Economy of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Economy of India
Currency 1 Indian Rupee (INR) (₨) = 100 Paise
Fiscal year April 1–March 31
Trade organisations WTO, SAFTA
GDP $3.319 trillion (PPP) (2008 est.)
GDP growth 7.3% (2008)
GDP per capita $2,900 (PPP)
GDP by sector agriculture: 17.2%, industry: 29.1%, services: 53.7% (2008 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 7.8% (CPI) (2008)
below poverty line
27.5% (2008 est.)[1]
Labour force 523.5 million (2008 est.)
Labour force
by occupation
agriculture: 60%, industry: 12%, services: 28% (2003)
Unemployment 6.8% (2008 est.)
Main industries textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Exports $175.7 billion f.o.b (2008 est.)
Export goods petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Main export partners US 15%, the People's Republic of China 8.7%, UAE 8.7%, UK 4.4% (2007)
Imports $287.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Import goods crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Main import partners People's Republic of China 10.6%, US 7.8%, Germany 4.4%, Singapore 4.4%
Public finances
Public Debt $163.8 billion (2008)
Revenues $153.5 billion (2008 est.)
Expenses $205.3 billion (2008 est.)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

The economy of India is the twelfth largest in the world by market exchange rates and the fourth largest in the world by GDP, measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis.[2] The country was under socialist-based policies for an entire generation from the 1950s until the 1980s. The economy was characterized by extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow growth.[3][4][5][6] Since 1991, continuing economic liberalization has moved the economy towards a market-based system.[4][5]

Agriculture is the predominant occupation in India, accounting for about 60% of employment. The service sector makes up a further 28%, and industrial sector around 12%.[7] One estimate says that only one in five job-seekers has had any sort of vocational training.[8] The labor force totals half a billion workers. For output, the agricultural sector accounts for 17% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 29% respectively. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry and fish.[9] Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery and software design.[9] In 2007, India's GDP was $1.237 trillion, which makes it the twelfth-largest economy in the world[10] or fourth largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates. India's nominal per capita income of $1043 is ranked 136th in the world. In the late 2000s, India's growth has averaged 7.5% a year, increases which will double the average income within a decade.[4] Unemployment rate is 7% (2008 estimate).[11][12]

Previously a closed economy, India's trade has grown fast.[4] India currently accounts for 1.5% of World trade as of 2007 according to the WTO. According to the World Trade Statistics of the WTO in 2006, India's total merchandise trade (counting exports and imports) was valued at $294 billion in 2006 and India's services trade inclusive of export and import was $143 billion. Thus, India's global economic engagement in 2006 covering both merchandise and services trade was of the order of $437 billion, up by a record 72% from a level of $253 billion in 2004. India's trade has reached a still relatively moderate share 24% of GDP in 2006, up from 6% in 1985.[4]

India's recent economic growth has widened economic inequality across the country.[13] Despite sustained high economic growth rate, approximately 80% of its population lives on less than $2 a day (PPP), more than double the same poverty rate in China.[14] Even though the arrival of Green Revolution brought end to famines in India,[15] 40% of children under the age of three are underweight and a third of all men and women suffer from chronic energy deficiency.[16]


[edit] History

India's economic history can be broadly divided into three eras, beginning with the pre-colonial period lasting up to the 17th century. The advent of British colonisation started the colonial period in the 17th century, which ended with independence in 1947. The third period stretches from independence in 1947 until now.

[edit] Pre-colonial

The citizens of the Indus Valley civilisation, a permanent and predominantly urban settlement that flourished between 2800 BC and 1800 BC, practiced agriculture, domesticated animals, used uniform weights and measures, made tools and weapons, and traded with other cities. Evidence of well planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the world's first urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government.[17]

Silver coin minted during the reign of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I (AD 414–55)

The 1872 census revealed that 99.3% of the population of the region constituting present-day India resided in villages,[18] whose economies were largely isolated and self-sustaining, with agriculture the predominant occupation. This satisfied the food requirements of the village and provided raw materials for hand-based industries, such as textiles, food processing and crafts. Although many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was prevalent. Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue to the rulers, while its craftsmen received a part of the crops at harvest time for their services.[19]

Religion, especially Hinduism, and the caste and the joint family systems, played an influential role in shaping economic activities.[20] The caste system functioned much like medieval European guilds, ensuring the division of labour, providing for the training of apprentices and, in some cases, allowing manufacturers to achieve narrow specialization. For instance, in certain regions, producing each variety of cloth was the specialty of a particular sub-caste.

Estimates of the per capita income of India (1857–1900) as per 1948–49 prices.[21]

Textiles such as muslin, Calicos, shawls, and agricultural products such as pepper, cinnamon, opium and indigo were exported to Europe, the Middle East and South East Asia in return for gold and silver.[22]

Assessment of India's pre-colonial economy is mostly qualitative, owing to the lack of quantitative information. One estimate puts the revenue of Akbar's Mughal Empire in 1600 at £17.5 million, in contrast with the total revenue of Great Britain in 1800, which totalled £16 million.[23] India, by the time of the arrival of the British, was a largely traditional agrarian economy with a dominant subsistence sector dependent on primitive technology. It existed alongside a competitively developed network of commerce, manufacturing and credit. After the decline of the Mughals, western, central and parts of south and north India were integrated and administered by the Maratha Empire. The Maratha Empire's budget in 1740s, at its peak, was Rs. 100 million. After the loss at Panipat, the Maratha Empire disintegrated into confederate states of Gwalior, Baroda, Indore, Jhansi, Nagpur, Pune and Kolhapur. Gwalior state had a budget of Rs. 30M. However, at this time, British East India company entered the Indian political theatre. Until 1857, when India was firmly under the British crown, the country remained in a state of political instability due to internecine wars and conflicts.[24]

[edit] Colonial

An aerial view of Calcutta Port taken in 1945. Calcutta, which was the economic hub of British India, saw increased industrial activity during World War II.

Company rule in India brought a major change in the taxation environment from revenue taxes to property taxes, resulting in mass impoverishment and destitution of majority of farmers and led to numerous famines.[25] The economic policies of the British Raj effectively bankrupted India's large handicrafts industry and caused a massive drain of India's resources.[26][27] Indian Nationalists employed the successful Swadeshi movement, as strategy to diminish British economic superiority by boycotting British products and the reviving the market for domestic-made products and production techniques. India had become a strong market for superior finished European goods. This was because of vast gains made by the Industrial revolution in Europe, the effects of which was deprived to Colonial India. The Nationalists had hoped to revive the domestic industries that were badly effected by polices implemented by British Raj which had made them uncompetitive to British made goods. An estimate by Cambridge University historian Angus Maddison reveals that India's share of the world income fell from 22.6% in 1700, comparable to Europe's share of 23.3%, to a low of 3.8% in 1952.[28] It also created an institutional environment that, on paper, guaranteed property rights among the colonizers, encouraged free trade, and created a single currency with fixed exchange rates, standardized weights and measures, capital markets. It also established a well developed system of railways and telegraphs, a civil service that aimed to be free from political interference, a common-law and an adversarial legal system.[29] India's colonisation by the British coincided with major changes in the world economy—industrialisation, and significant growth in production and trade. However, at the end of colonial rule, India inherited an economy that was one of the poorest in the developing world,[30] with industrial development stalled, agriculture unable to feed a rapidly growing population, India had one of the world's lowest life expectancies, and low rates for literacy.

The impact of the British rule on India's economy is a controversial topic. Leaders of the Indian independence movement, and left-nationalist economic historians have blamed colonial rule for the dismal state of India's economy in its aftermath and that financial strength required for Industrial development in Europe was derived from the wealth taken from Colonies in Asia and Africa. At the same time right-wing historians have countered that India's low economic performance was due to various sectors being in a state of growth and decline due to changes brought in by colonialism and a world that was moving towards industrialization and economic integration.[31]

[edit] Independence to 1991

Indian economic policy after independence was influenced by the colonial experience (which was seen by Indian leaders as exploitative in nature) and by those leaders' exposure to Fabian socialism. Policy tended towards protectionism, with a strong emphasis on import substitution, industrialization, state intervention in labor and financial markets, a large public sector, business regulation, and central planning.[32] Five-Year Plans of India resembled central planning in the Soviet Union. Steel, mining, machine tools, water, telecommunications, insurance, and electrical plants, among other industries, were effectively nationalized in the mid-1950s.[33] Elaborate licences, regulations and the accompanying red tape, commonly referred to as Licence Raj, were required to set up business in India between 1947 and 1990.[34]

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister, along with the statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, carried on by Indira Gandhi formulated and oversaw economic policy. They expected favorable outcomes from this strategy, because it involved both public and private sectors and was based on direct and indirect state intervention, rather than the more extreme Soviet-style central command system.[35][dead link] The policy of concentrating simultaneously on capital- and technology-intensive heavy industry and subsidizing manual, low-skill cottage industries was criticized by economist Milton Friedman, who thought it would waste capital and labour, and retard the development of small manufacturers.[36][dead link]

India's low average growth rate from 1947–80 was derisively referred to as the Hindu rate of growth, because of the unfavourable comparison with growth rates in other Asian countries, especially the "East Asian Tigers".[29]

The Rockefeller Foundation's research in high-yielding varieties of seeds, their introduction after 1965 and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India. Famine in India, once accepted as inevitable, has not returned since the introduction of Green Revolution crops and the reduction of cash-crops that dominated India during the British Raj.

[edit] After 1991

Major improvements in educational standards across India has helped its economic rise. Shown here is the Indian School of Business at Hyderabad, ranked number 15 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2009.[37]

In the late 80s, the government led by Rajiv Gandhi eased restrictions on capacity expansion for incumbents, removed price controls and reduced corporate taxes. While this increased the rate of growth, it also led to high fiscal deficits and a worsening current account. The collapse of the Soviet Union, which was India's major trading partner, and the first Gulf War, which caused a spike in oil prices, caused a major balance-of-payments crisis for India, which found itself facing the prospect of defaulting on its loans.[38] India asked for a $1.8 billion bailout loan from IMF, which in return demanded reforms.[39]

In response, Prime Minister Narasimha Rao along with his finance minister Manmohan Singh initiated the economic liberalisation of 1991. The reforms did away with the Licence Raj (investment, industrial and import licensing) and ended many public monopolies, allowing automatic approval of foreign direct investment in many sectors.[40] Since then, the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.[41] Since 1990 India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the developing world; during this period, the economy has grown constantly, but with a few major setbacks. This has been accompanied by increases in life expectancy, literacy rates and food security.

While the credit rating of India was hit by its nuclear tests in 1998, it has been raised to investment level in 2007 by S&P and Moody's.[42] In 2003, Goldman Sachs predicted that India's GDP in current prices will overtake France and Italy by 2020, Germany, UK and Russia by 2025 and Japan by 2035. By 2035, it was projected to be the third largest economy of the world, behind US and China.[43][44]

[edit] Future predictions

In the revised 2007 figures, based on increased and sustaining growth, more inflows into foreign direct investment, Goldman Sachs predicts that "from 2007 to 2020, India’s GDP per capita in US$ terms will quadruple", and that the Indian economy will surpass the United States (in US$) by 2043.[6] Despite high growth rate, the report stated that India would continue to remain a low-income country for several decades but can be a "motor for the world economy" if it fulfills its growth potential.[6] Goldman Sachs has outlined 10 things that it needs to do in order to achieve its potential and grow 40 times by 2050. These are

  1. improve governance
  2. raise educational achievement
  3. increase quality and quantity of universities
  4. control inflation
  5. introduce a credible fiscal policy
  6. liberalize financial markets
  7. increase trade with neighbours
  8. increase agricultural productivity
  9. improve infrastructure and
  10. improve environmental quality.[45]

[edit] Sectors

[edit] Agriculture

Farmers work inside a rice field in Andhra Pradesh. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world[46] and Andhra Pradesh is the 2nd largest rice producing state in India.[47]

India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007, employed 60% of the total workforce[7] and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Yields per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950, due to the special emphasis placed on agriculture in the five-year plans and steady improvements in irrigation, technology, application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since Green revolution in India. However, international comparisons reveal that the average yield in India is generally 30% to 50% of the highest average yield in the world.[48]

India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper.[49] It also has the world's largest cattle population (193 million).[50] It is the second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish.[51] It is the third largest producer of tobacco.[51] India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota.[51]

[edit] Industry and services

Industry accounts for 27.6% of the GDP and employ 17% of the total workforce.[7] However, about one-third of the industrial labour force is engaged in simple household manufacturing only.[52][dead link] In absolute terms, India is 16th in the world in terms of nominal factory output.[53] India's small industry makes up 5% of carbon dioxide emissions in the world.

Economic reforms brought foreign competition, led to privatisation of certain public sector industries, opened up sectors hitherto reserved for the public sector and led to an expansion in the production of fast-moving consumer goods.[54] Post-liberalisation, the Indian private sector, which was usually run by oligopolies of old family firms and required political connections to prosper was faced with foreign competition, including the threat of cheaper Chinese imports. It has since handled the change by squeezing costs, revamping management, focusing on designing new products and relying on low labour costs and technology.[55]

Textile manufacturing is the second largest source for employment after agriculture and accounts for 26% of manufacturing output.[56] Tirupur has gained universal recognition as the leading source of hosiery, knitted garments, casual wear and sportswear.[57] Dharavi slum in Mumbai has gained fame for leather products. Tata Motors' Nano attempts to be the world's cheapest car.[58]

India is fifteenth in services output. It provides employment to 23% of work force, and it is growing fast, growth rate 7.5% in 1991–2000 up from 4.5% in 1951–80. It has the largest share in the GDP, accounting for 55% in 2007 up from 15% in 1950.[7]

Business services (information technology, information technology enabled services, business process outsourcing) are among the fastest growing sectors contributing to one third of the total output of services in 2000. The growth in the IT sector is attributed to increased specialization, and an availability of a large pool of low cost, but highly skilled, educated and fluent English-speaking workers, on the supply side, matched on the demand side by an increased demand from foreign consumers interested in India's service exports, or those looking to outsource their operations. India's IT industry, despite contributing significantly to its balance of payments, accounted for only about 1% of the total GDP or 1/50th of the total services in 2001[59] However the contribution of IT to GDP increased to 4.8 % in 2005-06 and is projected to increase to 7% of GDP in 2008[60][61]

Most Indian shopping takes place in open markets and millions of independent grocery shops called kirana. Organized retail such supermarkets accounts for just 4% of the market as of 2008.[62] Regulations prevent most foreign investment in retailing. Moreover, over thirty regulations such as "signboard licences" and "anti-hoarding measures" may have to be complied before a store can open doors. There are taxes for moving goods to states, from states, and even within states.[62]

Tourism in India is relatively undeveloped, but growing at double digits. Some hospitals woo medical tourism.[63]

[edit] Finance

More than half of personal savings are invested in physical assets such as land, houses, cattle, and gold.[64]

The public sector banks hold over 75% of total assets of the banking industry, with the private and foreign banks holding 18.2% and 6.5% respectively.[65] Since liberalisation, the government has approved significant banking reforms. While some of these relate to nationalised banks (like encouraging mergers, reducing government interference and increasing profitability and competitiveness), other reforms have opened up the banking and insurance sectors to private and foreign players.[7][66]

Bombay Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in South Asia.

[edit] Natural resources

India's total cultivable area is 1,269,219 km² (56.78% of total land area), which is decreasing due to constant pressure from an ever growing population and increased urbanisation.

India has a total water surface area of 314,400 km² and receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. Irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation, and comprised 380 km² in 1974, and is expected to rise to 1,050 km² by 2025, with the balance accounted for by industrial and domestic consumers. India's inland water resources comprising rivers, canals, ponds and lakes and marine resources comprising the east and west coasts of the Indian ocean and other gulfs and bays provide employment to nearly 6 million people in the fisheries sector. In 2008, India had the world's third largest fishing industry.[67]

India's major mineral resources include Coal (3rd-largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along Kerala's shores). India's oil reserves, found in Bombay High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and in eastern Assam meet 25% of the country's demand.[7][68]

Rising energy demand concomitant with economic growth has created a perpetual state of energy crunch in India. India is poor in oil resources and is currently heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil imports for its energy needs. Though India is rich in Thorium, but not in Uranium, which it might get access to in light of the nuclear deal with US. India is rich in certain energy resources which promise significant future potential - clean / renewable energy resources like solar, wind, biofuels (jatropha, sugarcane).

[edit] Globalization

Indian exports in 2006

Until the liberalisation of 1991, India was largely and intentionally isolated from the world markets, to protect its fledging economy and to achieve self-reliance. Foreign trade was subject to import tariffs, export taxes and quantitative restrictions, while foreign direct investment was restricted by upper-limit equity participation, restrictions on technology transfer, export obligations and government approvals; these approvals were needed for nearly 60% of new FDI in the industrial sector.

India currently accounts for 1.2% of World trade as of 2006 according to the WTO.[69] Despite reducing import restrictions several times in the 2000s,[70][71] International trade as a proportion of GDP reached 24% by 2006, up from 6% in 1985 and still relatively moderate.[4][72] India was evaluated by the World Trade Organization in 2008 as more restrictive than similar developing economies, such as Brazil, China, and Russia. The WTO also identified electricity shortages and inadequate transportation infrastructure as significant constraints on trade.[73][74][75]

Since independence, India's balance of payments on its current account has been negative.

Share of top five investing countries in FDI inflows. (2000–2007)[76]
Rank Country Inflows
(Million USD)
Inflows (%)
1  Mauritius 85,178 44%[77]
2  United States 18,040 9%
3  United Kingdom 15,363 8%
4  Netherlands 11,177 6%
5  Singapore 9,742 5%

Foreign direct investment in India has reached 2% of GDP, compared with 0.1% in 1990, and Indian investment in other countries rose sharply in 2006.[4] A number of changes were approved on the FDI policy to remove the caps in most sectors. Fields which require relaxation in FDI restrictions include civil aviation, construction development, industrial parks, petroleum and natural gas, commodity exchanges, credit-information services and mining. But this still leaves an unfinished agenda of permitting greater foreign investment in politically sensitive areas such as insurance and retailing. FDI inflows into India reached a record US$19.5bn in fiscal year 2006/07 (April-March), according to the government's Secretariat for Industrial Assistance. This was more than double the total of US$7.8bn in the previous fiscal year. The FDI inflow for 2007-08 has been reported as $24bn[78] and for 2008-09, it is expected to be above $35 billion.[79] A critical factor in determining India's continued economic growth and realizing the potential to be an economic superpower is going to depend on how the government can create incentives for FDI flow across a large number of sectors in India.[80]

[edit] Currency

The Indian rupee is the only legal tender accepted in India. The exchange rate as of March 7,2009 is 51.725 rupees to a US dollar,[81] 65.4498 to a Euro, and 72.8726 to a UK pound. The Indian rupee is accepted as legal tender in the neighboring Nepal and Bhutan, both of which peg their currency to that of the Indian rupee. The rupee is divided into 100 paise. The highest-denomination banknote is the 1,000 rupee note; the lowest-denomination coin in circulation is the 25 paise coin (it earlier had 1,2,5,10 and 20 paise coins which have been discontinued by the Reserve Bank of India).[82] There has been a recent fall in the value of the Rupee as a result of the global financial crisis of 2008, as foreign institutional investors sold $14 billion worth of Indian stocks in 2008 and invested in US treasury bonds.

India inherited several institutions, such as the civil services, Reserve Bank of India, railways, etc., from its British rulers. Mumbai serves as the nation's commercial capital, with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) located here. The headquarters of many financial institutions are also located in the city.

The RBI, the country's central bank was established on April 1, 1935. It serves as the nation's monetary authority, regulator and supervisor of the financial system, manager of exchange control and as an issuer of currency. The RBI is governed by a central board, headed by a governor who is appointed by the Central government of India.

[edit] Income and consumption

Percentage of population living under the poverty line of $1 (PPP) a day, currently 356.35 rupees a month in rural areas (around $7.4 a month).

As of 2005, 85.7% of the population lives on less than $2.50 (PPP) a day, down from 92.5% in 1981. This compares with 80.5% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[83] 75.6% of the population lives on less than $2 a day (PPP), which is around 20 rupees or $0.5 a day in nominal terms. It was down from 86.6% and compares with 73.0% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[83][84][85][86][87] A 24.3% of the population earned less than $1 (PPP, around $0.25 in nominal terms) a day in 2005, down from 42.1% in 1981.[83][88] 41.6% of its population is living below the new international poverty line of $1.25 (PPP) per day, down from 59.8% in 1981.[83] The World Bank further estimates that a third of the global poor now reside in India.

Today, more people afford to a bicycle than ever before. Some 40% of Indian households owns a bicycle, with ownership rates ranging from around 30% to 70% at state level.[89] Housing is still very modest. According to Times of India, "a majority of Indians have per capita space equivalent to or less than a 10 feet x 10 feet room for their living, sleeping, cooking, washing and toilet needs." and "one in every three urban Indians lives in homes too cramped to exceed even the minimum requirements of a prison cell in the US."[90] The average is 103 sq ft per person in rural areas and 117 sq ft per person in urban areas.[90]

Around half of Indian children are malnourished. The proportion of underweight children is nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa.[16][91] However, India has not had famines since the Green Revolution in the early 1970s. While poverty in India has reduced significantly, official figures estimate that 27.5%[92] of Indians still lived below the national poverty line of $1 (PPP, around 10 rupees in nominal terms) a day in 2004-2005.[93] A 2007 report by the state-run National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) found that 65% of Indians, or 750 million people, lived on less than 20 rupees per day[94] with most working in "informal labour sector with no job or social security, living in abject poverty."[95]

Since the early 1950s, successive governments have implemented various schemes, under planning, to alleviate poverty, that have met with partial success. All these programmes have relied upon the strategies of the Food for work programme and National Rural Employment Programme of the 1980s, which attempted to use the unemployed to generate productive assets and build rural infrastructure.[96] In August 2005, the Indian parliament passed the Rural Employment Guarantee Bill, the largest programme of this type in terms of cost and coverage, which promises 100 days of minimum wage employment to every rural household in 200 of India's 600 districts. The question of whether economic reforms have reduced poverty or not has fuelled debates without generating any clear cut answers and has also put political pressure on further economic reforms, especially those involving the downsizing of labour and cutting agricultural subsidies.[97][98]

[edit] Employment

Agricultural and allied sectors accounted for about 60% of the total workforce in 2003 same as in 1993–94. While agriculture has faced stagnation in growth, services have seen a steady growth. Of the total workforce, 8% is in the organised sector, two-thirds of which are in the public sector. The NSSO survey estimated that in 1999–2000, 106 million, nearly 10% of the population were unemployed and the overall unemployment rate was 7.3%, with rural areas doing marginally better (7.2%) than urban areas (7.7%). India's labor force is growing by 2.5% annually, but employment only at 2.3% a year.[99]

Official unemployment exceeds 9%. Regulation and other obstacles have discouraged the emergence of formal businesses and jobs. Almost 30% of workers are casual workers who work only when they are able to get jobs and remain unpaid for the rest of the time.[99] Only 10% of the workforce is in regular employment.[99] India's labor regulations are heavy even by developing country standards and analysts have urged the government to abolish them.[4][100]

Unemployment in India is characterized by chronic underemployment or disguised unemployment. Government schemes that target eradication of both poverty and unemployment (which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods) attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. The decreased role of the public sector after liberalization has further underlined the need for focusing on better education and has also put political pressure on further reforms.[96][101]

Child labor is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The Indian government is implementing the world's largest child labor elimination program, with primary education targeted for ~250 million. Numerous non-governmental and voluntary organizations are also involved. Special investigation cells have been set up in states to enforce existing laws banning employment of children (under 14) in hazardous industries. The allocation of the Government of India for the eradication of child labor was $10 million in 1995-96 and $16 million in 1996-97. The allocation for 2007 is $21 million.[102]

In 2006, remittances from Indian migrants overseas made up $27 billion or about 3% of India's GDP.[103]

[edit] Development issues

[edit] Agriculture

Slow agricultural growth is a concern for policymakers as some two-thirds of India’s people depend on rural employment for a living. Current agricultural practices are neither economically nor environmentally sustainable and India's yields for many agricultural commodities are low. Poorly maintained irrigation systems and almost universal lack of good extension services are among the factors responsible. Farmers' access to markets is hampered by poor roads, rudimentary market infrastructure, and excessive regulation.

World Bank: "India Country Overview 2008"[104]

The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors:

  • According to "India: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural Development" by World Bank, India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivity-enhancing investment. Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty. Government interventions in labor, land, and credit markets are hurting the market. Infrastructure and services are inadequate.[105]
  • Illiteracy, general socio-economic backwardness, slow progress in implementing land reforms and inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services for farm produce.
  • The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 20,000 m²) and is subject to fragmentation, due to land ceiling acts and in some cases, family disputes. Such small holdings are often over-manned, resulting in disguised unemployment and low productivity of labour.
  • Adoption of modern agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate, hampered by ignorance of such practices, high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings.
  • World Bank says that the allocation of water is inefficient, unsustainable and inequitable. The irrigation infrastructure is deteriorating.[105] Irrigation facilities are inadequate, as revealed by the fact that only 52.6% of the land was irrigated in 2003–04,[106] which result in farmers still being dependent on rainfall, specifically the Monsoon season. A good monsoon results in a robust growth for the economy as a whole, while a poor monsoon leads to a sluggish growth.[107] Farm credit is regulated by NABARD, which is the statutory apex agent for rural development in the subcontinent.

India has many farm insurance companies that insure wheat, fruit, rice and rubber farmers in the event of natural disasters or catastrophic crop failure, under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture. One notable company that provides all of these insurance policies is agriculture insurance company of india and it alone insures almost 20 million farmers.

India's population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat.[15] The most important structural reform for self-sufficiency is the ITC Limited plan to connect 20,000 villages to the Internet by 2013.[108] This will provide farmers with up to date crop prices for the first time, which should minimise losses incurred from neighbouring producers selling early and in turn facilitate investment in rural areas.

[edit] Corruption

India ranked 120th on the Ease of Doing Business Index 2008, behind countries such as China (83rd), Pakistan (86th), and Nigeria (108th).

Corruption has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. The economic reforms of 1991 reduced the red tape, bureaucracy and the Licence Raj that had strangled private enterprise and was blamed for the corruption and inefficiencies. Yet, a 2005 study by Transparency International (TI) India found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office.[109]

The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states, that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances.[109] The 2007 report by Transparency International ranks India at 72nd place and states that significant improvements were made by India in reducing corruption.[110][111]

[edit] Government

The number of people employed in non-agricultural occupations in the public and private sectors. Totals are rounded. Private sector data relates to non-agriculture establishments with 10 or more employees.[96]

The current government has concluded that most spending fails to reach its intended recipients.[112] Lant Pritchett calls India's public sector "one of the world's top ten biggest problems - of the order of AIDS and climate change".[112] The Economist's article about Indian civil service (2008) says that Indian central government employs around 3 million people and states another 7 million, including "vast armies of paper-shuffling peons".[112] Million dollar bureaucracies can be run without a single computer in the management.[112]

At local level, administration can be worse. It is not unheard of that most state assembly seats are held by convicted criminals.[113] One study found out that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical workers could not be found at the workplace. India's absence rates are one of the worst in the world.[114][115][116][117]

The Reserve Bank of India has warned that India's public-debt to GDP ratio is over 70%.[118] The government of India is highly indebted and its former investment-grade status has deteriorated near junk status.[119]

Edit: India's current public-debt to GDP ratio is 58.2% (US has 60.8%) Ref:

[edit] Education

India has made huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population.[120] However, education is still far behind developing countries such as China. Most children never attend secondary schools.[120] An optimistic estimate is that only one in five job-seekers in India has ever had any sort of vocational training.[8]

[edit] Infrastructure

Development of infrastructure was completely in the hands of the public sector and was plagued by corruption, bureaucratic inefficiencies, urban-bias and an inability to scale investment.[121] India's low spending on power, construction, transportation, telecommunications and real estate, at $31 billion or 6% of GDP in 2002 had prevented India from sustaining higher growth rates. This has prompted the government to partially open up infrastructure to the private sector allowing foreign investment[96][122][123] which has helped in a sustained growth rate of close to 9% for the past six quarters.[124]

Some 600 million Indians have no mains electricity at all.[125] While 80% of Indian villages have at least an electricity line, just 44% of rural households have access to electricity.[126] According to a sample of 97,882 households in 2002, electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993.[127] Some half of the electricity is stolen, compared with 3% in China. The stolen electricity amounts to 1.5% of GDP.[126][128] Almost all of the electricity in India is produced by the public sector. Power outages are common.[125] Many buy their own power generators to ensure electricity supply. As of 2005 the electricity production was at 661.6 billion kWh with oil production standing at 785,000 bbl/day. In 2007, electricity demand exceeded supply by 15%.[125] Multi Commodity Exchange has tried to get a permit to offer electricity future markets.[129]

Indian Road Network is developing. Trucking goods from Gurgaon to the port in Mumbai can take up to 10 days.[130] Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually $5 billion in bribes.[130][131] India has the world's second largest road network.[132] Although India has only 1% of the world's vehicles, India has 8% of the world's vehicle fatalities.[133][134]

Container traffic is growing at 15% a year.[135] Some 60% of India’s container traffic is handled by the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai. It has just 9 berths compared to 40 in Singapore's main port. It takes an average of 21 days to clear import cargo in India compared to just 3 in Singapore.[125] China had 30 times more container traffic in 2004.[136]

Internet use is rare; there were only 2.1 million broadband lines in India in January 2007.[137]

Most cities supply water only a few hours a day and none provides 24h water. A World Bank report says it is an institutional problem in water agencies, or "how the agency is embedded in the relationships between politics and the citizens who are the consumers."[136] Only 13% of sewage is treated according to one estimate, leaving rivers and other water resources under severe strain.[125] Some 700 million Indians do not have access to a proper toilet.[125]

[edit] Labour laws

India’s labor regulations - among the most restrictive and complex in the world - have constrained the growth of the formal manufacturing sector where these laws have their widest application. Better designed labor regulations can attract more labor- intensive investment and create jobs for India’s unemployed millions and those trapped in poor quality jobs. Given the country’s momentum of growth, the window of opportunity must not be lost for improving the job prospects for the 80 million new entrants who are expected to join the work force over the next decade.

World Bank: India Country Overview 2008[104]

India's restrictive labor regulations hamper the large-scale creation of formal industrial jobs.[4][8][138]

[edit] Economic disparities

Lagging states need to bring more jobs to their people by creating an attractive investment destination. Reforming cumbersome regulatory procedures, improving rural connectivity, establishing law and order, creating a stable platform for natural resource investment that balances business interests with social concerns, and providing rural finance are important.

World Bank: India Country Overview 2008[104]

Slums next to high-rise commercial buildings in Kaloor, Kochi. Hundreds of people, mostly comprising migrant labourers who come to the city seeking job prospects, reside in such shabby areas.[139]

One of the critical problems facing India's economy is the sharp and growing regional variations among India's different states and territories in terms of per capita income, poverty, availability of infrastructure and socio-economic development.[140] Seven low-income states - Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh - are home to more than half of India's population.[141]

Between 1999 and 2008, the annualized growth rates for Gujarat (8.8%), Haryana (8.7%), or Delhi (7.4%) were much higher than for Bihar (5.1%), Uttar Pradesh (4.4%), or Madhya Pradesh (3.5%).[142]

Poverty rates in rural Orissa (43%) and rural Bihar (40%) are some of the worst in the world.[136] On the other hand, rural Haryana (5.7%) and rural Punjab (2.4%) compare well with middle-income countries.[136]

The five-year plans have attempted to reduce regional disparities by encouraging industrial development in the interior regions, but industries still tend to concentrate around urban areas and port cities[143] After liberalization, the more advanced states are better placed to benefit from them, with infrastructure like well developed ports, urbanisation and an educated and skilled workforce which attract manufacturing and service sectors. The union and state governments of backward regions are trying to reduce the disparities by offering tax holidays, cheap land, etc., and focusing more on sectors like tourism, which although being geographically and historically determined, can become a source of growth and is faster to develop than other sectors.[144][145]

[edit] Environment and health

On Yale and Columbia's Environmental Performance Index, India's score is 21/100 on sanitation, compared with 67/100 for the region and 48/100 for the country income group.[146]

About 1.2 billion people in developing nations lack clean, safe water because most household and industrial wastes are dumped directly into rivers and lakes without treatment. This contributes to the rapid increase in waterborne diseases in humans.[147] Out of India's 3119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities (WHO 1992).[148] 114 cities dump untreated sewage and partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River.[149] Downstream, the untreated water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This situation is typical of many rivers in India as well as other developing countries. NewsWeek describes Delhi's sacred Yamuna River as "a putrid ribbon of black sludge" where fecal bacteria is 10,000 over safety limits despite a 15-year program to address the problem.[146] Cholera epidemics are not unknown.[146] Open defecation is widespread even in urban areas of India.[150][151]

Indoor air pollution from burning wood, coal and animal dung is widespread.[152] 70% of rural households in India lack ventilation. Particulate concentrations in houses are reported to range from 8,300 to 15,000 μg/m3, greatly exceeding the 75 μg/m3 maximum standard for indoor particulate matter in the United States.[153]

Changes in ecosystem biological diversity, evolution of parasites, and invasion by exotic species all frequently result in disease outbreaks such as cholera which emerged in 1992 in India. The frequency of AIDS/HIV is increasing. In 1996, about 46,000 Indians out of 2.8 million (1.6 % of the population) tested were found to be infected with HIV.[154]

Even in the rich regions, health care is poor. World Bank reports that "a detailed survey of the knowledge of medical practitioners for treating five common conditions in Delhi found that the typical quality doctor in a public primary health center has a more than 50-50 chance of recommending a harmful treatment". The competence rating of India's doctors is below Tanzania's.[136]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Poverty estimates for 2004-05, Planning commission, Government of India, March 2007. Accessed: August 25, 2007
  2. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - GDP (purchasing power parity)". 2009-03-05. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  3. ^ Eugene M. Makar (2007). An American's Guide to Doing Business in India. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief". OECD. 
  5. ^ a b "The India Report". Astaire Research. 
  6. ^ a b c "India’s Rising Growth Potential". Goldman Sachs. 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "CIA - The World Factbook - India". CIA. 2007-09-20. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
  8. ^ a b c "A special report on India: An elephant, not a tiger". The Economist. 11 December 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Country Profile: India" (PDF). Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. December 2004. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. 
  10. ^ ""India twelfth wealthiest nation in 2005: World Bank"". The Economic Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-08. 
  11. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - Unemployment rate". Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  12. ^ ""Inclusive Growth and Service delivery: Building on India’s Success"" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. 
  13. ^ "Inequality in India and China: Is Globalization to Blame?". Yale Global. 15 October 2007. 
  14. ^ Data refer to the most recent year available during 1990-2005. Human and income poverty: developing countries / Population living below $2 a day (%), Human Development Report 2007/08, UNDP. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
  15. ^ a b "The Food Chain In Fertile India, Growth Outstrips Agriculture". New York Times. 22 June 2008. 
  16. ^ a b "Many rural Indians 'malnourished'". BBC. 
  17. ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1946). Discovery of India. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-303103-1. 
  18. ^ Kumar, Dharma (Ed.) (1982). The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2) c. 1757 - c. 1970. Penguin Books. p. 519. 
  19. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. (2005). "2". Indian Economy. S.Chand. pp. 15–16. ISBN 81-219-0298-3. 
  20. ^ Sankaran, S (1994). "3". Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. Margham Publications. p. 50. ISBN. 
  21. ^ Kumar, Dharma (Ed.). "4". The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2). p. 422. 
  22. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "2". Indian Economy. p. 16. 
  23. ^ "Economy of Mughal Empire". Bombay Times (Times of India). 2004-08-17. 
  24. ^ Kumar, Dharma (Ed.). "1". The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2). pp. 32–35. 
  25. ^ "Ch20". Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  26. ^ ",M1".,M1. 
  27. ^ "". 
  28. ^ "Of Oxford, economics, empire, and freedom". The Hindu. October 2, 2005. 
  29. ^ a b Williamson, John and Zagha, Roberto (2002) (PDF). From the Hindu Rate of Growth to the Hindu Rate of Reform. Working Paper No. 144. Center for research on economic development and policy reform. 
  30. ^ Roy, Tirthankar (2000). "1". The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-19-565154-5. 
  31. ^ Roy, Tirthankar (2000). "10". The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 304. ISBN 0-19-565154-5. 
  32. ^ Kelegama, Saman and Parikh, Kirit (2000). Political Economy of Growth and Reforms in South Asia. Second Draft. 
  33. ^ Sam Staley (2006). "The Rise and Fall of Indian Socialism: Why India embraced economic reform". 
  34. ^ Street Hawking Promise Jobs in Future, The Times of India, 2001-11-25
  35. ^ Cameron, John and Ndhlovu, P Tidings (2001) (PDF). Cultural Influences on Economic Thought in India: Resistance to diffusion of neo-classical economics and the principles of Hinduism. [dead link]
  36. ^ "Milton Friedman on the Nehru/Mahalanobis Plan". Retrieved on 2005-07-16. [dead link]
  37. ^ "MBA global Top 100 rankings - FT". Retrieved on 2009-03-04. 
  38. ^ Ghosh, Arunabha (2004-06-01) (PDF). India's pathway trough economic crisis. Global Economic Governance Programme GEG Working Paper 2004/06. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
  39. ^ "Economic reforms in India: Task force report". 2006. 
  40. ^ Panagariya, Arvind (2004). India in the 1980s and 1990s: A Triumph of Reforms. 
  41. ^ "That old Gandhi magic". The Economist. November 27, 1997. 
  42. ^ "Moody's upgrade — Uplifts the mood but raises questions". Business Line. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  43. ^ Wilson, Dominic; Purushothaman, Roopa (2003-10-01). "DreamingWith BRICs: The Path to 2050" (PDF). Global economics paper No. 99. Goldman Sachs. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
  44. ^ Grammaticas, Damian. ""Indian economy 'to overtake UK'"". BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-01-26. 
  45. ^ "The top 10 challenges for India". Rediff. 
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "28". Indian Economy. pp. 485–491. 
  49. ^ Agriculture sector Indo British Partnership network, Retrieved on December 2007
  50. ^ Lester R. Brown World's Rangelands Deteriorating Under Mounting Pressure Earth Policy Institute, Retrieved on- February 2008
  51. ^ a b c Indian agriculture Agribusiness Information Centre, Retrieved on- February 2008
  52. ^ "Census Reference Tables B-Series Economic Tables". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. [dead link]
  53. ^ Please see the sources for the List of countries by GDP sector composition. The data is compiled through CIA World Factbook figures.
  54. ^ "Economic structure". The Economist. October 6, 2003. 
  55. ^ "Indian manufacturers learn to compete". The Economist. February 12, 2004. 
  56. ^ "Industry Overview - Indian Overview". 
  57. ^ "Helping Tirupur emerge as a leader in knitwear exports in India - Tiruppur". The Hindu. 
  58. ^ "The Next People's Car". Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  59. ^ Gordon, Jim and Gupta, Poonam (2003) (PDF). Understanding India's Services Revolution. November 12, 2003. 
  60. ^ "Share of IT, ITeS in Indias GDP to go up to 7% by 2008". 20 December 2006. 
  61. ^ "The Coming Death Of Indian Outsourcing". Forbes. 2008-02-29. 
  62. ^ a b "Retailing in India Unshackling the chain stores". Economist. 2008. 
  63. ^ Mudur, Ganapati (June 2004). "Hospitals in India woo foreign patients". British Medical Journal 328: 1338. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7452.1338. PMID 15178611. 
  64. ^ Diana Farrell and Susan Lund. "Reforming India's Financial System". 
  65. ^ India growth story is attracting talent from govt establishments HT media, Retrieved on- December 2007
  66. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "50". Indian Economy. pp. 865–867. 
  67. ^ "The Hindu : Kerala / Kochi News : Diversify fishing methods, says Pawar". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  68. ^ Datt, Mihir Bhojani & Vivek Sundharam, K.P.M.. "7". Indian Economy. pp. 90,97,98,100. 
  69. ^ "India's Trade policy review by the wto". 2002-06-21. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  70. ^ "SOUTH ASIA | India eases trade restrictions". BBC News. 2000-03-31. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  71. ^ Rai, Saritha (2004-01-29). "World Business Briefing | Asia: India: Trade Restrictions Eased - The". New York Times. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  72. ^ G. Srinivasan (2008-04-18). "Rise in Indian services exports less than global average: WTO". Business Line. Retrieved on 2008-11-16. 
  73. ^ "Restrictive trade regime gets India poor WB ranking". The Financial Express. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  74. ^ India: June 2002. WTO Trade Policy Review.
  75. ^ Further reforms needed to sustain fast economic growth. WTO Trade Policy Review of India, 2007.
  76. ^ "FDI in India Statistics". Retrieved on 2008-02-12. 
  77. ^ Much of India's FDI is routed through Mauritius, because both countries have an agreement to avoid double taxation. "India to sign free trade agreement with Mauritius". Retrieved on 2005-08-15. 
  78. ^ "Hindustan Times ''India attracts $ 25 billion FDI in 2007-08''". 2008-05-20. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  79. ^ "Economic Times ''FDI inflows to exceed USD 35 billion target in 2008-09''". 2008-08-17. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  80. ^ Jayashankar M. Swaminathan (2008). Indian Economic Superpower: Fiction or Future?. World Scientific Publishing. 
  81. ^ "U.S. Dollar to Indian Rupee Exchange Rate - Yahoo! Finance India".;to=INR;amt=1. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. 
  82. ^ "RBI". RBI. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  83. ^ a b c d "The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty". World Bank. 2008. 
  84. ^ "One-third of world's poor in India: Survey-India-The Times of India". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  85. ^ "The Hindu : National : World Bank’s new poverty norms find larger number of poor in India". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  86. ^ "Define poverty anew- Opinion-The Economic Times". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  87. ^ Steve Schifferes (27 August 2008). "BBC NEWS | Business | World poverty 'more widespread'". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  88. ^ "India has fewer poor people: World Bank". Business Standard. 
  89. ^ "Bicycle Ownership in India". 
  90. ^ a b "33% of Indians live in less space than US prisoners". Times of India. 2008. 
  91. ^ "Malnutrition Among Indian Children Worse Than in Sub-Saharan Africa". Medindia. 
  92. ^ This figure is extremely sensitive to the surveying methodology used. The Uniform Recall Period (URP) gives 27.5%. The Mixed Recall Period (MRP) gives a figure of 21.8%
  93. ^ Planning commission of India. Poverty estimates for 2004-2005 [1]
  94. ^ "NCEUS Report" (PDF). 
  95. ^ "Nearly 80% of India Lives On Half Dollar A Day". Reuters. August 10, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-15. 
  96. ^ a b c d "Economic Survey 2004–2005". Retrieved on 2006-07-15. 
  97. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "22". Indian Economy. pp. 367,369,370. 
  98. ^ "Jawahar gram samriddhi yojana". Retrieved on 2005-07-09. 
  99. ^ a b c "Growing Unemployment Problem in India" (PDF). 
  100. ^ Why India needs labour law reform. BBC
  101. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "24". Indian Economy. pp. 403–405. 
  102. ^ Embassy of India. "Child Labor and India - Embassy of India". Retrieved on 2009-03-13. 
  103. ^ "Remittances from Indians abroad push India to the top". 2007. 
  104. ^ a b c "India Country Overview 2008". World Bank. 2008.,,contentMDK:20195738~menuPK:295591~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html. 
  105. ^ a b "India: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural Development". World Bank.,,contentMDK:20273764~menuPK:548214~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:452766,00.html. 
  106. ^ Multiple authors (2004). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2004.,%20Production%20and%20Yield%20of%20Rice.xls. 
  107. ^ Sankaran, S. "28". Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. pp. 492–493. 
  108. ^ "India on the Move". India Reborn. 2009-02-17. No. 2, season 1.
  109. ^ a b Transparency International India. "India Corruption Study 2005" (PDF). Centre for Media Studies. Retrieved on 2008-03-14. 
  110. ^ "2007 Corruption Perceptions Index reinforces link between poverty and corruption". Transparency International. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  111. ^ "CPI Table". Transparency International. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  112. ^ a b c d India's civil service: Battling the babu raj Mar 6th 2008 The Economist
  113. ^ The criminalisation of Indian democracy (May 2, 2007). "Jo Johnson". Financial Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  114. ^ "Teachers and Medical Worker Incentives in India by Karthik Muralidharan" (PDF). 
  115. ^ Combating India's truant teachers. BBC
  116. ^ Private Schools in Rural India: Some Facts (presentation) / Public and Private Schools in Rural India (a paper). Karthik Muralidharan, Michael Kremer.
  117. ^ "Teacher absence in India: A snapshot" (PDF). 
  118. ^ India is vulnerable to high public debt - RBI. Reuters.
  119. ^ "Indian debt faces risk of a cut to junk status". International Herald Tribune. 2008. 
  120. ^ a b "Education in India". World Bank.,,contentMDK:21493265~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html. 
  121. ^ Sankaran, S (1994). Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. Margham Publications. ISBN. 
  122. ^ "Infrastructure the missing link". Retrieved on 2005-08-14. 
  123. ^ "Infrastructure in India: Requirements and favorable climate for foreign investment". Retrieved on 2005-08-14. 
  124. ^ "India's Economic Growth Unexpectedly Quickens to 9.2%". Bloomberg. 
  125. ^ a b c d e f "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008. 
  126. ^ a b "Reforming the Power Sector: Controlling Electricity Theft and Improving Revenue". The World Bank. 
  127. ^ "Housing condition in India: Household amenities and other characteristics (July - September 2002)". Government of India. 
  128. ^ "India struggles with power theft". BBC. 
  129. ^ "MCX move to launch electricity future faces legal hurdle". The Financial Express. 
  130. ^ a b "The Trouble With India: Crumbling roads, jammed airports, and power blackouts could hobble growth". BusinessWeek. 19 March 2007. 
  131. ^ "India: Where Shipping Is Shaky". Businessweek. 2007. 
  132. ^ "Infrastructure Rankings". 
  133. ^ High road accident toll a drain on Indian economy. Reuters.
  134. ^ Corners cut on cost – and safety with the Tata Nano. The Times.
  135. ^ "Ageing Indian infrastructure causes congestion". The Age. 2005. 
  136. ^ a b c d e "Development Policy Review". World Bank.,,contentMDK:20980493~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,00.html. 
  137. ^ "" (PDF). 
  138. ^ "Why India needs labour law reform". BBC. 
  139. ^ "BBC News Online | Business | Winners and losers as India booms". Retrieved on 2008-11-03. 
  140. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "27". Indian Economy. pp. 471–472. 
  141. ^ "Country Strategy for India (CAS) 2009-2012". World Bank. 
  142. ^ "A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi". The Economist. 11 December 2008. 
  143. ^ Bharadwaj, Krishna (1991). "Regional differentiation in India". in Sathyamurthy, T.V. (ed.). Industry & agriculture in India since independence. Oxford University Press. pp. 189–199. ISBN 0-19-564394-1. 
  144. ^ Sachs, D. Jeffrey; Bajpai, Nirupam and Ramiah, Ananthi (2002) (PDF). Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India. Working paper 88. 
  145. ^ Kurian, N.J.. "Regional disparities in india". Retrieved on 2005-08-06. 
  146. ^ a b c SPECIAL REPORT: Putrid Rivers Of Sludge: Delhi's bureaucrats bicker over cholera and the role of city drains and state sewers. NewsWeek on July 7-14, 2008 issue
  147. ^ Gleick PH. 1993. Water in Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.
  148. ^ Russell Hopfenberg and David Pimentel HUMAN POPULATION NUMBERS AS A FUNCTION OF FOOD SUPPLY Retrieved on- February 2008
  149. ^ National Geographic Society. 1995. Water: A Story of Hope. Washington (DC): National Geographic Society
  150. ^ The Politics of Toilets, Boloji
  151. ^ Mumbai Slum: Dharavi, National Geographic, May 2007
  152. ^ 'Indoor' air pollution is the biggest killer. The Times of India
  153. ^ Christiani DC. 1993. Urban and trans-boundary air pollution: Human health consequences. Pages 13-30 in Chivian E, McCally M, Hu H, Haines A, eds. Critical Condition: Human Health and the Environment. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  154. ^ Burns JF. 1996. Denial and taboo blind India to the horror of its AIDS scourge. New York Times, 22 September: A1.

[edit] References

Government publications

[edit] External links

Government of India websites
Publications and statistics

Personal tools