From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Republic of Malta
Repubblika ta' Malta
Flag of Malta Coat of arms of Malta
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemL-Innu Malti
("The Maltese Anthem")

Location of Malta
Location of Malta (dark green)
– within the European Union (light green) on the European continent (dark grey)
Capital Valletta (de facto)
35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.5°E / 35.883; 14.5
Largest city Birkirkara
Official languages Maltese, English
Demonym Maltese
Government Parliamentary Republic
 -  President George Abela
 -  Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi
 -  from the United Kingdom September 21, 1964 
 -  Republic December 13, 1974 
EU accession May 1, 2004
 -  Total 316 km2 (185th)
121 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.001
 -  2007 estimate 410,290 (174th)
 -  2005 census 404,9621 
 -  Density 1,298/km2 (6th)
3,391/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $9.894 billion[1] (137th)
 -  Per capita $23,908 [1] (IMF) (37th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $8.584 billion[1] (118th)
 -  Per capita $20.744 [1] (IMF) (28th)
HDI (2006) 0.894 (high) (36th)
Currency Euro ()2Banks (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .mt 3
Calling code 356
1 Total population includes foreign residents. Maltese residents population estimate at end 2004 was 389,769. All official population data provided by the NSO.[2]
2Before 2008: Maltese lira
3 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Malta en-us-Malta.ogg /ˈmɔːltə/ , officially the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is a densely populated developed European microstate in the European Union.[3][4][5] The island nation comprises an archipelago of seven islands situated in the Southern European areas of the Mediterranean sea, 93 km off the coast of Sicily (Italy), 288 km east of Tunisia and 300 km north of Libya. The islands enjoy a Mediterranean climate.[6][7]

Throughout its history, Malta's location in the Mediterranean Sea has given it a strategic importance.[8] Consequently, a sequence of powers including the Sicilians, Phoenicians, Romans, Fatimids, Knights of St John and British have all conquered Malta. Malta gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964 but remains a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It is currently a member of the European Union, which it joined in 2004, and also of the United Nations.

Malta is known for its world heritage sites,[9] most prominently the Megalithic Temples which are the oldest free-standing structures on Earth.[10][11][12] According to the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul was shipwrecked on the island. Malta is also considered a potential location for the mythical lost island of Atlantis.[13][14]

Malta's capital city is Valletta. The country's official languages are Maltese and English, which replaced Italian in 1934. Malta has a long legacy of Roman Catholicism, which continues to be the official and dominant religion in Malta.


[edit] Etymology

The origin of the term "Malta" is uncertain and the modern day variation derives from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that it comes from the Greek word μέλι (meli) ('honey'). The Greeks called the island Μελίτη (Melite) meaning "honey" or "honey-sweet" possibly due to Malta's unique production of honey; an endemic species of bee lives on the island, giving it the popular nickname the "land of honey".[15] Not only was there Greek influence on the island as early as 700 BCE,[16] but the island was later governed by the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire from 395 to 870.[16] Another etymology is the Phoenician word Maleth, the Phoenician name for the islands, meaning "a haven"[17] in reference to Malta's many bays and coves.

[edit] History

[edit] Ancient civilizations

The Maltese islands were first settled in 5200 BC by stone age farmers who had arrived from the larger island of Sicily, possibly the Sicani. The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on Malta.[18]

The Sicani were the only known tribe known to have inhabited the island at this time[19][20] and are generally regarded as related to the Iberians.[21] The population on Malta grew cereals, raised domestic livestock and, in common with other ancient Mediterranean cultures, worshiped a fertility figure represented in Maltese prehistoric artifacts as exhibiting the large proportions seen in similar statuettes, including the Venus of Willendorf.

The temple complex of Mnajdra
Ggantija Temples

Pottery from the Għar Dalam phase is similar to pottery found in Agrigento, Sicily. A mysterious culture of megalithic temple builders then either supplanted or arose from this earliest period of Maltese civilization. The surviving monuments they constructed on Malta and Gozo are the oldest standing stone structures on Earth.[22][23][24] The temples were used from 4000–2500 BCE and were constructed with a distinctive architecture, typically a complex trefoil design.

There is some evidence that their rituals included animal sacrifice, however information from this period is tentative. The culture apparently disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BCE with historians and archeologists speculating that the temple builders fell victim to famine or disease. War is discounted as a likely cause as archeological digs have yielded little or no evidence of weapons.

During 3500 BC, these people built some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world in the form of the megalithic Ġgantija temples on Gozo,[22] other early temples include those at Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra.[25] Thereafter, the Maltese Islands were depopulated for several decades until the arrival of a new influx of Bronze Age immigrants, a culture that cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta.[26]

Around 700 BC, the Ancient Greeks settled on Malta, especially around the area now occupied by Valletta.[16] A century later, Phoenician traders,[16] who used the islands as stop on their trade routes from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to Cornwall, joined the natives on the island.[27] The Phoenicians inhabited the area now known as Mdina and its surrounding town of Rabat, which they called Maleth.[28] The Romans also made use of this city, designating it (and the island) Melita.[29]

Roman mosaic from Rabat, Malta.

After the fall of Phoenicia, in 400 BC the area came under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony.[30] During this time the people on Malta mainly cultivated olives and carobs, and produced textiles.[30]

During the First Punic War of 218 BC, tensions lead the Maltese people to rebel against Carthage and turn control of their garrison over to the Roman Republic consul Sempronius.[29] Malta remained loyal to Rome during the Second Punic War and the Romans rewarded it with the title Foederata Civitas, a designation that meant it was exempt from paying tribute or the rule of Roman law, although at this time it fell within the jurisdiction of Sicilia province.[29]

In 117 BC, the Maltese Islands were a thriving part of the Roman Empire, being promoted to the status of Municipium under Hadrian.[29] During 60 AD, in the north of the island at Saint Paul's Bay, one of the apostles of Jesus Christ named Saint Paul was shipwrecked on the shores.[29] Tradition holds he stayed in Malta for three months, introducing Christianity and performing various miracles.[29] This is documented in the Bible in the Acts of the Apostles.[29]

When the Roman Empire split into Eastern and Western divisions in the 4th century, Malta fell under the control of the Greek speaking Byzantine Empire which was ruled from Constantinople.[31] Although Malta was under Byzantine rule for four centuries, not much is known from this period. There is evidence that Germanic tribes, including the Goths and Vandals, briefly took control of the islands before the Byzantines launched a counter attack and retook Malta.[31]

[edit] Middle Ages

Roger I of Sicily returned Malta to Christian rule.
Aragonese flag of the Kingdom of Sicily.

Malta was involved in the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and the conquest of Malta is closely linked with that of Sicily due to admiral Euphemius betraying his fellow Byzantines and requesting that the Aghlabid dynasty invade the area.[32] As part of the Emirate of Sicily rule switched to the Fatimids in 909.[33] The Arabs introduced new irrigation, some fruits and cotton and the Siculo-Arabic language was adopted on the island from Sicily and Southern Italy: it would eventually evolve into the Maltese language.[34] The native Christians were allowed freedom of religion but had to pay an extra tax to the occupying power.[33] The Normans from the Duchy of Normandy relieved Sicily and the Maltese Islands in 1091[29] and Roger I of Sicily was warmly welcomed by the native Christians.[29] The Maltese offered to fight for him and in response Roger reportedly tore off a portion of his flag, half-red half-white, presenting it to the Maltese; this formed the basis of the flag of Malta.[29]

Ottoman map of Malta, by Piri Reis

The Norman period was productive; Malta became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Sicily which also covered the island of Sicily and the southern half of the Italian Peninsula.[29] The Catholic Church was re-instated as the state religion with Malta under the See of Palermo and much Norman architecture sprung up around Malta especially in its ancient capital Mdina.[29] Tancred of Sicily, the last Norman monarch, made Malta and Gozo a feudal lordship or fief within the kingdom and a Count of Malta instated. As the islands were much desired due to their strategic importance, it was during this time the men of Malta were militarised to fend off capture attempts; the early counts were skilled Genoese corsairs.[29] The kingdom passed on to the House of Hohenstaufen from 1194 until 1266. It was under Frederick I that all remaining Muslims were expelled from Malta (in 1224[35]) and the entire Christian male population of Celano in Abruzzo was exported to Malta.[29]

For a brief period the kingdom passed to the Capetian House of Anjou, however high taxes made the dynasty unpopular in Malta, due in part to Charles of Anjou's war against the Republic of Genoa and the island of Gozo was sacked in 1275.[29] A large revolt on Sicily known as the Sicilian Vespers followed these attacks, that saw the Peninsula separating into the Kingdom of Naples; the Kingdom of Sicily, including Malta, then fell under the rule of the Aragonese.[36] Relatives of the kings of Aragon ruled the island until 1409, when it passed to the Crown of Aragon.[36] Early on in the Aragonese reign the sons of the monarchy received the title, "Count of Malta". It was also during this time that much of the Maltese nobility sprang up. However by 1397 the bearing of the title "Count of Malta" reverted to a feudal basis with two families fighting over the distinction, which caused much distress. This led the king to abolish the title. Dispute over the title returned when the title was reinstated a few years later and the Maltese, led by the local nobility, rose up against Count Gonsalvo Monroy.[29] Although they opposed the Count, the Maltese voiced their loyalty to the Sicilian Crown, which so impressed Alfonso IV that he did not punish the people for their rebellion but promised never to grant the title to a third party, instead incorporating it back into the crown. The city of Mdina was nicknamed Città Notabile as a result of this sequence of events.[29]

[edit] Knights of Malta and Napoleon

St. Paul's Cathedral, Mdina designed in the Baroque style.

In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease. These knights, a military religious order now known as the Knights of Malta, had been driven out of Rhodes by the Ottoman Empire in 1522. They withstood a full-blown siege by the Ottoman Turks in 1565, at the time the greatest naval power in the Mediterranean. The knights, fighting alongside the Maltese, were victorious and speaking of the battle Voltaire said, "Nothing is more well known than the siege of Malta".[37]

After this they decided to increase Malta's fortifications, particularly in the inner-harbour area, where the new city of Valletta, named in honour of Grand Master Jean de la Valette, was built. They also built watchtowers along the coasts - the Wignacourt, Lascaris, and de Redin towers - named after the Grand Masters who ordered the work. The Knights' presence on the island saw the completion of many architectural and cultural projects, including the embellishment of Città Vittoriosa, the construction of new cities including Città Rohan and Città Hompesch and the introduction of new academic and social resources.

Baroque interior detail from St John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta

The Knights' reign ended when Napoleon captured Malta on the way to Egypt during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1798. As a ruse, Napoleon asked for safe harbour to resupply his ships. Once safely inside Valletta's harbor he turned his guns against his hosts. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim capitulated and Napoleon stayed in Malta for a few days, during which time he systematically looted the movable assets of the island and established an administration controlled by his nominees. He then sailed for Egypt, leaving behind a substantial garrison.

The occupying French forces were deeply unpopular with the Maltese, due particularly to the French forces' hostility towards Catholicism. The French financial and religious policies angered the Maltese who rebelled, forcing the French to retreat within the city fortifications. Great Britain, along with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, sent ammunition and aid to the Maltese and Britain also sent her navy, which blockaded the islands.

General Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois surrendered his French forces in 1800. Maltese leaders presented the island to Sir Alexander Ball, asking that the island become a British Dominion. The Maltese people created a Declaration of Rights in which they agreed to come "under the protection and sovereignty of the King of the free people, His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland". The Declaration also stated that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, and abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, and without control."[38]

[edit] British rule and World War II

The heavily bomb-damaged Republic Street in Valletta during the Siege of Malta, 1942.

In 1814, as part of the Treaty of Paris, Malta officially became a part of the British Empire and was used as a shipping way-station and fleet headquarters. Malta's position half-way between Gibraltar and the Suez Canal proved to be its main asset during these years and it was considered an important stop on the way to India. In 1919 British troops fired on a rally protesting new taxes, killing four Maltese men. This lead to increased resistance and support for the pro-Italian parties that had challenged the English presence on the island. The event, known as Sette Giugno (Italian for 7 June), is commemorated every year.

In the early 1930s the British Mediterranean Fleet, which was at that time the main contributor to commerce on the island, moved to Alexandria as an economic measure.

During World War II, Malta played an important role owing to its proximity to Axis shipping lanes. The bravery of the Maltese people during the second Siege of Malta moved HM King George VI to award the George Cross to Malta on a collective basis on April 15, 1942 "to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history". Some historians argue that the award caused Britain to incur disproportionate losses in defending Malta, as British credibility would have suffered if Malta surrendered, as Singapore had.[39] A replica of the George Cross now appears in the upper hoist corner of the Flag of Malta. The collective award remained unique until April 1999, when the Royal Ulster Constabulary became the second – and, to date, the only other – recipient of a collective George Cross.

[edit] Independence

Following the war, the Labour Party pursued a goal of integration with Britain, but abandoned it when it became clear that the British would not accept total integration. Eventually, Malta received its independence on September 21, 1964 (Independence Day). Under its 1964 constitution, Malta initially retained Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Malta and thus Head of State, with a Governor-General exercising executive authority on her behalf. On December 13, 1974 (Republic Day) Malta became a republic within the British Commonwealth, with the President as head of state. A defence agreement signed soon after independence (and re-negotiated in 1972) expired on March 31, 1979 (Freedom Day), under the prime minister Dom Mintoff. On that day British military forces departed and Admiral Sir John Hamilton GBE, Commander in Chief of the Eastern Mediterranean fleet, lowered the Union Jack for the last time. The Maltese then raised the Maltese flag over the Freedom Monument in Vittoriosa, to the sound of the first playing of Malta's national anthem. Malta adopted a policy of neutrality in 1980 and was a member of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries until 2004. In 1989 Malta was the venue of a summit between US President George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, their first face-to-face encounter, which signaled the end of the Cold War.

Malta joined the European Union on May 1, 2004.[40] Following the European Council of 21 June to 22 June 2007 it joined the Eurozone on January 1, 2008.[41]

[edit] Politics and government

George Abela has been President of Malta since 2009


The Courthouse, Valletta

Malta is a republic,[42] whose parliamentary system and public administration is closely modeled on the Westminster system. Malta had the second highest voter turnout in the world (and the highest for nations without mandatory voting), based on election turnout in national lower house elections from 1960 to 1995.[43] The unicameral House of Representatives, (Maltese: Il-Kamra tad- Deputati), is elected by direct universal suffrage through single transferable vote every five years, unless the House is dissolved earlier by the President on advice of the Prime Minister. The House of Representatives is made up of sixty-five Members of Parliament. However, where a party wins an absolute majority of votes, but does not have a majority of seats, that party is given additional seats to ensure a parliamentary majority. The Constitution of Malta provides that the President appoint as Prime Minister the member of the House who is best able to command a (governing) majority in the House.

The President of the Republic is elected every five years by the House of Representatives. The role of the president as head of state is largely ceremonial. The main political parties are the Nationalist Party, which is a Christian democratic party, and the Labour Party, with Dr. Joseph Muscat as its leader, which is a social democratic party. The Nationalist Party is currently (2008) at the helm of the government, the Prime Minister being Dr. Lawrence Gonzi. The Labour Party is in opposition. There are a number of smaller political parties in Malta that presently have no parliamentary representation.

Until World War II Maltese politics was dominated by the language question fought out by pro-Italian and pro-British parties.[44] Post-War politics dealt with constitutional questions on the relations with Britain (first with Integration then Independence) and, eventually, relations with the European Union.

[edit] Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions of Malta

Malta is divided into 68 elected local councils, with each council responsible for the administration of cities or regions of varying sizes. Administrative responsibility is distributed between the local councils and the central government in Valletta. The Local Councils Act, 1993 (Act XV of 1993) was published on June 30, 1993, subdividing Malta into 54 local councils in Malta and 14 in Gozo. The inhabitants who are registered elect the Council every three years, as voters in the Local Councils' Electoral Register. Elections are held by means of the system of proportional representation using the single transferable vote. The mayor is the head of the Local Council and the representative of the Council for all effects under the Act. The Executive Secretary, who is appointed by the Council, is the executive, administrative, and financial head of the Council. All decisions are taken collectively with the other members of the Council. Local councils are responsible for the general upkeep and embellishment of the locality, allocation of local wardens and refuse collection; they also carry out general administrative duties for the central government such as collection of government rents and funds and answer government-related public inquiries.

[edit] Local councils

Since 1993 Malta has been subdivided into sixty-eight local councils. These form the most basic form of local government. There are no intermediate levels between local government and national government and the levels of the 6 districts (5 on the main island) and of the 3 regions (2 on the main island) serve primarily statistical purposes.

[edit] Geography

Maltese Landscape
Satellite image of Malta

Malta is an archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea (in its eastern basin), some 93 km south of the Italian island of Sicily across the Malta Channel. Only the three largest islands Malta Island (Malta), Gozo (Għawdex), and Comino (Kemmuna) are inhabited. The smaller islands, such as Filfla, Cominotto and the Islands of St. Paul are uninhabited. Numerous bays along the indented coastline of the islands provide good harbours. The islands of the archipelago were formed from the high points of a land bridge between Sicily and North Africa which became isolated as sea levels rose after the last Ice Age.[45] The archipelago lies on the edge of the African tectonic plate, as it borders with the Eurasian plate.[46]

The modern-day landscape is characterised by low hills with terraced fields. The highest point is at Ta' Dmejrek on Malta Island at 253 metres (830 ft) near Dingli. Although there are some small rivers at times of high rainfall, there are no permanent rivers or lakes on Malta. However, some watercourses are found around the island that have fresh water running all year round. Such places are Baħrija, l-Intaħleb and San Martin. Running water in Gozo is found at Lunzjata Valley.

Malta implemented the Schengen Agreement on December 21, 2007.[47] Customs and border controls remained at airports until March 2008.

The south of Malta is not Europe's most southern point; that distinction belongs to the Greek island of Gavdos.

Phytogeographically, Malta belongs to the Liguro-Tyrrhenian province of the Mediterranean Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Malta belongs to the ecoregion of "Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands and Scrub".[48]

[edit] Islands

The main islands, and the only inhabited ones of the country are Malta Island, Comino and Gozo. Other islands that form part of the archipelago include: Cominotto (Kemmunett, uninhabited), Filfla (uninhabited), Fungus Rock (Il-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral, uninhabited), Manoel Island (which is joined to the town of Gżira, on the mainland by a bridge), and the Islands of St. Paul (uninhabited). The Maltese Islands have been an independent republic since 1974. The centre of government, commerce and a primary centre of culture is the capital city of Valletta on the eastern coast of Malta.

Maltese Islands are as the following:

[edit] Climate

The climate is Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification Csa), with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. There is no real thermal dormant season for plants, although plant growth can be checked briefly by abnormal cold in winter (patches of ground frost may occur in inland locales), and summer heat and aridity may cause vegetation to wilt. Effectively there are only two seasons, which makes the islands attractive for tourists, especially during the drier months. However, strong winds can make Malta feel cold during the springtime.

Malta has a predominantly Mediterranean climate

Water supply poses a problem on Malta, as the summer is both rainless and the time of greatest water use, and the winter rainfall often falls as heavy showers running off to the sea rather than soaking into the ground. Malta depends on underground reserves of fresh water, drawn through a system of water tunnels called the Ta' Kandja galleries, which average about 97 m. below surface and extend like the spokes of a wheel. In the galleries in Malta's porous limestone, fresh water lies in a lens upon brine. More than half the potable water of Malta is produced by desalination, which creates further issues of fossil fuel use and pollution.[49]

The lowest temperature ever recorded at Valletta was on February 19, 1895, with 1.2 °C (34.2 °F), and the highest temperature was 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) recorded in August 1999 at Luqa International Airport. An unofficial lowest temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) was recorded on February 1, 1962 in the Ta' Qali airfield with snow on the ground.

Snow is virtually unheard of, with very few and brief snow flurries recorded in February 1895, January 1905 and January 31, 1962. No accumulation has been reported on the coast at least since 1800, but on the last day of January 1962 snow briefly covered some parts of the interior of the main island. The following night the only frost in the history of Malta was recorded in the Ta' Qali airfield.

Month Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg high °C (°F) 21 (71) 15 (59) 15 (59) 16 (61) 18 (65) 22 (72) 27 (80) 32 (86) 32 (86) 28 (82) 24 (75) 19 (67) 16 (61)
Avg low temperature °C (°F) 15 (60) 9 (49) 9 (49) 10 (51) 12 (54) 15 (59) 19 (66) 22 (71) 22 (72) 20 (69) 18 (64) 14 (57) 11 (52)
Source: Weatherbase

[edit] Economy

Until 1800 Malta had very few industries except the cotton, tobacco and shipyards industry. The dockyard was later used by the British for military purposes. At times of war Malta's economy prospered due to its strategic location. This could be seen during the Crimean War of 1854. This benefited those who had a military role, as well as the craftsmen.

In 1869 the opening of the Suez Canal benefited Malta's economy greatly, as there was a massive increase in the shipping which entered the port. Entrepôt trade saw many ships stopping at Malta's docks for refuelling, which brought great benefits to the population. Towards the end of the 19th century the economy began declining, and by the 1940s Malta's economy was in serious crisis. This was partially due to the longer range of newer merchant ships which required less frequent refuelling stops.

Valletta's maritime industrial zone

Presently, Malta’s major resources are limestone, a favourable geographic location and a productive labour force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies and has no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade (serving as a freight trans-shipment point), manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles) and tourism. Tourism infrastructure has increased dramatically over the years and a number of good-quality hotels are present on the island, although overdevelopment and the destruction of traditional housing is of growing concern. An increasing number of Maltese now travel abroad on holiday.[50] Although they are still a net importer of tourism, the ratio of inbound tourists to outbound tourists is decreasing. The popular Mdina Glass enterprise was established on the island in 1968 by Michael Harris, a former tutor at the UK's RCA.

Film production is a growing contributor to the Maltese economy, with several big-budget foreign films shooting in Malta each year. The country has increased the exports of many other types of services such as banking and finance.

The government is investing heavily in the country's provision of education. As all education is free, Malta is currently producing a pool of qualified persons which heavily contribute to the country's growing economy.

Malta has recently privatised some state-controlled firms and liberalised markets in order to prepare for membership in the European Union, which it joined on May 1, 2004. For example, the government announced on January 8, 2007 that it is selling its 40% stake in Maltapost, in order to complete a privatisation process which has been ongoing for the past five years. Malta and Tunisia are currently discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for petroleum exploration.

[edit] Money and Banking

The Central Bank of Malta (Bank Ċentrali Ta' Malta), has two key areas of responsibility: the formulation and implementation of monetary policy and the promotion of a sound and efficient financial system. It was established by the Central Bank of Malta Act on 17 April 1968. The Maltese government entered ERM II on May 4, 2005, and adopted the euro as the country's currency on January 1, 2008.[51]

[edit] Currency

Maltese euro coins feature the Maltese Cross on €2 and €1 coins, the Maltese Coat of Arms on the €0.50, €0.20 and €0.10 coins, and the Mnajdra Temples on the €0.05, €0.02 and €0.01 coins.[52]

Malta has already produced collectors' coins with face value ranging from 10 to 50 euro. These coins continue an existing national practice of minting of silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €10 Maltese commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.

[edit] Banking

The two largest (and oldest) banks in the country are Bank of Valletta and HSBC Bank Malta, both of which can trace their origins back to the 19th Century. Malta is also home to an international financial center with several foreign offshore banks.

[edit] Transportation Infrastructure

[edit] Highways

Traffic in Malta drives on the left, as in the UK. Car ownership in Malta is exceedingly high, given the very small size of the islands; it is the fourth highest in the European Union. The number of registered cars in 1990 amounted to 182,254, giving an automobile density of 582 per km².[53]

Malta has 2,254 kilometres of road, 1,972 km (87.5%) of which are paved and 282 km are unpaved (December 2003).[54]

[edit] Buses

Principal highways
A traditional Maltese bus in Sliema

Buses are the primary method of public transport for the islands, which offer a cheap and frequent service to many parts of Malta and Gozo. The vast majority of buses on Malta depart from a large circular terminus in Valletta.

The island has had buses since 1905. Due to their appearance, Malta's classic buses have become tourist attractions in their own right and appear on many Maltese advertisements to promote tourism, as well as on gifts and merchandise for tourists. However, these old buses are slowly being replaced by a more modern fleet, albeit still customised in the tradition of the older buses.

The buses used to be colour coded, according to the their routes, before being painted green. Now the buses in Malta are all dark yellow, with a band of orange, while those on the sister island of Gozo are grey, with a red band.

There are approximately 500 buses in public transit service in Malta. The drivers themselves own most of the buses, but operate to a unified timetable set by the transport authority. Malta buses carry approximately 31 million passengers per year.[55] On any one day, half the bus fleet works on the public transport network (called 'route buses'), while the other half provides private tours and school transportation.

[edit] Railway

Between 1883 and 1931, Malta had a railway line that connected Valletta to the army barracks at Mtarfa via Mdina and a number of towns and villages. The railway fell into disuse and eventually closed altogether, following the introduction of electric trams and buses. At the height of the bombing of Malta during World War II, Mussolini announced that his forces had destroyed the railway system. But by the time war broke out, the railway had been mothballed for more than nine years.

[edit] New public transport network

A new public transport network is being proposed for the islands of Malta and Gozo that will include a day service from 6am to 11pm and a night service from 11pm to 6am. The proposed network would provide three types of services. The fast Crossline services would operate at a frequency of 30 minutes. These would connect with Mainline services, which would operate at a frequency of between 10 and 30 minutes. At regional and local levels the Feederlines would serve villages and neighbouring areas at a frequency of 30 minutes. Apart from the interchange at Valletta, which would be upgraded, the proposal includes other major interchanges in the network at Mater Dei, Luxol in Swieqi, Paola, Marsa, Malta International Airport and Msida. Public transport information would be made available in various media including real time, mobile and online. Enhanced bus stop and interchange facilities would provide shelter, security, information, comfort and convenience. [56]

[edit] Ports and harbours

Valletta Harbour
A ferry departs at Ċirkewwa harbour from Mġarr, Gozo

Malta has three large natural harbours on its main island.

  • Marsamxett Harbour, located on the western side of Valletta, accommodates a number of yacht marinas.

There are also two man-made harbours that serve a passenger and car ferry service that connects Ċirkewwa Harbour on Malta and Mġarr Harbour on Gozo. The ferry makes numerous runs each day.

[edit] Airports and heliports

Malta International Airport is the only airport serving the Maltese Islands. It is built on the land formerly occupied by the RAF Luqa air base. A heliport is also located there, but the scheduled service to Gozo ceased in 2006. Since June 2007, Harbour Air Malta has operated a thrice-daily floatplane service between the sea terminal in Grand Harbour and Mgarr Harbour in Gozo.

Two further airfields at Ta'Qali and Ħal Far airfields operated during World War II and into the 1960s but are now closed. Today, Ta'Qali houses a national park, stadium, the Crafts Village visitor attraction and the Malta Aviation Museum. This museum preserves several aircraft, including Hurricane and Spitfire fighters that defended the island in World War II.

An Air Malta flight

The national airline is Air Malta, which is based in at Malta International Airport, and which operates services to 36 destinations in Europe and North Africa. The owners of Air Malta are Maltese government (98%) and private investors (2%). Air Malta employs 1,547 staff and a 25% shareholding in Medavia.

Air Malta has concluded over 191 interline ticketing agreements with other IATA airlines. It also has a codeshare agreement with Qantas covering the following routes: Sydney-Singapore-Heathrow-Malta, Sydney-Bangkok-Heathrow-Malta and Melbourne-Singapore-Heathrow-Malta. In September 2007, Air Malta made two agreements with Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways by which Air Malta wet-leased two Airbus aircraft to Etihad Airways for the winter period starting September 1, 2007, and provided operational support on another Airbus A320, aircraft which it leased to Etihad Airways.

[edit] Military

The objectives of the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM) are to maintain a military organisation with the primary aim of defending the Islands' integrity according to the defence roles as set by Government in an efficient and cost effective manner. This is achieved by emphasising the maintenance of Malta's territorial waters and airspace integrity.

The AFM also engages in combating terrorism, fighting against illicit drug trafficking, conducting anti-illegal immigrant and anti-illegal fishing operations, operating Search and Rescue (SAR) services, and physical/electronic security/surveillance of sensitive locations. Malta's Search and Rescue area extends from east of Tunisia to west of Crete covering an area of around 250,000 km².

As a military organisation, the AFM provides backup support to the Malta Police Force (MPF) and other government departments/agencies in situations as required in an organised, disciplined manner in the event of national emergencies (such as natural disasters) or internal security and bomb disposal.

On another level, the AFM establishes and/or consolidates bilateral co-operation with other countries to reach higher operational effectiveness related to AFM roles.

[edit] Demographics

[edit] Population

Valletta, Malta's historical capital city

A census of population and housing is held every ten years. The last census was held over three years in November 2005 and managed to enumerate an estimated 96% of the population. A preliminary report was issued in April 2006, and results were weighted to an estimate for 100% of the population.

Native Maltese people make up the majority of the island. However there are minorities, the largest of which are British people, many of whom retired to Malta. The resident population of Malta, which includes foreigners residing in Malta for at least a year, as of November 27, 2005 was estimated at 404,039 of whom 200,715 (49.7%) were males and 203,324 (50.3%) were females. Of these, 17.1 per cent were aged 14 and under, 68.2 per cent were within the 15–64 age bracket whilst the remaining 13.7 per cent were 65 years and over. Malta's population density of 1,282 per square kilometer (3,322/sq mi) is by far the highest in the EU, and one of the highest in the world. The only census year showing a fall in population was that of 1967, with a 1.7% total decrease, attributable to a substantial number of Maltese residents who emigrated.[57] The Maltese-resident population for 2004 was estimated to make up 97.0% of the total resident population.[58] Through all the censuses since 1842 there was always a slightly higher female-to-male ratio. Closest to reaching equality were 1901 and 1911 censuses. The highest female-to-male ratio was reached in 1957 (1088:1000), and since the ratio has been constantly dropping. The 2005 census showed a 1013:1000 female-to-male ratio. Population growth has slowed down, from +9.5% between the 1985 and 1995 censuses, to +6.9% between the 1995 and 2005 censuses (a yearly average of +0.7%). The birth rate stood at 3860 (a decrease of 21.8% from the 1995 census) and the death rate stood at 3025. Thus, there was a natural population increase of 835 (compared to +888 for 2004, of which over a hundred were foreign residents).[59]

The Valletta Waterfront illuminations

The population's age composition is similar to the age structure prevalent in the EU. Since 1967 there was observed a trend indicating an aging population, and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Malta's old-age-dependency-ratio rose from 17.2% in 1995 to 19.8% in 2005, reasonably lower than the EU's 24.9% average. In fact, 31.5% of the Maltese population is aged under 25 (compared to the EU's 29.1%); but the 50-64 age group constitutes 20.3% of the population, significantly higher than the EU's 17.9%. In conclusion, Malta's old-age-dependency-ratio is expected to continue rising steadily in the coming years.

Maltese legislation recognizes both civil and canonical (ecclesiastical) marriages. Annulments by the Ecclesiastes and civil courts are unrelated and are not necessarily granted. There is no divorce legislation and abortion in Malta is illegal. A person must be 18 to marry.[60] The number of brides aged under 25 decreased from 1471 in 1997 to 766 in 2005; while the number of grooms under 25 decreased from 823 to 311. There is a constant trend that females are more likely than males to marry young. In 2005 there were 51 brides aged between 16 and 19, compared to 8 grooms.[59]

At the end of 2007, the population of the Maltese Islands stood at 410,290 and is expected to reach 424,028 by 2025. At the moment, females slightly outnumber males, making up 50.3 per cent of the population. The largest proportion of persons – 7.5 per cent – were aged 25-29, while there were 7.3 per cent falling into each of the 45-49 and 55-59 age brackets.[61]

[edit] Languages

See also: Languages in education section (below)

The Maltese language (Maltese: Il-Malti) is the mother tongue of the Maltese people and the official language of Malta, alongside English. Maltese, which is constitutionally the national language, is genetically a Semitic language, descended from Siculo-Arabic (from southern Italy),[62] with substantial borrowing from Sicilian, Italian, a little French, and more recently, and increasingly, English.[63]

The Maltese alphabet consists of 30 letters based on the Latin alphabet, but uses the diacritically altered letter ż (found in Polish), ċ and ġ (comparable to Esperanto ĉ and ĝ), as well as the letters , ħ, and ie, which are unique to Maltese.

Italian was the official language of Malta until 1934, when it was replaced by English and Maltese, thus ending the Language Question. The language still maintains strong ties to the country, and is spoken by the majority of the population as a second language today. Italian television channels from Italy-based broadcasters, such as Mediaset and RAI, reach Malta and remain popular.[64][65][66]

The Eurobarometer states that 100% of the population speaks Maltese, 88% speaks English, 66% speaks Italian, and 17% speaks French,[67] rendering the country one of the most pan-linguistically fluent in the European Union. However, public opinion on what language they "preferred" to use was different, with 86% of the population expressing a preference for Maltese, 12% for English, and 2% Italian.[66]

[edit] Religion

The façade of St John's Co-Cathedral

The Constitution of Malta provides for freedom of religion but establishes Roman Catholicism as the state religion. Freedom House and the World Factbook report that 98 percent of the population is Roman Catholic, making the nation one of the most Catholic countries in the world.

There are more than 360 churches in Malta, Gozo, and Comino, or one church for every 1,000 residents. The parish church (Maltese: "il-parroċċa", or "il-knisja parrokjali") is the architectural and geographic focal point of every Maltese town and village, and its main source of civic pride. This civic pride manifests itself in spectacular fashion during the local village festas, which mark the feast day of the patron saint of each parish with marching bands, religious processions, special Masses, fireworks (especially petards), and other festivities.

Making allowances for a possible break in the appointment of bishops to Malta during the period of Arab rule (869 to 1127 CE), the Maltese Church is frequently referred to today as the only extant Apostolic See, other than Rome itself. According to tradition, and as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul founded the Church in Malta in 70 CE, following his shipwreck on these Islands. The earliest Christian place of worship in Malta is therefore said to be the cavern on the north-east of Malta, now known as St. Paul's Grotto, where the Romans reputedly imprisoned St. Paul during his stay on Malta. There is evidence dating to the 3rd century CE of Christian burials and rituals having taken place in the general vicinity of the Grotto.

Further evidence of Christian practices and beliefs during the period of Roman persecution appears in the many catacombs that lie beneath various parts of Malta, including St Paul’s Catacombs and St Agatha’s Catacombs in Rabat, just outside the walls of Mdina. The latter, in particular, were beautifully frescoed between 1200 and 1480, although marauding Turks defaced them in the 1550s. There are also a number of cave churches, including the grotto at Mellieħa, which is a Shrine of the Nativity of Our Lady where, according to legend, St. Luke painted a picture of the Madonna. It has been a place of pilgrimage since medieval times.

The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon record that in 451 CE, a certain Acacius was Bishop of Malta (Melitenus Episcopus). It is also known that in 501 CE, a certain Constantinus, Episcopus Melitenensis, was present at the Fifth General Council. In 588 CE, Pope Gregory I deposed Tucillus, Miletinae civitatis episcopus, and the clergy and people of Malta elected his successor Trajan in 599 CE. The last recorded Bishop of Malta before the invasion of the Islands was a Greek by the name of Manas, who was subsequently incarcerated at Palermo, Sicily.[68]

The Mosta Dome known as "Ir-Rotunda"

Classic Maltese historian, Gian. Francesco Abela, states that following their conversion to Christianity at the hand of St. Paul, the Maltese retained their Christian religion, despite the Fatimid invasion.[69] It is possible that Abela's writings assisted the Knights of Malta in their efforts to win the hearts and minds of the Maltese by describing Malta as a divinely ordained "bulwark of Christian, European civilization against the spread of Mediterranean Islam".[70] The native Christian community that welcomed Roger I of Sicily[29] was further bolstered by immigration to Malta from Italy, in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Żejtun city centre Parish church

For centuries, the Church in Malta was subordinate to the Diocese of Palermo, except when it was under Charles of Anjou, who appointed bishops for Malta, as did - on rare occasions - the Spanish and later, the Knights. Since 1808 all bishops of Malta have been Maltese. As a result of the Norman and Spanish periods, and the rule of the Knights, Malta became the devout Catholic nation that it is today. It is worth noting that the Office of the Inquisitor of Malta had a very long tenure on the island following its establishment in 1530: the last Inquisitor departed from the Islands in 1798, after the Knights capitulated to the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte.

The patron saints of Malta are Saint Paul, Saint Publius and Santa Agatha. Although not a patron saint, St George Preca (San Ġorġ Preca) is greatly revered as the first canonised Maltese saint. Pope Benedict XVI canonised him on June 3, 2007. Also, a number of Maltese individuals are recognised as Blessed, including Maria Adeodata Pisani and Nazju Falzon, having Pope John Paul II beatified them in 2001.

Various Roman Catholic religious orders are present in Malta, including the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and Little Sisters of the Poor.

Most congregants of the local Protestant churches are not Maltese; their congregations draw on the many British retirees living in the country and vacationers from many other nations. There are approximately 500 Jehovah's Witnesses; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), the Bible Baptist Church, and the Fellowship of Evangelical Churches have about 60 affiliates. There are also some churches of other denominations, such as St. Andrew's Scots Church in Valletta (a joint Presbyterian and Methodist congregation) and St Paul's Anglican Cathedral, as well as a Seventh-day Adventist church in Birkirkara.

The Jewish population of Malta reached its peak in the Middle Ages under Norman rule. In 1479, Malta and Sicily came under Aragonese rule and the Alhambra Decree of 1492 forced all Jews to leave the country, permitting them to take with them only a few of their belongings. Several dozen Maltese Jews may have converted to Christianity at the time in order to remain in the country. Today, there is one Jewish congregation.

Zen Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith claim some 40 members. There is one Muslim mosque. A Muslim primary school recently opened; its existence remains a point of some controversy. Of the estimated 3,000 Muslims in Malta, approximately 2,250 are foreigners, approximately 600 are naturalized citizens, and approximately 150 are native-born Maltese.[71]

[edit] Migration

EU nationals require neither a visa nor a passport (an ID card or an expired passport are enough) to enter the country. Citizens of a number of third world countries are not required to apply for a visa and require only a valid passport when residing in Malta for up to three months. Visas for other nationalities are valid for one month.

Immigrants, even those with EU citizenship, are required to apply for a work permit. This exception to EU law was agreed upon before accession to safeguard the Maltese labour market.

The estimated net inflow (using data for 2002 to 2004) was of 1,913 persons yearly. Over the last 10 years, Malta accepted back a yearly average of 425 returning emigrants.[58]

During 2006, a total of 1,800 illegal immigrants reached Malta making the boat crossing from the North Africa coast. Most of them intended to reach mainland Europe and happened to come to Malta by mistake.[72][73] In the first half of 2006, 967 irregular immigrants arrived in Malta – almost double the 473 who arrived in the same period in 2005.[74] Many immigrants have perished in the journey across the Mediterranean, with one notable incident being the May 2007 Malta migrant boat disaster.

Around 45% of immigrants landed in Malta have been granted refugee (5%) or protected humanitarian status (40%). A White Paper suggesting the grant of Maltese citizenship to refugees resident in Malta for over ten years was issued in 2005. Historically Malta gave refuge (and assisted in their resettlement) to eight hundred or so East African Asians who had been expelled from Uganda by Idi Amin and to just under a thousand Iraqis fleeing Saddam Hussein's regime.

Detention costs for the first half of 2006 alone cost € 746,385.[75]

In 2005, Malta sought EU aid in relation to reception of irregular immigrants, repatriation of those denied refugee status, resettlement of refugees into EU countries, and maritime security.[76] In December 2005, the European Council adopted The Global Approach to Migration: Priority Actions focusing on Africa and the Mediterranean; but the deployment of said actions has been limited to the western Mediterranean, thus putting further pressure on the central Mediterranean route for irregular immigration of which Malta forms a part.

Country To From Net migration Return %
Australia 86,787 17,847 68,940 21.56
Canada 19,792 4,798 14,997 24.24
UK 31,489 12,659 18,830 40.20
U.S.A. 11,601 2,580 9,021 22.24
Other 1,647 907 740 55.07
Total 155,060 39,087 115,973 25.21
Country Year - 1842 Year - 1865 Year - 1880s
Algeria (Algiers, Philipville and Bône) 5,000 10,000 15,000
Tunisia (Tunis) 3,000 7,000 11,000
Egypt 2,000 5,000 7,000

[edit] Education

A vintage photograph of St Aloysius' College

Primary schooling has been compulsory since 1946; secondary education up to the age of sixteen was made compulsory in 1971. The state provides education free of charge, and the Church and the private sector run a number of schools in Malta and Gozo, such as St. Aloysius' College in Birkirkara,Savio College in Dingli and San Anton School in the valley of L-Imselliet, close to the village of Mġarr. The state pays most of the teachers' salary in Church schools.[79] As of 2008, there are two international schools, Verdala International School and QSI Malta.

Education in Malta is based on the British model. Primary school lasts six years. At the age of 11 pupils sit for an examination to enter a secondary school, either a church school (the Common Entrance Examination) or a state school. Pupils sit for SEC O-level examinations at the age of 16, with passes obligatory in certain subjects such as mathematics, English and Maltese. Pupils may opt to continue studying at a sixth form college such as Junior College, St. Edward's College, St. Aloysius' College and De La Salle or else at another post-secondary institution such as MCAST. The sixth form course lasts for two years, at the end of which students sit for the Matriculation examination. Subject to their performance, students may then apply for an undergraduate degree or diploma.

The University of Malta (U.o.M.) provides Tertiary education at diploma, undergraduate and postgraduate level.

The adult literacy rate is 92.8%.[80]

[edit] Languages in education

English and Maltese are both used to teach students at primary and secondary school level, and both languages are also compulsory subjects. Public schools tend to use both Maltese and English in a balanced manner. Private schools prefer to use English for teaching, as is also the case with most departments of the University of Malta; this has a limiting effect on the capacity and development of the Maltese language.[66] Most university courses are in English.[81]

Of the total number of students studying a first foreign language at secondary level, 51% take Italian whilst 38% take French. Other choices include German, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic.[66][82]

[edit] Healthcare

Malta has a long history of providing healthcare to its citizens. The first hospital recorded in the country was already functioning by 1372.[83]

Modern-day Malta has both a public healthcare system, known as the government healthcare service, and a private healthcare system. [84][85]

Malta was ranked number five in the World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health systems,[4] well above the United States (at 37), Australia (at 32), and Canada (at 30). The United Kingdom, the best of this group of larger comparator countries, was ranked at number 18, which is interesting in that the healthcare system in Malta closely resembles the British system,[86] as healthcare is free at the point of delivery. Malta has a strong general practitioner-delivered primary care base, supplemented by secondary care and tertiary care provided by a number of public hospitals. The recently completed Mater Dei Hospital is one of the largest medical buildings in Europe (see List of hospitals in Malta).

Maltese student checking blood pressure

There is both a medical school and a dental school at the University of Malta, as well as a nursing school.[87]

Malta has three major private hospitals. These are St Philip's Hospital, with a capacity of 75 beds, in Santa Venera, and St James Capua Hospital in Sliema, with 80 beds (the former Capua Palace Hospital). St James Hospital has several sites, including a 13 bed unit in Zabbar, as well as a partner hospital in Libya. There is also St Mark's Clinic, with a capacity of 5 beds, based in Msida and which offers private hospital services.

In recent years, Malta has advertised itself as a medical tourism destination[88] however no Maltese hospitals have undergone independent international healthcare accreditation. Malta is popular with British medical tourists,[89][90] pointing Maltese hospitals towards seeking UK-sourced accreditation, such as with the Trent Accreditation Scheme, or possibly dual accreditation with the American-orientated Joint Commission if they wish to compete with the Far East and Latin America for medical tourists from the United States, as well as from the UK. A number of health tourism providers are involved in developing medical tourism in Malta. The Maltese Ministry of Health advises foreign residents to take out private medical insurance.[91]

The Medical Association of Malta represents practitioners of the medical profession. MMSA is a separate body representing Maltese medical students, and is a member of EMSA and IFMSA. MIME, the Maltese Institute for Medical Education, is an institute set up recently to provide CME to doctors in Malta as well as medical students. The Foundation Program followed in the UK is to be introduced in Malta in order to stem the 'brain drain' of medical students to the British Isles. MADS, the Malta Association of Dental Students, is a student association set up to promote the rights of Dental Surgery Students studying within the faculty of Dental Surgery of the University of Malta. It is affiliated with IADS, the International Association of Dental Students.

[edit] Art and Architecture

Lower Barrakka Gardens

Malta has a long history of architecture, influenced by many different mediterranean cultures over its history, and most recently, British architecture. The first settlers on the island constructed Ġgantija, the oldest manmade freestanding structure in the world. Malta is currently undergoing large scale building projects that includes constructions such as SmartCity Malta, the M-Towers, and Pendergardens, while areas such as the Valletta Waterfront and Tigne Point are receiving renovation.

The Neolithic temple builders 3800-2500 BC endowed the numerous temples of Malta and Gozo with intricate bas relief designs, including spirals evocative of the tree of life and animal portraits, designs painted in red ochre, ceramics, and a vast collection of human form sculptures, particularly the Venus of Malta. These can be viewed at the temples themselves (most notably, the Hypogeum and Tarxien Temples), and at the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta.

The Roman period introduced highly decorative mosaic floors, marble colonnades and classical statuary, remnants of which are beautifully preserved and presented in the Roman Domus, a country villa just outside the walls of Mdina. The early Christian frescoes that decorate the catacombs beneath Malta reveal a propensity for eastern, Byzantine tastes. These tastes continued to inform the endeavours of medieval Maltese artists, but they were increasingly influenced by the Romanesque and Southern Gothic movements. Towards the end of the 15th century, Maltese artists, like their counterparts in neighbouring Sicily, came under the influence of the School of Antonello da Messina, which introduced Renaissance ideals and concepts to the decorative arts in Malta.[92]

The artistic heritage of Malta blossomed under the Knights of St. John, who brought Italian and Flemish Mannerist painters to decorate their palaces and the churches of these islands, most notably, Matteo Perez d'Aleccio, whose works appear in the Magisterial Palace and in the Conventual Church of St. John, and Filippo Paladini, who was active in Malta from 1590 to 1595. For many years, Mannerism continued to inform the tastes and ideals of local Maltese artists.[92]

The arrival in Malta of Caravaggio, who painted at least seven works during his 15-month stay on these islands, further revolutionized local art. Two of Caravaggio's most notable works, The Beheading of St. John the Baptist, and St. Jerome are on display in the Oratory of St. John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta. His legacy is evident in the works of local artists Giulio Cassarino (1582-1637) and Stefano Erardi (1630-1716). However, the Baroque movement that followed was destined to have the most enduring impact on Maltese art and architecture. The glorious vault paintings of the celebrated Calabrese artist, Mattia Preti transformed the severe, Mannerist interior of St. John's Co-Cathedralinto a Baroque masterpiece. Preti spent the last 40 years of his life in Malta, where he created many of his finest works, now on display in the Museum of Fine Arts in Valletta. During this period, local sculptor Melchior Gafà (1639-1667) emerged as one of the top Baroque sculptors of the Roman School.

Throughout the 18th century, Neapolitan and Rococo influences emerged in the works of Luca Giordano (1632-1705) and Francesco Solimena (1657-1747), and local artists Gio. Nicola Buhagiar (1698-1752) and Francesco Zahra (1710-1773). The Rococo movement was greatly enhanced by the relocation to Malta of Antoine de Favray (1706-1798), who assumed the position of court painter to Grand Master Pinto in 1744. Neo-classicism made some inroads among local Maltese artists in the late 18th century, but this trend was reversed in the early 19th century, as the local Church authorities - perhaps in an effort to strengthen Catholic resolve against the perceived threat of Protestantism during the early days of British rule in Malta - favoured and avidly promoted the religious themes embraced by the Nazarene movement of artists. Romanticism, tempered by the naturalism introduced to Malta by Giuseppe Calì, informed the "salon" artists of the early 20th century, including Edward and Robert Caruana Dingli.

Parliament established the National School of Art in the 1920s. During the reconstruction period that followed the Second World War, the emergence of the "Modern Art Group", whose members included Josef Kalleya (1898-1998), George Preca (1909-1984), Anton Inglott (1915-1945), Emvin Cremona (1919-1986), Frank Portelli (b.1922), Antoine Camilleri (b.1922) and Esprit Barthet (b.1919) greatly enhanced the local art scene.

[edit] Culture

The culture of Malta reflects the various cultures that have come into contact with the Maltese Islands throughout the centuries, including neighbouring Mediterranean cultures, and the cultures of the nations that ruled Malta for long periods of time prior to its independence in 1964.

[edit] Folklore

[edit] Weddings

Traditional Maltese weddings featured the bridal party walking in procession beneath an ornate canopy, from the home of the bride's family to the parish church, with singers trailing behind serenading the bride and groom. The Maltese word for this custom is il-ġilwa. This custom along with many others has long since disappeared from the Islands, in the face of modern practices.

Recreation of a traditional Maltese 16th century wedding

New wives would wear the għonnella, a traditional item of Maltese clothing. However, it is no longer worn in modern Malta. Today's couples are married in churches or chapels in the village or town of their choice. The nuptials are usually followed by a lavish wedding reception, often including several hundred guests. Occasionally, couples will try to incorporate elements of the traditional Maltese wedding in their celebration. A resurgent interest in the traditional wedding was evident in May 2007, when thousands of Maltese and tourists attended a traditional Maltese wedding in the style of the 16th century, in the Village of Żurrieq. This included il-ġilwa, which led the bride and groom to a wedding ceremony that took place on the parvis of St. Andrew's Chapel. The reception that followed featured folklore music (għana) and dancing.

[edit] Traditional life

Traditional Maltese proverbs reveal a cultural preoccupation with childbearing and fertility: "iż-żwieġ mingħajr tarbija ma fihx tgawdija" (a childless marriage cannot be a happy one). This is a belief that Malta shares with many other Mediterranean cultures, most notably, Israel, Palestine and Morocco. In Maltese folktales, the local variant of the classic closing formula, "and they all lived happily ever after" is "u għammru u tgħammru, u spiċċat" (and they lived together, and they had children together, and the tale is finished).[93]

Rural Malta shares in common with Mediterranean and traditional Jewish society a number of superstitions regarding fertility, menstruation, and pregnancy, including the avoidance of cemeteries during the months leading up to childbirth, and avoiding the preparation of certain foods during menses. Pregnant women are encouraged to satisfy their cravings for specific foods, out of fear that their unborn child will bear a representational birth mark (Maltese: xewqa, literally "desire" or "craving"). Maltese and Sicilian women also share certain traditions that are believed to predict the sex of an unborn child, such as the cycle of the moon on the anticipated date of birth, whether the baby is carried "high" or "low" during pregnancy, and the movement of a wedding ring, dangled on a string above the abdomen (sideways denoting a girl, back and forth denoting a boy).

Traditionally, Maltese newborns were baptised as promptly as possible, partly out of fear of limbo should the child die in infancy, and partly because according to Maltese (and Sicilian) folklore an unbaptised child is not yet a Christian, but "still a Turk". Traditional Maltese delicacies served at a baptismal feast include biskuttini tal-magħmudija (almond macaroons covered in white or pink icing), it-torta tal-marmorata (a spicy, heart-shaped tart of chocolate-flavoured almond paste), and a liqueur known as rożolin, made with rose petals, violets and almonds.

On a child's first birthday, in a tradition that still survives today, Maltese parents would organize a game known as il-quċċija, where a variety of symbolic objects would be randomly placed around the seated child. These may include a hard-boiled egg, a Bible, crucifix or rosary beads, a book, and so on. Whichever object the child shows most interest in is said to reveal the child's path and fortunes in adulthood.

Money refers to a rich future while a book expresses intelligence and a possible career as a teacher. Infants who select a pencil or pen will be writers. Choosing bibles or rosary beads refers to a clerical or monastic life. If the child chooses a hard-boiled egg, it will have a long life and many children. More recent additions include calculators (refers to accounting), thread (fashion) and wooden spoons (cooking and a great appetite).

[edit] Carnival

Carnival parades line the streets of Malta's cities

Maltese Carnival (Maltese: il-karnival ta' Malta) has had an important place on the cultural calendar for just under five centuries, introduced to the Islands by Grand Master Piero de Ponte in 1535. It is held during the week leading up to Ash Wednesday, and typically includes masked balls, fancy dress and grotesque mask competitions, lavish late-night parties, a colourful, ticker-tape parade of allegorical floats presided over by King Carnival (Maltese: ir-Re tal-Karnival), marching bands and costumed revellers.

[edit] Fantastic creatures

Maltese folktales include various stories about mysterious creatures and supernatural goings on. These were most comprehensively compiled by the scholar (and pioneer in Maltese archeology) Manwel Magri[94] in his core criticism "Ħrejjef Missirijietna" ("Stories from our Forefathers"). This collection of material inspired subsequent researchers and academics to gather traditional tales, fables and legends from all over the Archipelago.

Magri's work also inspired a series of comic books (released by Klabb Kotba Maltin in 1984): the titles included Bin is-Sultan Jiźźewweġ x-Xebba tat-Tronġiet Mewwija and Ir-Rjieħ. Many of these stories have been popularly re-written as Children's literature by authors writing in Maltese, such as Trevor Żahra. While giants, witches and dragons feature in many of the stories, some contain entirely Maltese creatures like the Kaw kaw, Il-Belliegħa and L-Imħalla amongst others. The traditional Maltese obsession with maintaining spiritual (or ritual) purity[95] means that many of these creatures have the role of guarding forbidden or restricted areas and attacking individuals who broke the strict codes of conduct that characterized the island's pre-industrial society.

[edit] Mnarja

Mnarja, or l-Imnarja (pronounced lim-nar-ya) is one of the most important dates on the Maltese cultural calendar. Officially, it is a national festival dedicated to the feast of Saints Peter and St. Paul. In fact its roots can be traced back to the pagan Roman feast of Luminaria (literally, "the illumination"), when the early summer night of June 29 was illuminated by torches and bonfires. A national feast since the rule of the Knights, Mnarja is a traditional Maltese festival of food, religion and music. The festivities still commence today with the reading of the "bandu", an official governmental announcement, which has been read on this day in Malta since the 16th century. Originally, Mnarja was celebrated outside St. Paul's Grotto, in the north of Malta; however, by 1613 the focus of the festivities had shifted to the Cathedral of St. Paul, in Mdina, and featured torchlight processions, the firing of 100 petards, horseraces, and races for men, boys and slaves. Modern Mnarja festivals take place in and around the woodlands of Buskett, just outside the town of Rabat.

It is said that under the Knights, this was the one day in the year when the Maltese were allowed to hunt and eat wild rabbit, which was otherwise reserved for the hunting pleasures of the Knights. The close connection between Mnarja and rabbit stew (Maltese: "fenkata") remains strong today. In 1854 British governor William Reid launched an agricultural show at Buskett which is still being held today. The farmers' exhibition is still a seminal part of the Mnarja festivities today.

Mnarja today is one of the few occasions when participants may hear traditional Maltese "għana". Traditionally, grooms would promise to take their newly- or recently-wed brides to Mnarja during the first of year of marriage and, for luck, many of the brides would attend in their full wedding gown and veil, although this custom has long since disappeared from the Islands.

[edit] Holy Week

Holy Week (Maltese: il-Ġimgħa Mqaddsa) starts on Palm Sunday (Ħadd il-Palm) and ends on Easter Sunday (Ħadd il-Għid). Numerous religious traditions, most of them inherited from one generation to the next, are part of the paschal celebrations in the Maltese Islands, honouring the death and resurrection of Jesus.

[edit] Music

While Maltese music today is largely western, traditional Maltese music includes what is known as għana. This consists of background folk guitar music, while a few people, generally men, take it in turns to argue a point in a singsong voice. The aim of the lyrics, which are improvised, are to create a friendly yet challenging atmosphere, and it takes a number of years of practice to be able to combine the required artistic qualities with the ability to debate effectively.

[edit] Literature

Documented Maltese literature is over 200 years old. However a recently unearthed love ballad testifies to literary activity in the local tongue from the Medieval period. Malta followed a Romantic literary tradition, culminating in the works of Dun Karm, Malta's National Poet. Subsequent writers like Ruzar Briffa and Karmenu Vassallo tried to estrange themselves from the rigidity of formal themes and versification.

It was late in the 1960s that Maltese literature experienced its most radical transformation amongst poets, prose writers and dramatists. Names of significant poets that stand out from the last quarter of the 20th century include Mario Azzopardi, Victor Fenech, Oliver Friggieri, Joe Friggieri, Charles Flores, Daniel Massa, Maria Ganado, Lillian Sciberras and Akille Mizzi. In prose, Frans Sammut, Paul P. Borg and Joe J. Camilleri led the avantguard while in theatre the names that matter include Francis Ebejer, Alfred Sant, Doreen Micallef and Oreste Calleja.

The next generation of writers widened the tracks further, especially in prose. Guze' Stagno, Karl Schembri and Clare Azzopardi are young writers fast establishing themselves while in poetry, significant names include Adrian Grima, Immanuel Mifsud, Norbet Bugeja and Simone Inguanez.

In literary criticism, Peter Serracino Inglott, Oliver Friggieri and Charles Briffa introduced perceptive historical, philosophical and psycho-social themes into Maltese theory.

Other writers, born in Malta or of Maltese descent, have established careers abroad. These included the novelist Trezza Azzopardi, best-selling children's author Saviour Pirotta and comic-book artist/journalist Joe Sacco.

[edit] Print

The Times

The most widely read and financially the strongest newspapers are published by Allied Newspapers Ltd., mainly the The Times (27%) and The Sunday Times (51.6%). Due to bilingualism half of the newspapers are published in English and the other half in Maltese. The Sunday newspaper It-Torċa (The Torch) published by the Union Press, a subsidiary of the GWU, is the paper with the biggest circulation in the Maltese language. Its sister paper, L-Orizzont, is the Maltese daily with biggest circulation. Newspapers are definitively losing out to radio and television (and radio is losing to television) as preferred source of news. There is a high number of daily or weekly newspapers, there is one paper for every 28,000 people. Advertising, sales and subsidies are the three main methods of financing newspapers and magazines. However, most of the papers and magazines tied to institutions are subsidised by the same institutions, they depend on advertising or subsidies from their owners.[1]

[edit] Sports

Malta has its own national football stadium, Ta' Qali Stadium. It is generally noted that the population tends to be split half and half with regards to supporting Italy or England in sports games, due to the cultural affinities of the island.[96]

Malta also hosts a snooker round, the Malta Cup, which as of 2008 became a non-ranking event.[citation needed]

In 2008 Malta's Tony Drago was a member of a victorious European Mosconi Cup team, which was played in Portomaso, Malta.[citation needed]

The Maltese national football team won several matches over big opponents that reached the final phases in World Cups like Belgians and Hungarians and the Greeks.

Boxer Jeff Fenech is Maltese by his parents' side.[97]

[edit] Special activities

Boċċi is the Maltese version of the Italian game of Bocce, French Pétanque and British Bowls. Other than certain differences in rules and the ground on which the game is played, one of the most obvious differences between Maltese Boċċi and foreign equivalents is the shape of the bowls themselves which tend to be cylindrical rather than spherical in shape. Many small clubs (usually called "Bocci Klabbs" or "Klabbs tal-Bocci") can be found in many Maltese localities and are usually well-frequented (particularly by elderly men) and are quite active on the local and European level.

In the last decade the aviation sport of Microlight Flying has been introduced on the island by the Island Microlight Club.[98] In under ten years there are a total number of twenty two microlight aircraft that operate out of the Malta International Airport.

[edit] Cuisine

Pastizzi, a typically Maltese delicacy
A variety of Maltese bread, called ftira

Maltese cuisine is typically Mediterranean, based on fresh seasonal locally available produce and seafood, with some influence from Italian cuisine, particularly Sicily and the south. There are many unique and distinctive local dishes and the cuisine also embodies the gastronomic legacies of Malta's past, including not only Italian or Tunisian, but Spanish, Berber, and more recently British and French influence.

Maltese cuisine is still popular in households and restaurants in Malta, but influences from outside Malta's shores continue, though nowadays they come through travel and TV rather than foreign domination. Alongside Malta's traditional cuisine with its strong Southern Mediterranean character, there is today an eclectic mix of dishes drawn from other cuisines, not only Italian but also Asian, North American and Mexican for example. This article on Maltese cuisine however refers exclusively to the traditional dishes of Malta and Gozo, still widely prepared and enjoyed on the islands of Malta and Gozo.

In conclusion, the Maltese cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Islanders and the many foreigners who dominated Malta over the centuries. This marriage of tastes has given Malta a distinctive cuisine that is decidedly Mediterranean in character. While many dishes are native to the island, some popular Maltese recipes show Sicilian, Southern Italian or Turkish culinary influences. Popular local dishes include ftira biż-żejt, ġbejniet, pastizzi and Ross il-Forn.

[edit] Media

There is not as great a presence of the institutionschurch, political parties, trade unions - in the print media as in the broadcasting media; moreover they are absent from the ownership of the newspapers published in English. Trade Unions are not represented in the broadcasting media, but are in the print media, and only the General Workers Union owns a newspaper. The UHM, the second biggest union, has no newspaper, TV, or radio stations.[1]

[edit] Broadcasting

Public Broadcasting Authority Emblem

There are 8 major nationwide television channels in Malta: TVM, One Television, NET Television, Smash Television, Favourite Channel,ITV,Education22 and Family TV - currently transmitted by analogue terrestrial, free-to-air signals. The state and political parties subsidise most of the fundings of these television stations. The Public Broadcasting Services is the state-owned station and is a member of the EBU. Media Link Communications Ltd and One Productions Ltd are affiliated with the Nationalist Party and Labour Party respectively. Smash Communications Ltd is privately owned. The Broadcasting Authority supervises all local broadcasting stations and ensures their compliance with legal and licence obligations as well as the preservation of due impartiality; in respect of matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy; while fairly apportioning broadcasting facilities and time between persons belong to different political parties. The Broadcasting Authority ensures that local broadcasting services consist of public, private and community broadcasts that offer varied and comprehensive programming to cater for all interests and tastes.

The only commercial TV station attracts an audience of 2%. Cable, terrestrial and satellite reception are all available, though the cable service is the most diffused. Cable subscriptions reached almost 124,000 in February 2006 reaching about 80% of Maltese households, and a small but increasing number of households are owning satellite dishes to receive other European TV networks such as the BBC from Great Britain and RAI from Italy.

[edit] Other

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

Find more about Malta on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Definitions from Wiktionary

Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews

Learning resources from Wikiversity
General information
News media

[edit] Notes and citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 2006-09-14. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ "European Microstates hotels, youth hostels, nightlife. European Microstates culture, tourist attractions, souvenirs. European Microstates travel tips, flights". 2008-12-22. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  4. ^ "IngentaConnect Career guidance in Malta: A Mediterranean microstate in transitio". 2006-06-16. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  5. ^ "The Microstate Environmental World Cup: Malta vs. San Marino". 2007-12-15. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  6. ^ CIA Factbook - Geographic location
  7. ^ The Maltese Islands, Department of Information - Malta.
  8. ^ "Situation". A History of Malta. 6 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Megalithic Temples of Malta". Retrieved on 2008-09-16. 
  10. ^ "The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Temples of Malta". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  11. ^ "Malta Temples and The OTS Foundation". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  12. ^ David Trump et al., Malta Before History (2004: Miranda Publishers)
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Atlantis In Malta". 2009-03-17. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  15. ^ "Controversy over unique Maltese bee population". Malta Today. February 6, 2008. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Notable dates in Malta's history". Department of Information - Maltese Government. February 6, 2008. 
  17. ^ Pickles, Tim. Malta 1565: Last Battle of the Crusades. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1855326033. 
  18. ^ Palaeolithic Man in the Maltese Islands, A. Mifsud, C. Savona-Ventura, S. Mifsud
  19. ^ "Gozo". 7 October 2007. 
  20. ^ "Brief History of Malta". 7 October 2007. 
  21. ^ Anthon, Charles. A Classical Dictionary: Containing an Account of the Principal Proper Names. New York Public Library.,M1. 
  22. ^ a b "Old Temples Study Foundation". OTSF. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  23. ^ "Aberystwyth, The University of Wales". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  24. ^ David Trump et al., Malta Before History (2004: Miranda Publishers)
  25. ^ Sheehan, Sean. Malta. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761409939. 
  26. ^ Daniel Cilia, "Malta Before Common Era", in The Megalithic Temples of Malta. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
  27. ^ Owen, Charles. The Maltese Islands. Praeger. 
  28. ^ "History of Mdina". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Castillo, Dennis Angelo. The Maltese Cross: A Strategic History of Malta. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313323291.,M1. 
  30. ^ a b Terterov, Marat. Doing Business with Malta. GMB Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1905050631.,M1. 
  31. ^ a b Borg, Victor Paul. The Rough Guide to Malta & Gozo. Rough Guides. ISBN 1858286808. 
  32. ^ "Brief history of Sicily" (PDF). 7 October 2007. 
  33. ^ a b Bain, Carolyn. Malta & Gozo. Lonely Planet. ISBN 174059178X. 
  34. ^ Wilson, Andrew. Corpus Linguistics Around the World. Rodopi. ISBN 9042018364. 
  35. ^ "Time-Line". 7 October 2007. 
  36. ^ a b "History of Sicily". 7 October 2007. 
  37. ^ Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. II ( University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995).
  38. ^ Holland, James (2003). Fortress Malta: An Island Under Siege, 1940-1943. Miramax Books. ISBN 1-4013-5186-7. 
  39. ^ "The Siege of Malta in World War Two". Retrieved on 2007-04-15. 
  40. ^ "The History of the European Union - 2000-today". Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  41. ^ "Cyprus and Malta set to join eurozone in 2008". 16 May 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  42. ^ "Chapter 1 / The Republic of Malta / Maltese Constitution". Constitution of Malta Act, 1964. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  43. ^ Mark N. Franklin. "Electoral Participation." in Controversies in Voting Behavior
  44. ^ - History - The Independence at
  45. ^ "Island Landscape Dynamics: Examples from the Mediterranean". Retrieved on 2008-12-13. 
  46. ^ Commission for the Geological Map of the World. "Geodynamic Map of the Mediterranean". Retrieved on 2008-11-28. 
  47. ^ European Commission. "Europe and you in 2007, Passport-free travel extended". Retrieved on 2007-12-21. 
  48. ^ "Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands and Scrub - A Global Ecoregion". Retrieved on 2008-11-28. 
  49. ^ BBC News "Briney future for vulnerable Malta" 4 April 2007
  50. ^ "More Maltese travel abroad". The Malta Independent. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  51. ^ "Cyprus and Malta to adopt euros". BBC News Business. 10 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  52. ^ "Maltese Cross on the Euro coins". Malta Media. June 12, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  53. ^ Sammut & Savona-Ventura, "Petrol Lead in a Small Island Environment", International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 9 (1996) at 33-40.
  54. ^ "NationMaster - Transportation statistics". Retrieved on 2007-02-19. 
  55. ^ Debono, James (2006-11-22). "Transportation statistics". Business Today. Retrieved on 2007-02-19. 
  56. ^ MITC, James (2008-12-06). "Malta public transport reform". MITC. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. 
  57. ^ Census of Population and Housing 2005: Preliminary Report. Valletta: National Statistics Office. 2005. ISBN-13 978-99909-73-38-9. 
  58. ^ a b National Statistics Office (2005). Demographic Review 2004. Valletta: National Statistics Office. p. 59. ISBN 99909-73-32-6. 
  59. ^ a b National Statistics Office (10 July 2006). World Population Day - 2006: Special Observances. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. 
  60. ^ Montana Marriage License Information, Laws, Requirements at
  61. ^ - Population in Malta, Gozo exceeds 410,000 at
  62. ^ MED Magazine[dead link]
  63. ^ "Evolution of the Maltese Language". 
  64. ^ Country profile: Malta BBC News; 2008-01-10; 2008-02-21
  65. ^ "Europeans and languages" (PDF). European Commission. September 2005. p.4. Retrieved on 2007-01-29. 
  66. ^ a b c d Ignasi Badia i Capdevila; A view of the linguistic situation in Malta; NovesSl; 2004; retrieved on 2008-02-24
  67. ^
  68. ^ "''Catholic Encyclopedia''". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  69. ^ G.F. Abela, Della Descrittione di Malta, (1647) Malta.
  70. ^ A. Luttrell, The Making of Christian Malta: From the Early Middle Ages to 1530, Aldershot, Hants.: Ashgate Varorium, 2002.
  71. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2003 – Malta". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  72. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (30 January 2006) (PDF). Frendo holds talks with three European Union Commission Members. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  73. ^ "Immigrant frustration for Malta". BBC News Europe. 21 October 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  74. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (3 July 2006) (PDF). Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Michael Frendo to resident EU Ambassadors on irregular immigration in Malta. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  75. ^ "Immigrants refused entry into Malta". The Sunday Times. 16 July 2006. Retrieved on 2006-07-17. 
  76. ^ Frendo, Michael (5 July 2005). "Illegal Immigration in Malta" (PDF). EU Foreign Ministers Council, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  77. ^ Source: Malta Migration Museum Committee
  78. ^ Source: Mgr. Philip Calleja, Statistics and History of Maltese Migration Movements, Study Session I of the Maltese Migrants' Convention (Malta), 1969.
  79. ^ "Education in Malta". Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  80. ^ "CIA Factbook". Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  81. ^ MED Magazine at
  82. ^ Foreign Language Learning; National Statistics Office - Malta; 2004-09-01; retrieved on 2008-02-25
  83. ^ "Civil Hospitals In Malta In The Last Two Hundred Years". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  84. ^ "The Health Care System in Malta_1". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  85. ^ "Government Of Malta - Health Services". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  86. ^ (2004-07-02). "St. Philip's Hospital - A modern 75-bed hospital equipped with the latest medical technology - Malta". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  87. ^ [2]
  88. ^ "INDEPENDENT online". 2009-03-26. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  89. ^ "Malta popular with UK medical tourists". 2008-05-02. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  90. ^ [3][dead link]
  91. ^ "HEALTHCARE IN MALTA - Allo' Expat Malta". 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  92. ^ a b "D. Cutajar, "An Overview of the Art of Malta"". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  93. ^ Pullicino, supra, at 208-9.
  94. ^ "Patri Manwel Magri u l-Ipoġew", Lil Ħbiebna, Novembru 2003, pp. 195-197.
  95. ^ Zarb, T. Folklore of An Island, PEG Ltd, 1998
  96. ^ "Maltese mad keen on England". BBC News. 2000-06-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  97. ^ "Jeff Fenech". Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 
  98. ^ Island Microlight Club Malta - spread your wings and fly! at

[edit] References

Personal tools