Foie gras

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Foie gras with mustard seeds and spring onions in duck jus
An entire foie gras (partly prepared for a terrine).
Pâté de foie gras, canned
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 460 kcal   1930 kJ
Carbohydrates     4.67 g
- Dietary fiber  0.0 g  
Fat 43.84 g
Protein 11.40 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1)  0.088 mg   7%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.299 mg   20%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  2.51 mg   17%
Sodium  697 mg 46%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.

Foie gras (pronounced /fwɑːˈgrɑː/ in English; French for "fat liver") is a food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. This fattening is typically achieved through gavage (force-feeding) corn, according to French law,[1] though outside of France it is also produced using natural feeding. Pâté de foie gras was formerly known as "Strassburg pie" in English due to that city being a major producer of this food product.[2]

Foie gras is one of the most popular[citation needed] and well-known delicacies in French cuisine. Its flavour is described as rich, buttery, and delicate, unlike that of a regular duck or goose liver. Foie gras can be sold whole, or prepared into mousse, parfait, or pâté (the lowest quality), and is typically served as an accompaniment to another food item, such as toast or steak.

The technique of gavage dates as far back as 2500 BC, when the ancient Egyptians began keeping birds for food and deliberately fattened the birds through force-feeding.[3] Today, France is by far the largest producer and consumer of foie gras, though it is produced and consumed worldwide, particularly in other European nations, the United States, and China.[4]

Gavage-based foie gras production is controversial, due to the force feeding procedure and the possible health consequences of an enlarged liver: A number of countries and other jurisdictions have laws against force feeding or the sale of foie gras.


[edit] History

A bas relief depiction of overfeeding geese

[edit] Ancient times

As early as 2500 BC, the ancient Egyptians learned that many birds could be fattened through overfeeding and began this practice. Whether they particularly sought the fattened livers of migratory birds as a delicacy remains undetermined.[5][6] In the necropolis of Saqqara, in the tomb of Mereruka, an important royal official, there is a bas relief scene wherein workers grasp geese around the necks in order to push food down their throats. At the side stand tables piled with more food pellets, probably roasted grain, and a flask for moistening the feed before giving it to the geese.[6][7][8]

The practice of geese-fattening spread from Egypt to the Mediterranean.[9] The earliest reference to fattened geese is from the 5th century BC Greek poet Cratinus, who wrote of geese-fatteners, yet Egypt maintained its reputation as the source for fattened geese. When the Spartan king Agesilaus visited Egypt in 361 BC, he was greeted with fattened geese and calves, the riches of Egyptian farmers.[6][10]

It was not until the Roman period, however, that foie gras is mentioned as a distinct food, which the Romans named iecur ficatum[11][12][13]; iecur means liver[14] and ficatum derives from ficus, meaning fig in Latin.[15] The emperor Elagabalus fed his dogs on foie gras during the four years of his chaotic reign.[16] Pliny the Elder (1st century AD) credits his contemporary, Roman gastronome Marcus Gavius Apicius, with feeding dried figs to geese in order to enlarge their livers:

"Apicius made the discovery, that we may employ the same artificial method of increasing the size of the liver of the sow, as of that of the goose; it consists in cramming them with dried figs, and when they are fat enough, they are drenched with wine mixed with honey, and immediately killed."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book VIII. Chapter 77[17]

Hence, the term iecur ficatum, fig-stuffed liver; feeding figs to enlarge a goose's liver may derive from Hellenistic Alexandria, since much of Roman luxury cuisine is of Greek inspiration.[18] Ficatum was closely associated with animal liver and it became the root word for "liver"[19] in each of these languages: foie in French,[20] hígado in Spanish, fígado in Portuguese, fegato in Italian and ficat in Romanian, all meaning "liver"; this etymology has been explained in different manners.[21][22]

[edit] Postclassical Europe

After the fall of the Roman empire, goose liver temporarily vanished from European cuisine. Some claim that Gallic farmers preserved the foie gras tradition until the rest of Europe rediscovered it centuries later, but the medieval French peasant's food animals were mainly pig and sheep.[23] Others claim that the tradition was preserved by the Jews, who learned the method of enlarging a goose's liver during the Roman colonisation of Israel[24] or earlier from Egyptians.[25] The Jews carried this culinary knowledge as they migrated farther north and west to Europe.[24]

The Judaic dietary law, Kashrut, forbade lard as a cooking medium, and butter, too, was proscribed as an alternative since Kashrut also prohibited mixing meat and dairy products.[9] Jewish cuisine used olive oil in the Mediterranean, and sesame oil in Babylonia, but neither cooking medium was easily available in Western and Central Europe, so poultry fat (known in Yiddish as schmaltz), which could be abundantly produced by overfeeding geese, was substituted in their stead.[24][26] The delicate taste of the goose's liver was soon appreciated; Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof of Kassel wrote in 1562 that the Jews raise fat geese and particularly love their livers. Some Rabbis were concerned with the kashrut dietary complications consequent to overfeeding geese, because Jewish law prohibits eating a treyf animal. The chasam sofer, Rabbi Moses Sofer, contended that it is not a treyf animal as none of its limbs is damaged. This matter remained a debated topic in Jewish dietary law until the Jewish taste for goose liver declined in the 19th century.[24] Another kashrut matter, still a problem today, is that even properly slaughtered and inspected meat must be drained of blood before being considered fit to eat. Usually, salting achieves that; however, as liver is regarded as "(almost) wholly blood", broiling is the only way of kashering. Properly broiling a foie gras while preserving its delicate taste is an arduous endeavour few engage in seriously. Even so, there are grilled meat restaurants in Israel, such as Tel Aviv's Yehuda Avazi's, that offer grilled goose foie gras.

Bartolomeo Scappi

Gentile gastronomes began appreciating fattened goose liver, which they could buy in the local Jewish ghetto of their cities. In 1570, Bartolomeo Scappi, chef de cuisine to Pope Pius V, published his cookbook Opera, wherein he describes that "the liver of [a] domestic goose raised by the Jews is of extreme size and weighs [between] two and three pounds."[27] In 1581, Marx Rumpolt of Mainz, chef to several German nobles, published the massive cookbook Kochbuch, describing that the Jews of Bohemia produced livers weighing more than three pounds; he lists recipes for it—including one for goose liver mousse.[27][28] János Keszei, chef to the court of Michael Apafi, the prince of Transylvania, included foie gras recipes in his 1680 cookbook A New Book About Cooking, instructing cooks to "envelop the goose liver in a calf's thin skin, bake it and prepare [a] green or [a] brown sauce to accompany it. I used goose liver fattened by Bohemian Jews, its weight was more than three pounds. You may also prepare a mush of it."

[edit] Main producers

Today, France is by far the largest producer and consumer of foie gras, though it is produced and consumed worldwide, particularly in other European nations, the United States, and China.[4]

Country Production (tons, 2005)  % of total
France 18,450[29] 78.5%
Hungary 1,920[29] 8.2%
Bulgaria 1,500[29] 6.4%
United States 340 (2003)[30] 1.4%
Canada (Quebec) 200 (2005)[31] 0.9%
China 150[29] 0.6%
Others 940 4.0%
Total 23,500[29] 100%

France is the leading producer and consumer of duck and goose foie gras. In 2005, the country produced 18,450 tonnes of foie gras (78.5% of the world's estimated total production of 23,500 tonnes) of which 96% was duck liver and the rest goose liver. Total French consumption of foie gras was 19,000 tonnes in 2005.[29] Approximately 30,000 people are members of the French foie gras industry, with 90% of them residing in the Périgord (Dordogne), the Midi-Pyrénées régions in the southwest, and Alsace. The European Union recognizes the foie gras produced according to traditional farming methods (label rouge) in southwestern France with a geographical indication of provenance.

Hungary is the world's second-greatest foie gras "Libamáj" producer and the largest exporter (1,920 tonnes in 2005). France is the principal market for Hungarian foie gras; mainly exported raw. Approximately 30,000 Hungarian goose farmers are dependent on the foie gras industry.[32] French food companies spice, process, and cook the foie gras so it may be sold as a French product in its domestic and export markets.[33]

Bulgaria produced 1,500 tons of foie gras in 2005;[29] Québec, Canada, also has a thriving foie gras industry; Canadian chefs use Québec foie gras as a demonstration of national pride. The demand for foie gras in the Far East is such that China has become a sizeable producer; however, Chinese foie gras is viewed with some suspicion by the French.[34]

[edit] Forms of foie gras

Moulard duck foie gras with pickled pear

In France, foie gras exists in different, legally-defined presentations, from the expensive to the cheap:[35]

  • foie gras entier (whole foie gras), made of one or two whole liver lobes; either cooked (cuit), semi-cooked (mi-cuit), or fresh (frais);
  • foie gras, made of pieces of livers reassembled together;
  • bloc de foie gras, a fully-cooked, molded block composed of 98% or more foie gras; if termed avec morceaux ("with pieces"), it must contain at least 50% foie gras pieces for goose, and 30% for duck.

Additionally, there exist pâté de foie gras; mousse de foie gras (both must contain 50% or more foie gras); parfait de foie gras (must contain 75% or more foie gras); and other preparations (no legal obligation established).

Fully cooked preparations are generally sold in either glass containers or metal cans for long-term preservation. Whole, fresh foie gras is usually unavailable in France outside the Christmas period, except in some producers' markets in the producing regions. Frozen whole foie gras sometimes is sold in French supermarkets.

Whole foie gras is readily available from gourmet retailers in Quebec, the United States, Hungary, Australia, Argentina and regions with a sizable market for the product. In US, raw foie gras is classified as Grade A, B or C, with Grade A typically being the highest in fat. It is especially suited for low-temperature preparations, because the veins are relatively fewer and the resulting terrine will fit the aesthetic requirement of lacking obvious included blood. Grade B is accepted for high-temparature preparation, because the higher proportion of protein gives the liver more structure after being seared. Grade C livers are generally reserved for making sauces as well as other preparations where the high proportion of blood-filled veins will not impair the appearance of the dish.[citation needed]

[edit] Production methods

The physiological basis of foie gras production is migratory birds' capacity for weight gain, particularly in the liver, in preparation for migration. Toulouse geese[36] and Moulard ducks are the most commonly used breeds for foie gras.[37] Moulards are a cross breed between a male Muscovy Duck and a female Pekin duck. Moulard ducks do not exhibit pre-migratory gorging instincts because neither the Pekin nor the Muscovy are migratory birds.[38] [39]

Typical foie gras production involves force-feeding birds more food than they would eat in the wild, and much more than they would voluntarily eat domestically.[40] The feed, usually corn boiled with fat (to facilitate ingestion), deposits large amounts of fat in the liver, thereby producing the buttery consistency sought by the gastronome.

[edit] Physiology and preparation

Geese and ducks are omnivorous, and, like many birds, have expansive throats allowing them to store large amounts of food, either whole or pre-digested, in the crop, an enlarged portion of the esophagus, while awaiting digestion in the stomach, similar to python feeding. In the wild this dilation allows them to swallow large foodstuffs, such as a whole fish, for a later, long digestion. Wild geese may consume 300 grams of protein and another 800 grams of grasses per day. Farmed geese allowed to graze on carrots adapt to eat 100 grams of protein, but may consume up to 2500 grams of the carrots per day. A wild duck may double its weight in the autumn, storing fat throughout much of its body and especially on the liver, in preparation for winter migration.[41] Force feeding produces a liver that is six to ten times its ordinary size.[42] Storage of fat in the liver produces steatosis of the liver cells.

The geese or ducks used in foie gras production are usually kept in a building on straw for the first four weeks, then kept outside for some weeks, feeding on grasses. This phase of the preparation is designed to take advantage of the natural dilation capacity on the esophagus.[43] The birds are then brought inside for gradually longer periods while introduced to a high starch diet. The next feeding phase, which the French call gavage or finition d'engraissement, or "completion of fattening", involves forced daily ingestion of controlled amounts of feed for 12 to 15 days with ducks and for 15 to 18 days with geese. During this phase ducks are usually fed twice daily while geese are fed up to 4 times daily.

[edit] Fattening

Traditional gavage feeding process

In modern production, the bird is typically fed a controlled amount of feed, depending on the stage of the fattening process, its weight, and the amount of feed it last ingested.[44] At the start of production, a bird might be fed a dry weight of 250 grams (9 oz) of food per day, and up to 1,000 grams (35 oz) (in dry weight) by the end of the process. The actual amount of food force-fed is much greater, since the birds are fed a mash whose composition is about 53% dry and 47% liquid (by weight).[45]

The feed is administered using a funnel fitted with a long tube (20–30 cm long), which forces the feed into the animal's esophagus; if an auger is used, the feeding takes about 45 to 60 seconds. Modern systems usually use a tube fed by a pneumatic pump;[46] with such a system the operation time per duck takes about 2 to 3 seconds. During feeding, efforts are made to avoid damaging the bird's esophagus, which could cause injury or death.

[edit] Alternative production

Fattened liver can be produced by alternative methods without gavage, and this is referred to either as "fatty goose liver" or as foie gras (outside France), though it does not conform to the French legal definition, and there is debate about the quality of the liver produced. This method involves timing the slaughter to coincide with the winter migration, when livers are naturally fattened.[47] This has only recently been produced commercially, and is a very small fraction of the market. While force feeding is required to meet the French legal definition of "foie gras", producers outside of France do not always force feed birds in order to produce fattened livers that they consider to be foie gras, instead allowing them to eat freely, termed ad libitum. Interest in alternative production methods has grown recently due to ethical concerns in gavage-based foie gras production. Such livers are alternatively termed fatty goose liver, ethical foie gras, or humane foie gras, though these latter terms are also used for gavage-based foie gras production that is more concerned with the animal's welfare (using rubber hoses rather than steel pipes for feeding). Award-winning Spanish producer Patería de Sousa produces foie gras under the brand Ganso Ibérico[48] by taking advantage of the natural instinct of geese to fatten their livers in preparation for migration,[47] which results in a seasonal product, as slaughter can only happen in winter, prior to migration. Others have expressed skepticism at these claims of humane treatment,[49] as earlier attempts to produce fattened livers without gavage have not produced satisfactory results.[50] In 2006, Schiltz Goose Farms began developing non-force-fed fatty goose livers by similar seasonal methods,[51] producing their first "fatty goose livers" in 2007, with sizes two to three times that of normal goose livers (by comparison with up to six times for force-fed geese).

[edit] Preparations

Foie gras with onions and figs

Generally, French preparations of foie gras are over low heat, as fat melts faster from the traditional goose foie gras than the duck foie gras produced in most other parts of the world. American and other New World preparations, typically employing duck foie gras, have more recipes and dish preparations for serving that foie gras hot, rather than cool or cold.

In Hungary, goose foie gras traditionally is fried in goose fat, which is then poured over the foie gras and left to cool; it also is eaten warm, after being fried or roasted, with some chefs smoking the foie gras over a cherry wood fire.

In other parts of the world foie gras is served in exotic dishes such as foie gras sushi rolls, in various forms of pasta or alongside steak tartare or atop a steak as a garnish.

[edit] Cold preparations

Traditional low-heat cooking methods result in terrines, pâtés, parfaits, foams and mousses of foie gras, often flavored with truffle, mushrooms or brandy such as cognac or armagnac. These slow-cooked forms of foie gras are cooled and served at or below room temperature.

In a very traditional form of terrine, au torchon ("in a towel"), a whole lobe of foie is molded, wrapped in a towel and slow-cooked in a bain-marie. For added flavor (from the Maillard reaction), the liver may be seared briefly over a fire of grape vine clippings (sarments) before slow-cooking in a bain-marie; afterwards, it is pressed served cold, in slices.

Raw foie gras is also cured in salt ("cru au sel"), served slightly chilled.[52]

Given its high fat content, foie gras can be made into a savory ice cream, typically crusted with coarse salt.

[edit] Hot preparations

Given the increased internationalization of cuisines and food supply, foie gras is increasingly found in hot preparations not only in the United States, but in France and elsewhere. Duck foie gras ("foie gras de canard") has slightly lower fat content and is generally more suitable in texture to cooking at high temperature than is goose foie gras ("foie gras d'oie"), but chefs have been able to cook goose foie gras employing similar techniques developed for duck, albeit with more care.

Raw foie gras can be roasted, sauteed, pan-seared (poëllé) or (with care and attention), grilled. As foie gras has high fat content, contact with heat needs to be brief and therefore at high temperature, lest it burn or melt. Optimal structural integrity for searing requires the foie gras to be cut to a thickness between 15 and 25 mm, resulting in a rare, uncooked center. Some chefs prefer not to devein the foie gras, as the veins can help preserve the integrity of the fatty liver. It is increasingly common to sear the foie gras on one side only, leaving the other side uncooked. Practitioners of molecular gastronomy such as Heston Blumenthal of the Fat Duck restaurant first flash-freeze foie gras in liquid nitrogen, with the searing process resulting in a piece at room temperature.

Hot foie gras requires minimal spices; typically black pepper, paprika (in Hungary) and salt. It has become fashionable in 3-star restaurants to use artisanal coarse salt to provide a visual and textural garnish.

[edit] Accompaniments

Foie gras may be flavored with truffles, prunes, or liquors such as Armagnac and Cointreau.

Most presentations of foie gras match it to a sweet fruit, including quince, pears, apples, prunes, plums, cherries, raspberries, blackcurrants, huckleberries, figs or elderberries. These can be in the form of sauces, coulis, jam, stewed, caramelized or pureed.

Chefs have been experimenting with various other contrasting and strong, supporting savory flavors, ranging from red beets to onion chutneys to sweet corn and peas to various mushrooms including morels or cepes to bittersweet chocolate molés.

Sauces include onion or leek-based sauces, red wine or fortified red wine reductions, truffle and mushroom sauces or wasabi drizzles.

It is commonly served accompanied with crusty or toasted bread such as a brioche, or, more rustically, toasted baguette ends.

Accompaniments may include caramelized onions, onion jam, cornichons and Sauternes jelly.

Foie gras is served with toasted bread and salad leaves[53],cranberry jelly or Oriental chutney[54],venison steaks, focaccia bread, parsnip chips and celeriac remoulade[55],maple syrup[56], jellied beef, root vegetables, horseradish cream[57],and with Paupiette of Squab,morels and crawfish[58].

Foie gras is also served with filet mignon, grilled duck, apricots, mashed potatoes, shrimp[59], spinach salad[60],raisins, and poached apples.[61]

[edit] Consumption

Foie gras is a luxury dish. Many in France only consume foie gras on special occasions, such as Christmas or New Year's Eve réveillon dinners, though the recent increased availability of foie gras has made it a less exceptional dish.[62] In some areas of France foie gras is eaten year-round.

Duck foie gras is the slightly cheaper[63] and, since a change of production methods in the 1950s, by far the most common kind, particularly in the US. The taste of duck foie gras is often referred to as musky with a subtle bitterness. Goose foie gras is noted for being less gamey and smoother, with a more delicate flavor.[64]

[edit] Controversy

See also Force-feeding of animals

Gavage-based foie gras production is controversial, due to the force feeding procedure, and the possible health consequences of an enlarged liver. A number of countries and other jurisdictions have laws against force feeding or the sale of foie gras due to how it is traditionally produced. In modern gavage-based foie gras production, force feeding takes place 12−18 days before slaughter. The duck or goose is typically fed a controlled amount of corn mash through a tube inserted in the animal's cuticle-lined esophagus. Foie gras production has been banned in nations such as some members of the European Union, Turkey, and Israel because of the force-feeding process.[citation needed] Foie gras producers maintain that force feeding ducks and geese is not uncomfortable for the animals nor is it hazardous to their health. The city of Chicago banned the production and selling of foie gras from 2006 until 2008.[65] Animal rights and welfare groups such as PETA[66], and the Humane Society of the United States[67] contend that foie gras production methods, and force feeding in particular, constitute cruel and inhumane treatment of animals. Specific complaints include livers swollen to many times their normal size, impaired liver function, expansion of the abdomen making it difficult for birds to walk, death if the force feeding is continued, and scarring of the esophagus. PETA claims that the insertion and removal of the feeding tube scratch the throat and the esophagus, causing irritations and wounds and thus exposing the animal to risk of mortal infections.

A recent study found that foie gras consumption "may be linked to the onset of diseases including Alzheimer’s, type 2 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis".[68][69] The possible link needs to be confirmed by further studies.[70]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ French rural code L654-27-1: "On entend par foie gras, le foie d'un canard ou d'une oie spécialement engraissé par gavage." ("'Foie gras' is understood to mean the liver of a duck or a goose that has been specially fattened by gavage").
  2. ^ The New International Encyclopædia, ed. Daniel Coit Gilman, Harry Thurston Peck and Frank Moore. (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1903): Vol. XIII, 778.
  3. ^ Ancient Egyptian Veterinary Practices
  4. ^ a b A Global Taste Test of Foie Gras and Truffles : NPR
  5. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 167): "Foie gras is the "fat liver" of force-fed geese and ducks. It has been made and appreciated since Roman times and probably long before; the force-feeding of geese is clearly represented in Egyptian art from 2500 BC."
  6. ^ a b c (Toussaint-Samat 1994, p. 425).
  7. ^ (Ginor 1999, p. 2).
  8. ^ "Living With the Animals", Joseph J.. Hobbs, Saudi Aramco World July/August 2001, pp. 14-21.
  9. ^ a b (Alford 2001, p. 36).
  10. ^ (Ginor 1999, p. 3).
  11. ^ Authentic Recipes, Food, Drinks, and Cooking Techniques
  12. ^ (Ginor 1999, p. 4).
  13. ^ (Giacosa 1994, p. 13).
  14. ^ (Langslow 2000, p. 153): "A second instance of the restriction of the sense of a Latin anatomical term to animals is iecur 'the liver' in Theodorus and Cassius. In both, the human liver is always hepar, while iecur is used of an animal (...)"
  15. ^ "Ficus,i" (...) Derivés: (...) ficatum n. (sc. iecur): d'abord terme de cuisine "foie garni de figues", cf. Hor., S. 2, 8, 88, ficis pastum iecur anseris albae, calque du gr. συκωτόν de même sens, puis, dans le langage populaire, simplement "foie" (...) et passé avec ce sens dans les langues romanes, où ficatum a remplacé iecur. A. Ernout, A. Meillet, Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue latine, Éd. Klincksieck, Paris 1979.
  16. ^ (Toussaint-Samat 1994, p. 426).
  17. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) For the original Latin text, see here. The Latin text (ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff) of Perseus Digital Library places the corresponding text in a wrong chapter. URL accessed December 30, 2006.
  18. ^ (Faas 2002, p. 19)
  19. ^ Yakov Malkiel of University of California explains that the Portuguese word iguaria, meaning "tasty food, dainty dish", is traced back to Late Latin iequaria and thus connected to the iecur family, and ficatum replaced the traditional Latin word for "liver". See The Etymology of Portuguese Iguaria by Yakov Malkiel. URL accessed December 30, 2006.
  20. ^ (Walter 2006, p. 40): "(...) for example, why it is not the word JECUR (a Latin word taken from the Greek) which has come down to us with the meaning of 'liver', but the Romance word ficato, which has become the French foie. The word ficato is formed on the Latin word FICUS 'fig', and would appear to have nothing to do with the 'liver' other than the Greeks, followed by the Romans, fattened their geese with figs to obtain particularly fleshy and tasty livers. The FICATUM JECUR or 'fig-fattened goose liver', which was very much sought after, must have become such a common expression that it was shortened to FICATUM (just as the modern French say frites as an abbreviation of pommes de terre frites). To begin with the word FICATUM probably designated only edible animal livers, with its meaning then being extended to include the human organ."
  21. ^ (Littré 1863, p. 137): "Feûte n'est pas mieux fait que foie; seulement, il conserve le t du Latin; car on sait que foie vient de ficatum (foie d'une oie nourrie de figues, et, de là, foie en général). Foie en français, feûte en wallon, fetge en provençal, fégato en italien, hígado en espagnol, fígado en portugais, témoignent que la bouche romane déplaça l'accent du mot Latin, et, au lieu de ficátum, qui est la prononciation régulière, dit, par anomalie, fícatum avec l'accent sur l'antépénultième."
  22. ^ Dizionario etimologico online: fégato.
  23. ^ (Ginor 1999, p. 8).
  24. ^ a b c d (Ginor 1999, p. 9).
  25. ^ (Davidson 1999, p. 311): "The enlarged liver has been counted a delicacy since classical times, when the force-feeding of the birds was practised in classical Rome. It is commonly said that the practice dates back even further, to ancient Egypt, and that knowledge of it was possibly acquired by the Jews during their period of 'bondage' there and transmitted by them to the classical civilizations."
  26. ^ (Alford 2001, p. 37).
  27. ^ a b (Ginor 1999, p. 11).
  28. ^ (Toussaint-Samat 1994, p. 427).
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "China to boost foie gras production". Xinhua online. 2006-04-11. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Hungary foie gras farms under threat
  34. ^ Bremner, Charles (2006-04-06). "Purists take a jaundiced view of Chinese foie gras". Times Online.,,13509-2120472,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
  35. ^ Decree 93-999 of August 9, 1993 defining legal categories and terms for foie gras in France
  36. ^ Toulouse Goose Pyrenees Biological Academy
  37. ^ A Cornucopia of Native Foie Gras; Partners' Efforts Produce Menu Delicacy in Abundance - New York Times
  38. ^ :> | Bread Warning
  39. ^ Muscovy Duck Facts, Figures, Description and Photo
  40. ^ Report of the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare, Chapter 4, pp 24-29
  41. ^ EU ReportPDF (277 KiB), section 4
  42. ^ EU ReportPDF (277 KiB), p60
  43. ^ EU ReportPDF (277 KiB) EU Scientific Report, p19
  44. ^
  45. ^ Guemene D, et al., “Force-feeding procedure and physiological indicators of stress in male mule ducks,” Br Poult Sci. 2001 Dec; 42(5):650–7, p.651.
  46. ^ The standard practice is pneumatic force-feeding, as stated on this page and this foie gras enthusiast page; see also this force-feeding equipment page.
  47. ^ a b
  48. ^ La Patería de Sousa's ethical foie gras of wild iberian goose
  49. ^ New York Times: Foie Gras Makers Struggle to Please Critics and Chefs
  50. ^ EU ReportPDF (277 KiB), section 7.1, p. 57
  51. ^ Interview with Jim Schiltz
  52. ^ Au Pied du Cochon. Menu. Montreal. 15 June. 2006.
  53. ^ How to serve foie gras
  54. ^ How to Serve Foie Gras
  55. ^ Venison burger with foie gras served with parsnip chips
  56. ^ Seared Foie Gras, Served Cold with Armagnac, Maple Syrup and Cranberries Recipe
  57. ^ Recipes by chef Daniel Boulud
  58. ^ Recipes by chef Richard Farnabe
  59. ^ Foie Gras Recipes
  60. ^ Pan-seared foie gras on spinach salad
  61. ^ Foie Gras
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ ...goose liver is more delicate and less gamey tasting that its duck equivalent France: World Food By Stephen Fallon, Michael Rothschild ISBN 1864500212, 9781864500219 page 49
  65. ^ Nick Fox (2008-03-14). "Chicago Overturns Foie Gras Ban". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. 
  66. ^ Foie Gras: Delicacy of Despair
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  70. ^ Foie gras could be tasty way to get Alzheimer’s - Times Online

[edit] References

  • Larousse Gastronomique, by Prosper Montagne (Ed.), Clarkson Potter, 2001. ISBN 0-609-60971-8
  • Alford, Katherine (2001), Caviar, Truffles, and Foie Gras, Chronicle Books, ISBN 0811827917.
  • Bett, Henry (2003), Wanderings Among Words, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0766177920.
  • Davidson, Alan (1999), The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
  • Faas, Patrick (2002), Around the Table of the Romans: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0312239580.
  • Giacosa, Ilaria Gozzini (1994), A Taste of Ancient Rome, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226290328.
  • Ginor, Michael A. (1999), Foie Gras: A Passion, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-29318-0.
  • Langslow, David R. (2000), Medical Latin in the Roman Empire, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198152795.
  • Littré, Maximilien Paul Emile (1863), Histoire de la langue française: Études sur les origines, l'étymologie, la grammaire, Didier.
  • McGee, Harold (2004), On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, Scribner, ISBN 0684800012.
  • Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (1994), History of Food, Blackwell Publishing Professional, ISBN 0631194975.
  • Walter, Henriette (2006), French Inside Out: The French Language Past and Present, Routledge, ISBN 0415076706.

[edit] External links

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