service was also introduced by GTV as part of a pan-African television service. Internet access in Sierra Leone has been sparse but is on the increase, especially since the introduction of wireless services across the country. There are nine Internet Service Providers (ISPs) operating in the country. Freetown has a city wide wireless network and Internet cafes and other businesses offering internet access. Problems experienced with access to the Internet include an intermittent electricity supply and a slow connection speed in the country outside Freetown.

The Sierra Leone constitution guarantees freedom of speech, and freedom of the press; however, the government maintains strong control of media, and at times restricts these rights in practice. Some subjects are seen as taboo by society and members of the political elite; imprisonment and violence have been used by the political establishment against journalists.[72][73] Under legislation enacted in 1980, all newspapers must register with the Ministry of Information and pay sizable registration fees. The Criminal Libel Law, including Seditious Libel Law of 1965, is used to control what is published in the media.[74] In 2006, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah committed to reforming the laws governing the press and media to create a freer system for journalists to work in,[74] but in 2007, Sierra Leone was ranked as having the 121st least-free press in the world, with the press less-free, in comparison to other countries, than in 2006.[75]

[edit] Music of Sierra Leone

see also:Palm-wine music, Gumbe, Afropop

[edit] Education

Second grade class in Koidu Town

Education in Sierra Leone is legally required for all children for six years at primary level (Class P1-P6) and three years in junior secondary education,[76] but a shortage of schools and teachers has made implementation impossible.[77] The Sierra Leone Civil War resulted in the destruction of 1,270 primary schools and in 2001 67 percent of all school-age children were out of school.[77] The situation has improved considerably since then with primary school enrollment doubling between 2001 and 2005 and the reconstruction of many schools since the end of the war.[78] Students at primary schools are usually 6 to 12 years old, and in secondary schools 13 to 18. Primary education is free and compulsory in government-sponsored public schools.

The country has two universities, the University of Sierra Leone, founded as Fourah Bay College in 1827 (the oldest university in West Africa)[citation needed], and Njala University, primarily located in Bo District, which was established as the Njala Agricultural Experimental Station in 1910 and became a university in 2005.[79] Teacher training colleges and religious seminaries are found in many parts of the country.

[edit] Transportation

There are a number of systems of transport in Sierra Leone, which has a road, air and water infrastructure, including a network of highways and several airports.

[edit] Air

There are ten regional airports in Sierra Leone, and one international airport. The Lungi International Airport located in the coastal town of Lungi in Northern Sierra Leone is the primary airport for domestic and international travel to or from Sierra Leone. Passengers cross the river to Aberdeen Heliports in Freetown by hovercraft, ferry or a helicopter. Helicopters are also available from the airport to other major cities in the country. The airport has paved runways longer than 3,047m. The other airports have unpaved runways, and seven have runways 914 to 1,523 metres long; the remaining two have shorter runways.

[edit] Prohibition from E.U. air operations

This country appears on the E.U. list of prohibited countries with regard to the certification of airlines. This means that no airline which is Sierra Leone registered may operate services of any kind within the European Union. This is due to substandard safety standards.[80]

[edit] Water

Sierra Leone has the third largest natural harbor in the world, where international shipping berth at the Queen Elizabeth II Quay in Government Wharf in central Freetown. There are 800 km of waterways in Sierra Leone, of which 600 km are navigable year-round. Major port cities are Bonthe, Freetown, Sherbro Island and Pepel.

[edit] Highways

There are 11,700 kilometers of highways in Sierra Leone, of which 936 km are paved. Sierra Leone highways are linked to Conakry, Guinea, and Monrovia, Liberia.

[edit] Sports

[edit] Football

Sierra Leonean football star Sheriff Suma just after a Leone Stars training session on 4 Sept. 2008 at the National Stadium in Freetown.

Football (soccer) is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. The national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars, represents the country in international competitions. It has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup but participated in the 1994 and 1996 African Cup of Nations. The country's national television network, The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) broadcasts the live match, along with several radio stations throughout the country. Some well known Sierra Leonean footballers include the team captain Mohamed Kallon, Julius Gibrilla Woobay, Al Bangura, Paul Kpaka, Rodney Strasser, Ahmed Deen, Samuel Barlay, Kewullay Conteh and Kei Kamara

The Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top football league, controlled by the Sierra Leone Football Association. The two biggest and most successful football clubs are East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool, but Kallon F.C. has enjoyed contemporary success. Kallon F.C. won the Premier League and the Sierra Leonean FA Cup in 2006, and eliminated 2006 Nigerian Premier League Champions Ocean Boys FC in the 2007 CAF Champions League first qualifying round, but later lost to ASEC Mimosas of Ivory Coast in the second qualifying round for the group stage.

The Sierra Leone U-17 football team, nicknamed the Sierra Stars, finished as runner-up at the 2003 African U-17 Championship in Swaziland, but came in last place in their group at the 2003 FIFA U-17 World Championship in Finland.

[edit] Cricket

The Sierra Leone cricket team represents Sierra Leone in international cricket competitions, and is among the best in West Africa. It became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council in 2002. It made its international debut at the 2004 African Affiliates Championship, where it finished last of eight teams. But at the equivalent tournament in 2006, Division Three of the African region of the World Cricket League, it finished as runner-up to Mozambique, and just missed a promotion to Division Two.

[edit] Basketball

The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international men's basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation. The squad is mostly home-based, with a few foreign players.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Sierra Leone
  2. ^ a b c d "Sierra Leone". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. 
  3. ^ a b Encarta Encyclopedia. ""Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  4. ^ a b ""CIA: The World Factbook: Sierra Leone"". 
  5. ^ The World Guide. ""Sierra Leone Geography"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  6. ^ ""Freetown"". Retrieved on 2009-03-21. 
  7. ^ Republic of Sierra Leone Embassy in United States. ""Geography"". Retrieved on 2009-03-21. 
  8. ^ Kup (1961), p. 116
  9. ^ a b Classic Encyclopedia. ""Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  10. ^ Room (1995), p. 346-7
  11. ^ History World. ""History of Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  12. ^ Sillinger (2003), p. 104
  13. ^ Keen (2005), p. 268
  14. ^ "Sierra Leone". The World Factbook. CIA. May 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  15. ^ The Special Court for Sierra Leone. ""About the Special Court for Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  16. ^ Human Development Reports. ""Sierra Leone - The Human Development Index"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  17. ^ David Tam-Baryoh, ""Corruption in Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  18. ^ Reporters without Borders. ""Media body curbs press freedom"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  19. ^ Countries and Their Cultures. ""Culture of Sierra Leone"". Retrieved on 2008-02-22. 
  20. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. ""Sierra Leone History"". Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  21. ^ Encyclopedia of the Nations. ""Sierra Leone - History"". Retrieved on 2008-02-22. 
  22. ^ Utting (1931), p. 33
  23. ^ Utting (1931), p. 8
  24. ^ LeVert, Suzanne (2007), Cultures of the World: Sierra Leone, Marshall Cavendish, p. 22, ISBN 9780761423348 
  25. ^ Sibthorpe, A. B. C. (1970), The History of Sierra Leone, Routledge, p. 7, ISBN 9780714617695 
  26. ^ National Maritime Museum. ""Sir John Hawkins"". Retrieved on 2008-12-09. 
  27. ^ Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  28. ^ Martin Killson, Political Change in a West African State: A Study of the Modernization Process in Sierra Leone, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 1966, p 60. Also pp 106, 107, 110, 111, 186-188 on other riots and strikes.
  29. ^ Wyse, Akintola (2003), H. C. Bankole-Bright and Politics in Colonial Sierra Leone, 1919-1958, Cambridge University Press, pp. 176–178, ISBN 9780521533331 
  30. ^ a b LeVert, Suzanne (2007), Cultures of the World: Sierra Leone, Marshall Cavendish, p. 7, ISBN 9780761423348 
  31. ^ Blinker, Linda (September 2006), [ COUNTRY ENVIRONMENT PROFILE (CEP) SIERRA LEONE], Freetown, Sierra Leone: CONSORTIUM PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF, p. 12,, retrieved on 2008-09-25 
  32. ^ LeVert, Suzanne (2007), Cultures of the World: Sierra Leone, Marshall Cavendish, p. 8-9, ISBN 9780761423348 
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Country profile: Sierra Leone". BBC News. 2008-06-18. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ Background Note: Sierra Leone, U.S. Department of State, October 2008,, retrieved on 2008-10-07 
  38. ^ Welcome to the Mano River Union Website, Mano River Union, 2006,, retrieved on 2008-10-07 
  39. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Relations, Sierra Leone Encyclopedia, 2007,, retrieved on 2008-10-07 
  40. ^ a b "FINAL RESULTS 2004 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS" (pdf). Statistics Sierra Leone. 3. Retrieved on 2008-06-09. 
  41. ^ World Gazetteer: Bombali - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  42. ^
  43. ^ World Gazetteer: Tonkolili - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  44. ^ World Gazetteer: Kambia - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  45. ^ World Gazetteer: Kenema - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  46. ^ World Gazetteer: Kailahun - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  47. ^ "Bo District". Sierra Leone Encyclopedia (UN and Government of Sierra Leone). July 2007. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  48. ^ World Gazetteer: Bo - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  49. ^ World Gazetteer: Pujehun - profile of geographical entity including name variants at
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ Armed forces (Sierra Leone) Jane's Sentinel Security Assessments, June 2008
  58. ^ New Vision, Freetown, 15 September 2008
  59. ^ Partners: Sierra Leone Armed Forces
  60. ^
  61. ^ "Sierra Leone Overview". United Nations Development Programme Sierra Leone. Retrieved on 2008-06-03. 
  62. ^
  63. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2008-06-19. 
  64. ^
  65. ^ About Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone Encyclopedia, 2007,, retrieved on 2008-07-27 
  66. ^
  67. ^,,2-11-1447_2171641,00.html
  68. ^
  69. ^ ""Sierra Leone (02/08)"". "U.S. Department of State". Retrieved on 2008-02-17. 
  70. ^ a b c Media use, and attitudes towards media in Sierra Leone:A comprehensive baseline study, BBC World Service Trust and Search for Common Ground, June 2007,, retrieved on 2007-04-19 
  71. ^ Jalloh, Tanu (28 December 2007), Sierra Leone: Newspaper Development, Freetown, Sierra Leone: Concord Times,, retrieved on 2008-04-19 
  72. ^ Wilson, Harry (2005), Press Freedoms and Human Rights:2005 Year End Press Freedom Brief, Commonwealth Press Union,, retrieved on 2008-04-20 
  73. ^ Sierra Leone - Annual report 2006, Reporters without Borders:For Press Freedom, 2006,, retrieved on 2008-04-20 
  74. ^ a b Sierra Leone - Annual report 2006, Reporters without Borders:For Press Freedom, 2006,, retrieved on 2008-04-20 
  75. ^ Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007, Reporters without Borders:For Press Freedom, 2007,, retrieved on 2008-04-20 
  76. ^ Wang, Lianqin (2007), Education in Sierra Leone: Present Challenges, Future Opportunities, World Bank Publications, p. 2, ISBN 0821368680 
  77. ^ a b "Sierra Leone". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  78. ^ Wang, Lianqin (2007), Education in Sierra Leone: Present Challenges, Future Opportunities, World Bank Publications, p. 1 and 3, ISBN 0821368680 
  79. ^ Njala University College (Nuc), Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone Encyclopedia, July,, retrieved on 2008-06-25 
  80. ^ List of banned E.U. air carriers

[edit] Book references

[edit] Primary sources

[edit] Secondary sources

  • Room, Adrian (1995). Placenames of the World. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0786418141. 
  • Levinson, Robby (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Phoenix: Oryx Press. ISBN 1573560197. 

[edit] Further reading

  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). Mende Government and Politics under Colonial Rule. Freetown and London. 
  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). Cultural Policy in Sierra Leone. UNESCO. 
  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). "Sengbe Pieh: A Neglected Hero?". Journal of the Historical Society of Sierra Leone II (2). 
  • Abraham, Arthur (c. 1976). Topics in Sierra Leone History: A Counter-Colonial Interpretation. Sierra Leone: Leone Publishers. 
  • Bah, M. Alpha (1998). Fulbe Migration in Sierra Leone: A Case History of Twentieth-Century Migration and Settlement Among the Kissi of Koindu. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 
  • Berger, Daniel (2003). In the Land of Magic Soldiers: A Story of White and Black in West Africa. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 
  • Blyden, Nemata Amelia. 'In Her Majesty' Service: West Indians in British Colonial Government, Sierra Leone, 1808-1880: Race, Class and Ethnicity in a British West African Colony. 
  • Clarke, J.I., Nelson, S.J.A. and Swindell, K. (1966). Sierra Leone in Maps. London. 
  • Cole, Bernadette (1995). Mass Media, Freedom and Democracy in Sierra Leone. Freetown. 
  • Conteh-Morgan, Earl and Dixon-Fyle, Mac (1999). Sierra Leone at the End of the Twentieth Century: History, Politics and Society. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 
  • Cox-George, N. A. (1961). Finance and Development in West Africa: The Sierra Leone Experience. London: D. Dobson. 
  • Foray, Cyril P. (1977). Historical Dictionary of Sierra Leone. Metuchen and London: The Scarecrow Press. 
  • Forna, Aminatta (2002). The Devil that danced on the Water: A daughter’s memoir. London. 
  • Fyfe, Christopher (1962). A History of Sierra Leone. Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press. 
  • Fyle, Christopher (1964). Sierra Leone Inheritance. London. 
  • Fyfe, Christopher (1992). Africanus Horton, 1835-1883 : West African Scientist and Patriot. Aldershot. 
  • Gberie, Lansana, Smillie, Ian and Hazleton, Ralph (January 2000). The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone, Diamonds and Human Society. Partnership Africa Canada. 
  • Global Witness (June 2000). Conflict Diamonds, Possibilities for the Identification, Certification and Control of Diamonds. 
  • Hirsch; John L. (2000). Sierra Leone: Diamonds and the Struggle for Democracy. Lynne Rienner Pub. 
  • Jalloh, Alusine (1999). "African Entrepreneurship: Muslim Fula Merchants in Sierra Leone". Monographs in International Studies, Africa Series (Ohio University Center for International Studies) (71). 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (1991). Sierra Leone. Länderbericht, Bergisch Gladbach. 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (February 2001). "Conflicts, Resources and Social Instability in Subsahara Africa – The Sierra Leone Case". Internationasles Afrikaforum (37): 166–180. 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (April 1995). "Subsahara Africa – Trade Expansion Through Countertrade". Internationales Afrikaforum: 365–374. 
  • Jones, Durosimi Eldred (1965). Othellos Countrymen. Oxford University Press. 
  • Jones, Durosimi Eldred and Eustace Palmer (1995). African Literature Today Africa World Press. London. 
  • Jones, Howard (1986). Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its Impact on American Abolition, Law and Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Kabba, Muctaru, (Editor) (1988). Sierra Leonean Heroes, Fifty Great Men and Women Who Helped to Build Our Nation. Freetown. 
  • Koroma, Abdul K. (1996). Sierra Leone – The Agony of a Nation. Freetown: Andromeda Publications. 
  • Kpundeh, Sahr John. Politics and Corruption in Africa: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. Lanham: University Press of America. 
  • Lewis, Damien (2005). Operation Certain Death - The Inside Story of the SAS'S Greatest Battle. Arrow Books. 
  • Nicol, Davidson, Regionalism and the New International Economic Order; UNITAR-CEESTEM-Club of Rome conference at the United Nations, Pergamon Press, 1981.
  • Opala, Joseph (1987). The Gullah: Rice, Slavery, and the Sierra Leone-American Connection. U.S. Information Service. 
  • William Reno (1995). Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Paul Richards (1996). Fighting for the Rain Forest – War Youth & Resources in Sierra Leone. London: James Currey Publishers. 
  • Sawyerr, Harry (1970). God, Ancestor or Creator? Aspects of Traditional Belief in Ghana, Nigeria & Sierra Leone. Harlow: Longmans. 
  • Turay, Harry (1980). 'Land Tenure Systems in Sierra Leone. Njala University College: unpublished project report. 
  • H.L. van der Laan (1965). The Sierra Leone Diamonds, An Economic Study covering the years 1952-1961. Oxford. 
  • Wyse, Akintola J.G. and Deveneaux, Gustav H.K. (1993). The Sierra Leone-German connection, 1787-1987, An Overview. Freetown: The German Embassy. 
  • Wyse, Akintola J. G. (1990). H. C. Bankole-Bright and Politics in Colonial Sierra Leone, 1919-1958. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2001). The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter Two: Anarchy and Mercenaries in Sierra Leone: The Powerless African State, pp. 19 - 72. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York; Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Chapter Twelve: Sierra Leone, pp. 183 - 196, Nova Science Publishers, 2001.

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